Samacheer Kalvi 6th English Solutions Term 3 Prose Chapter 1 Who Owns the Water?

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Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 6th English Solutions Term 3 Prose Chapter 1 Who Owns the Water?

Read and Understand

A. Choose the correct answer and write it in the blank.

Who Owns The Water Question 1.
The little bird broadened the hole with her ________
(a) beak
(b) claws
Ans:
(b) claws

Who Owns The Water Prose Summary Question 2.
The wild boar settled down scraping the hole into a _______ to have a good sleep.
(a) pit
(b) hollow
Answer:
(b) hollow

Who Owns The Water Paragraph Question 3.
The poor farmer’s crop was _______
(a) meagre
(b) surplus
Answer:
(a) meagre

B. Tick the correct answer.

Who Owns The Water Question Answer Question 1.
The boar slept until the fading sun told him it was time to get up. What does the phrase until the fading sun mean? ‘
(a) until evening [✓]
(b) until sun fades in colour

Who Owns The Water Summary Question 2.
The farmer was thankful at the sight of the verdant bowl because .
(a) it was a pond of water [ ✓]
(b) he wanted green grass

Who Owns The Water 6th English Question 3.
They all stood arpund the little jewel of blue means .
(a) They stood around the pond. [✓]
(b) They stood around the jewel which was blue.

Who Owns The Water Book Back Answers Question 4.
The dry earth soaked up the moisture as a hungry puppy laps up milk. It means _______
(a) The puppy was very hungry.
(b) The dry earth absorbed the water very quickly. [✓]

C. Answer the following questions.

Who Owns The Water 6th Standard Summary Question 1.
Pick out the line which tells you about seasons (in Sec II). Which seasons are mentioned?
Answer:
The line “It rained without stopping for three days and three nights and the dry earth soaked up the moisture, as the hungry puppy laps up milk” tells about seasons. The summer and the rainy seasons are mentioned here.

Who Owns The Water 6th Standard Question 2.
What happened to the hole in the ground after the rain?
Answer:
The hole in the ground collected the water that fell and the grass grew into a brighter green around its edges.

Who Owns The Water 6th Std Question 3.
Identify a sentence and a phrase which tells us that the story took place in summer.
Answer:
‘In summer months, he had to travel far to get water for his thirsty crops’. This . sentence tells us that the story took place in summer. The phrase is ‘thirsty crops’.

Vocabulary

D. Fill in the blanks with words given in the box to make compound words.
rain, Coconut, Coat, sail, fire

  1. We use [rain] on a rainy day.
  2. The toy [boat] danced on the pond
  3. We must drink [tender] water in summer
  4. We can see a [bow] after summer showers
  5. Clean the ashes out of the [place]

Answers:

  1. rain coat
  2. sail boat
  3. tender coconut
  4. rain bow
  5. fire place

E. Complete the following using their group names.

  1. A _______ of wolves went hunting in the forest.
  2. She bought a new ________ of shoes for her birthday.
  3. A _______ of fish swam past our boat.
  4. A ________ of bees had settled on a mango tree.
  5. late a _______ of grapes.

Answers:

  1. pack
  2. pair
  3. shoal
  4. swarm
  5. bunch

Listening

F. listen to the weather report. Read the questions given below, then listen to the weather report again and fill in the blanks.

  1. Which season does the weather report show?
  2. What kind of a day is it?
  3. What is the temperature stated in the report?
  4. Tomorrow it may probably _______
  5. The weather report suggests to use _______

Answers:

  1. spring
  2. clear warmy day
  3. 15 degrees
  4. rain
  5. umbrella

Speaking

G. Imagine that you and your friend have decided to spend a day together in your house. You have planned your schedule from morning till night. Discuss in pairs and speak about it in the class. You can start like this:

Who Owns The Water Story In Tamil Question 1.
I like to go for a walk but my friend wants to work out In the gym.
Answer:
I like to go for a walk, but my friend wants to work out in the gym. After spending an hour in the gym, we planned to go to my house, take a bath and have breakfast. Next, we planned to discuss some points about our projects. Then we can relax for some time by watching TV or playing video games. After lunch, we planned to watch a new movie in the home theatre. In the evening, we decided to play cricket with our friends in our backyard. Then we planned to spend some time with my family members. Finally, my friend would go to his house, after having his dinner.

Grammar

H. Fill in the blanks with suitable linking words or conjunctions.

  1. Our team played well _______ won the game. (but, because, and)
  2. She slipped badly _______ she did not hurt herself. (but, and, or)
  3. The box was heavy _______ he could not lift it. (so, because, and)
  4. Rani was late to school _______ she missed the bus. (because, so, and)
  5. You can use a pen _______ a pencil for writing. (but, and, or)

Answers:

  1. and
  2. but
  3. so
  4. because
  5. or

I. Join the sentence of Column A with B using the words given in the box.
Who Owns The Water Samacheer Kalvi 6th English Solutions Term 3 Prose Chapter 1
Answers:

  1. The clouds moved away and the sun came out.
  2. Velu thanked his friend because he helped Velu in time.
  3. It rained heavily but the match continued.
  4. Eat slowly or you will get choked.

Writing

J. Write a short paragraph on ‘summer’ using the hints given.

you can begin like this

I live in Chennai. The weather is…
Answer:
Who Owns The Water Prose Summary Samacheer Kalvi 6th English Solutions Term 3 Prose Chapter 1
Summer
I live in Chennai. The weather is too hot here. The summer season begins in the month of March and continues till May or June. The temperature goes up to 40°C. We prefer to wear cotton clothes as they keep us cool. We stay hydrated during summer and we drink a lot of fruit juices and eat fruits like water melon, oranges, cucumbers and also consume more vegetables. We avoid going out frequently. We stay indoors at home or at workspot. During summer, we go to the beach quite often and hilly places to keep ourselves cool and pleasant.

Creative Writing

K. Trees can help you recognise seasons. How do the frees look different in each season? Write a short paragraph with the dues given below.

  • Summer – Trees stretch their leafy branches towards the sun.
  • Spring – Branches are full of new green leaves.
  • Rain – Trees absorb water and look green.
  • Autumn – Trees shed their leaves.

Answer:
Trees play an important role in the world. They help to purify the air, water and soil. Trees help us to recognise seasons. We can identify seasonal changes by watching trees. During summer, trees stretch their leafy branches towards the sun, as the temperature is ideal for trees. They produce their buds at the end of summer. During spring, they bloom and flower. Their branches are full of new green leaves. During rainy season, they absorb water and look green, whereas in the autumn season, the trees shed their leaves. Their leaves turn into pretty colours of maroon, red and slightly purple. The leaves get hardened and shed. Thus, the trees can help us to recognise the seasons.

Who Owns the Water? Additional Questions

I. Select the Suitable Synonyms.

Who Owns The Water Question And Answer Question 1.
outskirts
(a) interior of a town
(b) the outer areas of a city
(c) the centre of a place
Answer:
(b) the outer areas of a city

Who Owns The Water 6th Standard English Question 2.
parched
(a) rough
(b) cracked
(c) very dry
Answer:
(c) very dry

Who Owns The Water Book Back Answer Question 3.
shallow
(a) deep
(b) not deep
(c) profound
Answers:
(b) not deep

Who Owns The Water Lesson Question 4.
scrabbled
(a) moved hands and feet around
(b) screamed loudly
(c) made a noise
Answer:
(a) moved hands and feet around

Question 5.
sniffed
(a) to breathe in slightly
(b) to breathe quickly
(c) to breathe in air in a noisy way
Answer:
(c) to breathe in air in a noisy way

Question 6.
soaked up
(a) increased
(b) dried
(c) absorbed
Answer:
(c) absorbed

Question 7.
glee
(a) sorrow
(b) joy
(c) hatred
Answer:
(b) joy

Question 8.
gratitude
(a) thankfulness
(b) ungratefulness
(c) thanklessness
Answer:
(a) thankfulness

Question 9.
summoned
(a) sent
(b) called
(c) brought
Answer:
(b) called

Question 10.
suspiciously
(a) doubtfully
(b) innocently
(c) confidently
Answer:
(a) doubtfully

Question 11.
contentment
(a) dissatisfaction
(b) displeasure
(c) satisfaction
Answer:
(c) satisfaction

Question 12.
wallowed
(a) rolled in the mud
(b) played happily
(c) took a bath
Answer:
(a) rolled in the mud

Question 13.
meagre
(a) large quantity
(b) surplus
(c) small quantity
Answer:
(c) small quantity

Question 14.
untenanted
(a) occupied
(b) not occupied
(c) inhabited
Answer:
(b) not occupied

Question 15.
glance
(a) quick look
(b) turn
(c) start
Answer:
(a) quick look

Question 16.
stuttered
(a) spoke fluently
(b) spoke with difficulty
(c) spoke harshly
Answer:
Answer:
(b) spoke with difficulty

Question 17.
beloved
(a) dear
(b) close
(c) happy
Answer:
(a) dear

Question 18.
horizon
(a) The line where the earth and the sky seems to meet
(b) The interior
(c) The centre of the sky
Answer:
(a) The line where the earth and the sky seems to meet

Question 19.
elusive
(a) easily available
(b) difficult to find
(c) convenient to trace out
Answer:
(b) difficult to find

Question 20.
whined
(a) made a terrible noise
(b) screamed
(c) made a high pitched cry
Answer:
(c) made a high pitched cry

II. Select the Suitable Antonyms.

Question 1.
protected
(a) attacked
(b) sheltered
(c) safeguarded
Answer:
(a) attacked

Question 2.
comfortable
(a) uncomfortable
(b) convenient
(c) good
Answer:
(a) uncomfortable

Question 3.
dusty
(a) refined
(b) clean
(c) smooth
Answer:
(b) clean

Question 4.
discovered
(a) found
(b) detected
(c) lost
Answer:
(c) lost

Question 5.
broadened
(a) widened
(b) narrowed
(c) flattened
Answer:
(b) narrowed

Question 6.
realising
(a) imagining
(b) harmonising
(c) disbelieving
Answer:
(c) disbelieving

Question 7.
collected
(a) scattered
(b) accumulated
(c) gathered
Answer:
(a) scattered

Question 8.
brighter
(a) duller
(b) glimmer
(c) cleaner
Answer:
(a) duller

Question 9.
rarely
(a) hardly
(b) barely
(c) frequently
Answer:
(c) frequently

Question 10.
cruel
(a) kind
(b) inhuman
(c) harsh
Answer:
(a) kind

Question 11.
straightened
(a) neatened
(b) curved
(c) untwisted
Answer:
(b) curved

Question 12.
pitiful
(a) sorrowful
(b) hopeful
(c) hateful
Answer:
(b) hopeful

Question 13.
tiredness
(a) liveliness
(b) weakness
(c) weariness
Answer:
(a) liveliness

Question 14.
decent
(a) good
(b) proper
(c) bad
Answer:
(c) bad

Question 15.
serious
(a) funny
(b) earnest
(c) sincere
Answer:
(a) funny

Question 16.
upset
(a) disturbed
(b) pleased
(c) bothered
Answer:
(b) pleased

Question 17.
smoothly
(a) gently
(b) placidly
(c) roughly
Answer:
(c) roughly

Question 18.
moral
(a) noble
(b) immoral
(c) honest
Answer:
(b) immoral

Question 19.
searched
(a) hunted
(b) ignored
(c) looked ?
(b) ignored

Question 20.
enquire
(a) ask
(b) question
(c) reply
Answer:
(c) reply

III. Choose the Correct Answers (MCQ)

Question 1.
The tiny bird used her _______ to remove the stones and loosen up the packed earth.
(a) beak
(b) claws
(c) feet
(d) hooves
Answer:
(b) claws

Question 2.
The mother bird fed her _______ until they were big enough to fly away.
(a) children
(b) kids
(c) babies
(d) little ones
Answer:
(c) babies

Question 3.
One day, a passing wild boar settled his rump into the _______
(a) hole
(b) depression
(c) hollow
(d) pit
Answer:
(b) depression

Question 4.
Not by a long shot. Our story has just .
(a) started
(b) finished
(c) ended
(d) begun
Answer:
(d) begun

Question 5.
A pack of _______ dogs caught the scent of boar in the wind and came to that spot.
(a) wild
(b) domestic
(c) street
(d) varied
Answer:
(a) wild

Question 6.
They left the hole a little bigger and _______ than they had found it.
(a) wider
(b) larger
(c) broader
(d) greater
Answer:
(a) wider

Question 7.
It poured and poured and only those of us who have seen the _______ will know what that means.
(a) rains
(b) showers
(c) monsoons
(d) cyclones
Answer:
(c) monsoons

Question 8.
The dry earth soaked up the moisture, as a hungry _______ laps up milk.
(a) cat
(b) lion
(c) puppy
(d) monkey
Answer:
(c) puppy

Question 9.
Here was water to be had, and so close to his .
(a) field
(b) land
(c) holding
(d) crop
Answer:
(c) holding

Question 10.
Just then, the richest farmer in the village pushed his way to the _______ of the group.
(a) back
(b) middle
(c) side
(d) front
Answer:
(d) front

IV. Very short Answer Questions.

Question 1.
What did tht tiny bird search for?
Answer:
The tiny bird searched for a place to lay her eggs.

Question 2.
How was the land In the little village?
Answer:
It was very dry and there wasn’t a bush or tree in sight.

Question 3.
How did the tiny bird rtmovo the stones in the depression?
Answer:
The tiny bird used its claws to remove the stones in the depression.

Question 4.
Was the pit comfortable for the wild boar?
Answer:
No, the pit was not comfortable enough for the wild boar.

Question 5.
What did the boar do in Its sleep?
Answer:
The boar turned and scrabbled in his sleep.

Question 6.
Who came to the spot, where the boar had lain?
Answer:
A pack of wild dogs came to the spot, where the boar had lain.

Question 7.
What did they do?
Answer:
They sniffed the circle that was rich with the smell of the animal.

Question 8.
How many days did it rain?
Answer:
It rained without stopping for three days and three nights.

Question 9.
Where did the poor former till the land?
Answer:
The poor farmer tilled the land near the small depression.

Question 10.
What did he see one day?
Answer:
One day he saw a patch of green, close to his land.

V. Short answer Questions.

Question 1.
How did the little bird manage to lay its eggs?
Answer:
The little bird discovered a shallow depression in the ground. Using her claws to remove the stones and loosen up the packed earth, she broadened the hole and there she laid her eggs.

Question 2.
What signified the boar that it was time to get up?
Answer:
The fading sun and a rumble in his stomach signified the boar that it was time to get up.

Question 3.
Why did the wild dogs come to the spot of the depression?
Answer:
A pack of wild dogs came to the spot of the depression because they caught the scent of the boar in the wind.

Question 4.
What did they do, after realising that there was no dinner to be found there?
Answer:
After realising that there was no dinner to be found there, the wild dogs departed with their noses and tails high in the air.

Question 5.
How did the people in the village react, after it rained for three days?
Answer:
Even the normally serious-looking people in the village went around with smiles on their faces.

Question 6.
How did the hole look after the rain?
Answer:
The hole in the ground collected the water that fell and the grass grew into a brighter green around its edges.

Question 7.
What did the buffaloes do In the pit?
Answer:
The buffaloes rolled in the puddly water, turning the hole into a muddy pit.

Question 8.
What did the poor former do, at the sight of the verdant bowl?
Answer:
The farmer fell to the ground with gratitude at the sight of the verdant bowl. The water was so close to his holding.

Question 9.
What did the former do, after spotting the water near his field?
Answer:
He raced home and brought out his pickaxe and spade and cleaned the pond into a perfectly decent one.

VI. Paragraph Questions and Answers.

Question 1.
What happened oft the outskirts of a dusty little village?
Answer:
On the outskirts of a dusty little village, a tiny bird searched for a place to lay her eggs. The land was very dry over there. There wasn’t a bush or a tree in sight. The bird was on the verge of losing hope. Suddenly, it discovered a shallow depression in the ground. Using her claws to remove the stones and loosen up the packed earth, she broadened the hole and there, underneath the hot sun, she laid her eggs. After some days, the eggs hatched. The mother bird protected the babies and fed them, until they were big enough to fly away.

Question 2.
How did the wild boar settled himself in the pit? When did he depart from that place?
Answer:
The pit remained dusty and unoccupied for some days, until one day, a passing wild boar settled himself into the depression. As the pit was not comfortable enough, the wild boar scraped and dug, carving a pit of more hospitable proportions. He tried to sit into this hollow, by turning around a few times and then with a satisfied grunt settled down to a long sleep. In his sleep, the boar turned and moved his hands and feet around, thereby loosening the earth. In the evening, the fading sun and a low sound in his stomach told him that it was time to get up. With a mighty stretch and a final kick, the hungry boar departed his daybed without a backward glance.

Question 3.
How did the wild dogs react, after they searched for the wild boar?
Answer:
A pack of wild dogs caught the scent of the wild boar in the wind and came to the spot, where he had slept. They sniffed the circle that was rich with the smell of the animal. They cried in a high pitch and made an angry noise, searching aggressively for the wild boar all over the place. Finally, when they realised that there was no dinner to be found there, they left the place with their noses and tails high in the air. And in doing so, they left the hole a little bigger and wider, than they had found it.

Question 4.
What was ‘the little Jewel of blue’ and who owns it?
Answer:
The little Jewel of blue refers to the small pond full of water.

A poor farmer’s life was hard, as there were no rains. During the summer months, he had to travel far to get water for his thirsty crops and even then, his harvest was of small quantity. One day, after the season’s rain, he happened to see a patch of green grass. Going closer to it, he was grateful at the sight of water over there with the green grass around it. He cleaned the pond and called the village priest to bless their fortune. When the richest farmer in the village said that the land with the pond belonged to him, the poor farmer insisted that the land with the pond belonged to – him. But the question is ‘who owns the water?’ The little bird, the boar, the wild dogs and the buffaloes – all stood around ‘the little jewel of blue’, which is the water. In every one’s mind, whether it was a small or a big deed, came a similar thought – ‘Surely, I had something to do with this!’ It was just a thought – germ of an idea to dig and make bigger.

Who Owns the Water? Grammar – Additional

Compound Words

A compound word is a combination of two or more words that function as a single unit of meaning.
sun + rise → sunrise
after + noon → afternoon
post + card → postcard
time + limit → timelimit
rain + fall → rainfall

Fill in the blanks with words given in the box to make compound words.

sea, cow, bag, pine, any, shelf, pop, book, fast, ball.

  1. We put the books on the big yellow [book]
  2. Jess picks up [shells] on the beach.
  3. The [corn] is popping and smells good.
  4. I write about school in my [note]
  5. My Dad loves to watch soccer and [base]
  6. The [boy] was riding a horse.
  7. It is very important to always eat [break]
  8. We have meat and [apple] on our pizza.
  9. Is there [thing] I can help you with?
  10. My little sister lost her [lunch]

Answers:

  1. book shelf
  2. sea shells
  3. pop corn
  4. note book
  5. base ball
  6. cow boy
  7. break fast
  8. pine apple
  9. any thing
  10. lunch bag

Incorrect / Correct Words
Who Owns The Water Paragraph Samacheer Kalvi 6th English Solutions Term 3 Prose Chapter 1
Choose the correct words.

Question 1.
_______ makes a man perfect. (Practise / Practice)
Answer:
Practice
Practice (noun) : Doing a thing repeatedly for skill.
Practise (verb) : To do a thing again and again.

Question 2.
The country side has vast _______ where people could go for a quiet walk, (plane / plains)
Answer:
plains
plane: aeroplane.
pains : a piece of level ground.

Question 3.
India has been working for international _______ (peace / piece)
Ans:
peace
peace : a state of quiet, calm,
piece: a portion or part of anything.

Question 4.
She fetched a _____ of water, (pale / pail)
Answer:
pail
pale: not bright,
pail : a bucket.

Question 5.
Ramesh wanted to buy a _____ book. (knew/new)
Answer:
new
knew : (Past tense of ‘know’) understood,
new: not old.

Question 6.
There was a sports _____ yesterday in my school, (meet / meat)
Answer:
meet
meet: a gathering of people,
meat: flesh of animals.

Question 7.
Valuable were given for winners on the college day. (price / prize)
Answer:
prize
price : the value or cost of a thing,
prize: a reward.

Question 8.
Always _____ to God before you go to bed. (prey / pray)
Answer:
pray
pray: offer worship prey: victim

Question 9.
This _____ leads you to the hospital. (rode / road)
Answer:
road
rode: (Past tense of ride) carried on horseback or vehicle.
road: Highway.

Question 10.
The _____ told by the old woman kept the children spell-bound, (tale / tail)
Answer:
tale
tale: story
tail: the projecting end of an animal behind.

Group Names
Who Owns The Water Question Answer Samacheer Kalvi 6th English Solutions Term 3 Prose Chapter 1

I. Complete the following using their group names.

  1. A _____ of lions roamed in the jungle.
  2. A _____ of sailors arrived at the harbour.
  3. A _____ of musicians enlightened the day with their wonderful music.
  4. I saw a _____ of bees on my way to school.
  5. The sky is clear with a _____ of stars.
  6. My teacher brought a _____ of paper to the examination hall.

Answers:

  1. pride
  2. crew
  3. band
  4. hive
  5. galaxy
  6. ream

Conjunctions

Conjunctions are words that link other words, phrases or clauses together,

Examples:
1. I like cooking and eating, but I don’t like washing dishes.
2. I can stay out until the clock strikes twelve.
3. You cannot succeed, unless you work sincerely.

List of Conjunctions :

  1. Co-ordinating conjunctions : for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so.
  2. Correlative conjunctions : both / and, either / or, neither / nor, not only / but also, whether / or.
  3. Sub ordinating conjunctions : because, since, as, although, though, while, whereas, as long as, as soon as, unless, until, whenever, wherever, whereas, whether, while.

I. Fill in the blanks with suitable conjunctions.

  1. She bought a,shirt a book, (but, and, so)
  2. You can write your paper with a pen a pencil, (but, or, so)
  3. I sent him a letter he didn’t respond, (nor, or, but)
  4. She laughed entered into the room, (and, but, or)
  5. He sings songs he wants to become a singer, (yet, because, but)
  6. I saw him I was driving my car. (unless, while, as)
  7. I went to a market, I saw a joker, (whereas, where, whenever)
  8. He bought a laptop a bag for it. (but, because, as well as)
  9. He came here you can meet him. (so that, until, while)
  10. He hurried to the station missed the train, (for, but, or)

Answers:

  1. and
  2. or
  3. but
  4. and
  5. because
  6. while
  7. where
  8. as well as
  9. so that
  10. but

II. Join the sentence of Column A with Column B using the words given in the box.
Who Owns The Water Summary Samacheer Kalvi 6th English Solutions Term 3 Prose Chapter 1
Answers:

  1. Do you want cakes or waffers?
  2. My dog is neither mean nor aggressive.
  3. I read poems and short stories.
  4. She is very tired yet she has lots of work to do.
  5. Sarah likes ice cream but eating daily makes her sick.
  6. Please stay at home till afternoon.
  7. I was watching TV when she came in.
  8. You can come whenever you want.
  9. She asked him why he was playing football.
  10. You must study hard lest you fail.

Textual Activities

Warm Up

Look at the pictures, discuss in pairs, share your answers with the class.

Question 1.
During which season do you see a peacock dance?
Who Owns The Water 6th English Samacheer Kalvi Term 3 Prose Chapter 1
Answer:
Rainy Season.

Question 2.
In which season can you see trees without leaves? Name the country where your can find this season.
Who Owns The Water Book Back Answers Samacheer Kalvi 6th English Solutions Term 3 Prose Chapter 1
Answer:
Autumn
Canada.

Question 3.
Which season is shown in this picture? What are the people doing?
Who Owns The Water 6th Standard Summary Samacheer Kalvi Term 3 Prose Chapter 1
Answer:
Winter Season.
The people are warming themselves by lighting a fire.

Question 4.
Which season is shown in this picture? How do you know?
Who Owns The Water 6th Standard Samacheer Kalvi Term 3 Prose Chapter 1
Answer:
Summer Season.
People are buying ice-cream.
They are quenching their thirst by drinking tender coconut water.

SamacheerKalvi.Guru

Who Owns the Water? Summary

Section I

This lesson insists on ‘the importance of water’, as water is a resource that is shared by all the people of the world. Who owns the water in rivers, sea, lakes and in the ground? Like the air in the atmosphere, it belongs to all of us.
Who Owns The Water 6th Std Samacheer Kalvi Term 3 Prose Chapter 1
In this section -1, the story begins with a tiny bird searching for a place to lay her eggs. The land was very dry and there wasn’t a bush or a tree in sight. Losing hope, the bird finally discovered a shallow depression in the ground. She broadened the hole and loosened the earth. She laid her eggs there. The eggs hatched after some days and the mother protected the babies, until they were big enough to fly.

The hole, where the eggs were laid, remained dusty and not occupied by anyone for some time. One day, a passing wild boar settled into the pit. As the pit was not comfortable enough, he scraped and dug into a more hospitable proportion and settled down to a long sleep. After some time, he got up, moving his hands and feet around, thus loosening the earth in the pit. With a mighty stretch and a final kick, the hungry boar departed from his day bed.

Put a (✓) for the correct and a (×) for the incorrect statements.

  1. A tiny bird looked for a place to lay her eggs. [✓]
  2. The land was wet and green. [×]
  3. The little bird found a shallow hollow in the ground. [✓]
  4. The eggs hatched and the babies flew away. [✓]
  5. The pit was comfortable for the wild bear to sleep in. [×]
  6. The wild boar got up from its day bed because it was disturbed by another boar. [×]

Section II

A pack of wild dogs catching the scent of boar in the wind, came to the place where he slept for a while. They sniffed that place, made a high pitch cry and an angry noise, searching for the boar. Finally, they left the place, realising that there was no dinner to be found there. The hole was made a little bigger and wider by these wild dogs. After a few days, it rained for three days and nights and the dry earth soaked up the moisture.

Who Owns The Water Story In Tamil Samacheer Kalvi 6th English Solutions Term 3 Prose Chapter 1

The whole earth smelled wet and fresh. The hole collected the water that fell and grass grew around its edges. Soon buffaloes spotted the place and rolled in the water, making it muddy. The pit widened and became a little watering hole.

Complete the sentences given below with words/phrases.

  1. The wild dogs came to the spot to catch _______
  2. The rains came and poured _______
  3. The whole earth smelled _______ and _______
  4. The hole in the ground was filled _______
  5. The buffalo _______ in the hole.
  6. The.hole became _______ and _______

Answers:

  1. the wild boar
  2. without stopping for three days and three nights
  3. wet; fresh
  4. with rain water
  5. rolled in the muddy water which was
  6. widened; became a little watering hole

Section III

There was a poor farmer, who tilled the land near the once small depression. During summer months, he travelled far to get water for his crops. His harvest was not good, as there were no rains. One day, his eyes fell on a patch of green grass, closer to his field. He investigated it and was grateful at the sight of the green grass and water, so close to his field.

Who Owns The Water Question And Answer Samacheer Kalvi 6th English Solutions Term 3 Prose Chapter 1

With his pickaxe and spade, he made the pit into a perfectly decent pond. He told his wife about this and called the village priest to bless their fortune. When a rich farmer tried to own this pond, the poor farmer brushed him aside saying that it belonged to him. The buffaloes, the dogs, the boar and the little bird all stopped by and stood around the little jewel of blue and in every mind whether it is a small deed or a big one, came similar thought “Surely, I had something to do with this”.

The teacher ends the story shooting a question ‘who owns the water?’ It is not a moral, but just a thought – a germ of an idea to dig and make bigger.

Answer the following questions in one or two sentences.

Question 1.
Why did the farmer have to travel far?
Answer:
The farmer had to travel far to get water for his thirsty crops.

Question 2.
What sight made the farmer thankful?
Answer:
The sight of water with green grass, near his land made the farmer thankful.

Question 3.
Name the tools the farmer brought out. What did he do with them?
Answer:
The farmer brought out his pickaxe and spade. He cleaned the buffaloes’ picnic spot into a perfectly decent little pond.

Question 4.
Why did the crowd gather by the side of the pond?
Answer:
The crowd gathered by the side of the pond to see the priest wrinkle his eyebrows and chant something serious, which nobody understands.

Question 5.
When did the richest farmer get upset? Why?
Answer:
The richest farmer got upset, when the poor farmer called the village priest to bless their fortune. He was upset because he was not invited for it.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Science Solutions Chapter 22 World of Microbes

You can Download Samacheer Kalvi 9th Science Book Solutions Guide Pdf, Tamilnadu State Board help you to revise the complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 9th Science Solutions Chapter 22 World of Microbes

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Science World of Microbes Textbook Exercises

I. Choose the correct answer.

World Of Microbes Class 9 Question 1.
Which of the following is transmitted through air?
(a) Tuberculosis
(b) Meningitis
(c) Typhoid
(d) Cholera
Answer:
(a) Tuberculosis

Chapter 22 World Of Microbes Question 2.
One of the means of indirect transmission of disease is ………………….
(a) sneezing
(b) coughing
(c) vectors
(d) droplet infection
Answer:
(c) vectors

9th Science World Of Microbes Question 3.
Diptheria affects the ………………………
(a) Lungs
(b) Throat
(c) Blood
(d) Liver
Answer:
(b) Throat

World Of Microbes Class 9 Pdf Question 4.
The primary organ infected during tuberculosis is …………………..
(a) bone marrow
(b) intestine
(c) spleen
(d) lungs
Answer:
(d) lungs

Science Solution Class 9 Samacheer Kalvi Question 5.
Microbes that generally enter the body through nose are likely to affect …………………….
(a) gut
(b) lungs
(c) liver
(d) lymph nodes
Answer:
(b) lungs

9 Samacheer Kalvi Science Question 6.
The organ affected by jaundice is …………………
(a) liver
(b) lungs
(c) kidney
(d) brain
Answer:
(a) liver

Samacheer Kalvi Guru 9th Science Question 7.
Poliomyelitis virus enters the body through ……………………..
(a) skin
(b) mouth and nose
(c) ears
(d) eye
Answer:
(b) mouth and nose

II. Fill in the blanks.

  1. ………….. break down organic matter and animal waste into ammonia.
  2. Typhoid fever is caused by ………………
  3. H1N1 virus causes ……………..
  4. ……………… is a vector of viral disease dengue.
  5. ……………. vaccine gives considerable protection against tuberculosis.
  6. Cholera is caused by …………… and malaria is caused by ……………..

Answer:

  1. Nitrification
  2. Salmonella typhi
  3. Swine Flu
  4. Aedes aegypti mosquito
  5. BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guerin)
  6. Vibrio cholerae, Plasmodium

III. Expand the following

  1. ORS – Oral Rehydration Solution.
  2. HIV – Human Immunodeficiency Virus
  3. DPT – Dipetheria, Pertussis (whooping cough) and Tetanus.
  4. WHO – World Health Organization.
  5. BCG – Bacillus Calmette Guerin

IV. Pick out the odd one.

  1. AIDS, Retrovirus, Lymphocytes, BCG,
  2. Bacterial disease, Rabies, Cholera, Common cold and Influenza

Answer:

  1. BCG
  2. Rabies

V. State whether True or False. If false write the correct statement.

  1. Rhizobium, associated with root nodules of leguminous plants fixes atmospheric nitrogen – True.
  2. Non- infectious diseases remain confined to the person who develops the disease and do not spread to others – True.
  3. The process of vaccination was developed by Jenner – True.
  4. Hepatitis B is more dangerous than Hepatitis A – True.

VI. Match column A with column B.

Column A Column B
1. Swine flu (a) Human Papilloma virus
2. Genital warts (b) Human Immunodeficiency Virus
3. AIDS (c) Mycobacterium
4. Tuberculosis (d) Influeuza virus HIN 1

Answer:

  1. (d) Influenza virus H1N1
  2. (a) Human Papillomavirus
  3. (b) Human Immunodeficiency Virus
  4. (c) Mycobacterium

VII. Define the following.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Science Question 1.
Pathogen
Answer:
A pathogen is a biological agent that causes disease to its host. e.g. bacteria, virus, etc.

Samacheer Kalvi Guru 9th Question 2.
Bacteriophages
Answer:
Bacteriophages are virus that infect bacterial cells, e.g. T4 bacteriophage.

Samacheer Kalvi Class 9 Science Solutions Question 3.
Vaccines
Answer:
Preparation of antigenic proteins of pathogens (weakened or killed) which on inoculation into a healthy person provides temporary/permanent immunity against a particular disease.

Samacheerkalvi.Guru 9th Science Question 4.
Prions
Answer:
Viral particles which contain only protein. They do not contain nucleic acid.

VIII. Answer the following in brief.

9th Samacheer Kalvi Science Question 1.
Distinguish between Virion and Viroid.
Answer:

Virion Viroid
Virion is a simple virus particle and can grow and multiply in living cells only Viroid is a free pathogenic RNA of virus.
They are the smallest infecting agents and can live on plants, animals, human beings and bacteria They are found in plant cells and causes diseases only in plants.

9th Science Samacheer Kalvi Question 2.
Name the vector of the malarial parasite. Mention the species of malarial parasite which cause malignant and fatal malaria.
Answer:
The vector of the malarial parasite is the female Anopheles mosquito. Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is malignant and fatal.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Standard Science Question 3.
What is triple antigen? Mention the disease which can be prevented by using the antigen.
Answer:
DPT is called triple antigen vaccine as it is a combined vaccine for protection against Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Science Guide Question 4.
Name the chronic diseases associated with respiratory system.
Answer:
Chronic diseases associated with respiratory system are; Diptheria, Whooping Cough, Tuberculosis.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Science Solutions Question 5.
Name the organism causing diarrhoel disease and give one precaution against it.
Answer:
Cholera (Acute diarrhoeal disease) is caused by Vibrio cholerae through contaminated food, water, oral route and through houseflies. It can be prevented by hygienic sanitary condition, intake of Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS).

Science 9th Samacheer Kalvi Question 6.
Name two common mosquitoes and the diseases they transmit.
Answer:
Anopheles mosquito and Aedes aegypti mosquito are common mosquitoes that transmit malaria, Chikungunya and Dengue.

IX. Answer in detail.

Science Class 9 Samacheer Kalvi Question 1.
Give an account of classification of bacteria based on the shape.
Answer:
Bacteria are microscopic, single celled prokaryotic organisms without nucleus and other cell organelles. Although majority of bacterial species exist as single celled forms, some appear to be filaments of loosely joined cells. The size varies from less than 1 to 10 µm in length and 0.2 to 1 µm micrometer in width.
Based on the shapes, bacteria are grouped as:

  1. Spherical shaped bacteria called as cocci (or coccus for a single cell).
  2. Rod-shaped bacteria called as bacilli (or bacillus for a single cell).
  3. Spiral shaped bacteria called as spirilla (or spirillum for single cell)

Samacheer Kalvi.Guru 9th Question 2.
Describe the role of microbes in agriculture and industries.
Answer:
Microbes play an important role in agriculture as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers. Microbes play a vital role in the cycling of elements like carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, sulphur and phosphorus.

  1. Microbes as biocontrol agents
    Microorganisms used for controlling harmful or pathogenic organisms and pests of plants are called as biocontrol agents (Biopesticides). Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a species of bacteria that produces a protein called as ‘cry’ protein. This protein is toxic to the insect larva and kills them.
  2. Microbes as biofertilizers
    Microorganisms which enrich the soil with nutrients are called as biofertilizers. Bacteria, cyanobacteria and fungi are the main sources of biofertilizers. This is done by microbes either in free living conditions or by having symbiotic relationship with the plants, e.g. Nitrosomonas, Nostoc (free living), symbiotic microbes like Rhizobium, Frankia, mycorrhizae.

Microbes in Industries
Microorganisms play an important role in the production of wide variety of valuable products for the welfare of human beings.

  1. Production of fermented beverages:
    Beverages like wine are produced by fermentation of malted cereals and fruits by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
  2. Curing of coffee beans, tea leaves and tobacco leaves: Beans of coffee and cocoa, leaves of tea and tobacco are fermented by the bacteria Bacillus megaterium. This gives the special aroma.
  3. Production of curd: Lactobacillus sp. converts milk to curd. .
  4. Production of organic acids, enzymes and vitamins: Oxalic acid, acetic acid and citric acid are produced by fungus Aspergillus niger. Enzymes like lipases, invertase, proteases, and glucose oxidase are derived from microbes. Yeasts are rich source of vitamin-B complex.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Science Solution Question 3.
Explain the various types of viruses with examples.
Answer:
Viruses are categorized as:
i. Plant virus: Virus that infect plants, e.g. Tobacco mosaic virus, Cauliflower mosaic virus, Potato virus.
World Of Microbes Class 9 Samacheer Kalvi Science Solutions Chapter 22

ii. Animal virus: Virus that infect animals, e.g. Adenovirus, Retrovirus(HIV), Influenza virus, Poliovirus.
Chapter 22 World Of Microbes Samacheer Kalvi 9th Science Solutions

iii. Bacteriophages: Virus that infect bacterial cells, e.g. T4 bacteriophage.
9th Science World Of Microbes Samacheer Kalvi Chapter 22

Science Samacheer Kalvi 9th Question 4.
Suggest the immunization schedule for a newborn baby till 12 months of age. Why it is necessary to follow the schedule?
Answer:

Age Vaccine Dosage
New bom BCG 1st dose
15 days Oral Polio 1st dose
6th week DPT and Polio 1st dose
10th week DPT and Polio 1st dose
14th week DPT and Polio 1st dose
9-12 months Measles 1st dose

The immunization schedule must be followed so that the vaccines administered will protect the children in future from infectious and life-threatening diseases.

X. Assertion and Reason.

Mark the correct statement as.
(a) If both A and R are true and R is correct explanation of A.
(b) If both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(c) If A is true but R is false.
(d) If both A and R are false.
Samacheer Kalvi.Guru 9th Science Question 1.
Assertion: Chickenpox is a disease indicated by scars and marks in the body.
Reason: Chickenpox causes rashes on face and further spreads throughout the body.
Answer:
(a) If both A and R are true and R is a correct explanation of A.

9th Science Solutions Samacheer Kalvi Question 2.
Assertion: Dengue can be treated by intake of antibiotics.
Reason: Antibiotics blocks the multiplication of viruses.
Answer:
(d) If both A and R are false.

XI. Questions based on thinking skills.

Samacheer Kalvi Science 9th Question 1.
Suggest precautionary measures you can take in your school to reduce the incidence of infectious disease.
Answer:
Precautionary measures that can be taken are;

  1. The sick student or staff can be asked to stay at home.
  2. Clean and disinfect classroom materials and surfaces.
  3. Adopt healthy practices such as safe handling of food and usage of toilets.
  4. Provide awareness in daily announcements about preventing spread of germs and illnesses.

Question 2.
Tejas suffered from typhoid while, Sachin suffered from tuberculosis. Which disease could have caused more damage and why?
Answer:
Typhoid is a food and water-borne disease which affects the intestines. There are good drugs available for its treatment. If the patient reports to the doctor on time, it can be treated safely. Typhoid vaccine is also available that can protect against further attacks.

Whereas, Tuberculosis is a very tricky disease. Though it basically infects the lungs, it can spread to other parts of the body such as bones, intestines, etc. Another complication of TB is that, once infected, the Mycobacterium remains dormant in the body even after adequate treatment. Whenever the immunity of the patient goes down, TB can resurface again. Therefore, Tuberculosis causes more damage when compared to Typhoid.

Activity

Question 1.
Observe the mosquitoes that are active during the day time. Catch them using an insect net and observe their bodies and legs. What do you observe? Why are cases of Dengue reported in large numbers during the post-monsoon season?
Answer:
Mosquitoes of Aedes sp. are active during day time. The special features that can be observed in this mosquito is white bands on its legs and a silver-white pattern of scales on its body.

The female mosquitoes lay their eggs above the water line inside containers that hold water. These containers include tires, buckets, birdbaths, water storage jars, and flower pots which are filled with water due to rains. After the mosquitoes lay their eggs, the mosquito larvae hatch which are aquatic and feed on the microorganisms that is found in water necessary for its growth. Hence, Dengue is reported largely during the post-monsoon season.

Question 2.
Recently in 2018, Nipah virus was in the headlines of the daily newspaper. Collect the following information.

  1. What is Nipah virus?
  2. How it gets transmitted?
  3. Mention the preventive measures taken by the government to check the disease.

Answer:

  1. Nipah virus is a zoonotic virus.
  2. It is transmitted from animals to humans when humans are exposed to secretions from the pigs, or unprotected contact with the tissue of a sick animal.
  3. Nipah virus infection can be prevented by avoiding exposure to sick pigs and bats in endemic areas and not drinking raw date palm sap.
    Routine and thorough cleaning and disinfection of pig farms with appropriate detergents. The infected animals should be slaughtered – with close supervision of burial or incineration of carcasses – may be necessary to reduce the risk of transmission to people.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Science World of Microbes Additional Questions

I. Choose the correct answer.

Question 1.
…………… can multiply only inside the living cells.
(a) Bacteria
(b) fungi
(c) worm
(d) Virus
Answer:
(d) Virus

Question 2.
Bacterial cell membranes covered by strong rigid cell wall are made up of ……………….
(a) peptidoglycan
(b) glycogen
(c) polysaccharides
(d) lipopolysaccharides
Answer:
(a) peptidoglycan

Question 3.
…………….. depend on other organisms or dead organic matter for food.
(a) Parasites
(b) Saprophytes
(c) Heterotrophic bacteria
(d) Symbionts
Answer:
(c) Heterotrophic bacteria

Question 4.
……………. are the site of protein synthesis
(a) Plasmid
(b) Mitochondria
(c) Cell
(d) Ribosome
Answer:
(d) Ribosome

Question 5.
Bacteria are ………………… single-celled prokaryotic organisms without a nucleus and other cell organelles.
(a) motile
(b) non-motile
(c) microscopic
(d) anaerobic
Answer:
(c) microscopic

Question 6.
……………… are either a single or cluster of flagella at both the cell poles.
(a) Lophotrichous
(b) Amphitrichous
(c) Monotrichous
(d) Peritrichous
Answer:
(b) Amphitrichous

Question 7.
The body of the fungus is called ………………………
(a) thallus
(b) hyphae
(c) mycelium
(d) filament
Answer:
(a) thallus

Question 8.
…………….. is a complex of several thin filaments called hyphae.
(a) Thallus
(b) Mycelium
(c) Cellulose
(d) Hemicellulose
Answer:
(b) Mycelium

Question 9.
Typhoid disease is common in children of age group ……………….. years
(a) 2-16
(b) 3-17
(c) 1-15
(d) 4-18
Answer:
(c) 1-15

Question 10.
Measles is caused by …………………..
(a) Varicella virus
(b) Rhinovirus
(c) Myxovirus parotitis
(d) Rubeola virus
Answer:
(d) Rubeola virus

II. Fill in the blanks.

  1. ………………. rely on chemical compounds for their energy.
  2. ……………… means proteinaceous infective particle.
  3. ………………. are metabolic products of microorganisms, which in very low concentration are inhibitory or detrimental to other microbes.
  4. Tuberculosis is caused by …………………
  5. ……………….. affects the respiratory tract and causes mild fever, severe cough ending in whoop.
  6. Cholera and typhoid are examples of …………….. disease.

Answer:

  1. Chemotrophs
  2. Prion
  3. Antibiotics
  4. Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  5. Bordetella pertussis
  6. waterborne

III. Expand the following

  1. AIDS – Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome
  2. TT – Tetanus Toxoid.
  3. DT – Diphtheria and Tetanus

IV. State whether true or false

  1. Microorganisms that are killed by heat or chemicals are live vaccines – False
    Correct Statement: Microorganisms that are killed by heat or chemicals are killed vaccines.
  2. DT is a dual or combined antigen – True
  3. Poliovirus is also called enterovirus – True
  4. Malaria is caused by bacteria – False
    Correct Statement: Malaria is vector-borne disease caused by Plasmodium sp. a protozoan.
  5. Dengue is also known as break-bone fever – True

V. Match column A with column B.

Question 1.

S.No. Column A Column C
1. Genital Herpes a. Neisseria gonorrhoea
2. Gonorrhoea b Treponema pallidum
3. Syphilis c Plasmodium sp.
4 Malaria d Herpes Simplex Virus

Answer:

S.No. Column A Column C
1. Genital Herpes a. Herpes Simplex Virus
2. Gonorrhoea b Neisseria gonorrhoea
3. Syphilis c Treponema pallidum
4 Malaria d Plasmodium sp.

VI. Analyze the table and select the option given below that correctly fills the blank

Disease Causative organism Symptoms
Swine flu Fever, cough, headache
Filaria Nematode
Chikungunya RNA virus
Cholera vomiting, nausea, and dehydration

(Joint pain, body rashes, headache, Vibrio cholerae, Fever, Inilueuza virus H1N1)

Disease Causative organism Symptoms
Swine flu Influenza virus H1N1 Fever, cough, headache
Filaria Nematode Fever
Chikungunya RNA virus Joint pain, body rashes, headache
Cholera Vibrio cholerae vomiting, nausea and dehydration

VII. Define the following.

Question 1.
Vector
Answer:
Pathogens of certain diseases reach the human body through intermediate agents which act as carrier or vector, (eg) Housefly, Mosquito.

Question 2.
Sporozoites
Answer:
Infective stage of Plasmodium (Malarial parasite) which infect man and transmitted from salivary gland of mosquito.

Question 3.
Peptidoglycan
Answer:
Peptidoglycan is a combination of sugars and amino acids that forms the cell wall of most bacteria.

VIII. Answer in brief.

Question 1.
Write a short note on Fungi.
Answer:
Fungi are larger than bacteria. They lack chlorophyll, hence depend on living or dead host for their nutritional needs. They are spherical in shape.

Question 2.
What is Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease?
Answer:
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a neurodegenerative disease. As a result of this disease cerebral cortex is affected and it is characterised by progressive dementia, memory loss, behavioral changes, poor coordination and visual disturbances.

Question 3.
What are the disease categories based on microbes?
Answer:
Microbial Disease can be categorized based on:

  1. The extent of occurrence (endemic, epidemic, pandemic or sporadic).
  2. Whether infectious or non-infectious.
  3. Types of pathogen – whether caused by bacterial, viral, fungal or protozoan infections.
  4. Transmitting agent – whether airborne, waterborne or vector-borne.

Question 4.
Define the incubation period.
Answer:
The interval between infection and the first appearance of a disease is called incubation period. It may vary from few hours to several days.

Question 5.
What is Diptheria?
Answer:
Diptheria is caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It generally affects the upper respiratory tract (nose and throat) and causes fever, sore throat and choking of air passage.

Question 6.
Write about Dengue.
Answer:
Dengue is known as break-bone fever. The name break bone fever was given because of the contortions caused due to the intense joint and muscle pain. Dengue haemorrhagic fever is a more severe form and can be life threatening or fatal.

Question 7.
What is immunization?
Answer:
Immunization is a process of developing resistance to infections by the administration of antigens or antibodies. It is an effective way of controlling the spread of infection by strengthening the host defenses.

IX. Answer in detail.

Question 1.
Explain vector borne diseases.
Answer:
Vector is an agent that acts as an intermediate carrier of the pathogen. Many insects and animals acts as vectors. Diseases transmitted by vectors are called vector borne diseases. These vectors can transfer infecting agents from an infected person to another healthy person. Some of the insect vector borne diseases are Malaria, Filaria, Chikungunya, Dengue, and the diseases which are transmitted through animals are Bird flu and Swine flu.

  • Malaria continues to be one of the major health problems of developing countries. Malaria is caused by protozoan parasite Plasmodium. Four different species of Plasmodium namely, P. vivax, P. malariae, P. falciparum and P. ovale cause malaria. Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is malignant and fatal.
  • Chikungunya, which is caused by single stranded RNA vims, is transmitted in humans by the bite of infected Aedes aegypti mosquito during the day time. It causes severe and persistent joint pain, body rashes, headache and fever. Joint pains can last for a very long time.
  • Dengue is known as break bone fever. The name break bone fever was given because of the contortions caused due to the intense joint and muscle pain. It is transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquito that has previously bitten an infected person.

Question 2.
Write in detail about the diseases transmitted by animals.
Answer:
Diseases Transmitted by Animals:
Swine Flu is so termed because the virus that first caused the disease had originated from pigs. People with weak immune system are at high risk of contracting swine flu. It is an acute respiratory virus which is contagious and spreads through air. Swine flu is caused by virus that affects pigs and has started infecting humans as well. Influeuza virus FI1N1 has been identified as the cause of this disease.

Avian influenza is a contagious bird disease caused by a number of viruses. Birds that can carry and spread an avian influenza virus include poultry (like chickens, turkeys or ducks), wild birds and even pet birds.

Question 3.
Explain about the waterborne diseases.
Answer:
Microbes present in the contaminated water cause various infectious diseases. Some of the water borne diseases are cholera, typhoid, infectious hepatitis, poliomyelitis, diarrhoea, etc.

  • Cholera is an epidemic disease and in the earlier days many people died due to this. It is caused by Vibrio cholerae mostly due to contaminated food and water. Acute diarrhoea with watery stool, vomiting, nausea and dehydration are the symptoms of this disease.
  • Typhoid is common in children of age group 1-15 years. Nearly 2.5 million people suffer from typhoid disease every year. This is caused by the bacteria Salmonella typhi. Food and water contaminated by the faeces of infected person causes this disease. Infected persons show symptoms of fever, weakness and vomiting.
  • Poliomyelitis is caused by polio virus and spreads from person to person. This virus gets into the blood and enters into the brain or spinal cord and affects the central nervous system. Muscles get paralysed and result in difficulty in walking.
  • Hepatitis A or Infectious Hepatitis is caused by Hepatitis A virus (HAV). It is transmitted through contaminated water and food and through oral route. It causes inflammation of liver resulting in jaundice (Yellow fever).
  • Acute diarrhea is commonly caused by infection of intestine. It is caused by Rotavirus and results in sudden onset of frequent stools, three or more in a day. It is transmitted through contaminated water and food. Increased fluidity and the volume of bowel movements result in excessive loss of fluid and electrolytes from the intestine.

Question 4.
Write short notes on antibiotics and vaccines.
Answer:
Antibiotics are metabolic products of microorganisms, which in very low concentration are inhibitory or detrimental to other microbes. In 1929, Alexander Fleming produced the first antibiotic pencillin. In human beings antibiotics are used to control infectious diseases like cholera, diptheria, pneumonia, typhoid, etc.

Class of Microorganisms Type of Microorganism Antibiotic produced
Streptomyces griseus Streptomycin
Bacteria Streptomyces erythreus Erythromycin
Bacillus subtilis Bacitracin
Fungi Penicillium notatum Penicillin
Cephalosporium acremonium Cephalosporin

Vaccines are prepared by killing or making the microbes inactive (attenuated). These inactive microbes are unable to cause the disease, but stimulate the body to produce antibodies against the antigen in the microbes.

Type of Vaccine Name of the vaccine Disease
Live attenuated MMR Measles, Mumps and Rubella
BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guerin) Tuberculosis
Inactivated (Killed antigen) Inactivated polio virus (IPV) Polio
Subunit vaccines (Purified antigens) Hepatitis B vaccine Hepatitis B
Toxoid

(Inactivated antigen)

Tetanus toxoid (TT) Tetanus
Ditpheria toxoid Diptheria

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Solutions Term 1 Chapter 2 Force and Motion

Students can Download Science Chapter 2 Force and Motion Questions and Answers, Notes Pdf, Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Book Solutions Guide Pdf helps you to revise the complete Tamilnadu State Board New Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Solutions Term 1 Chapter 2 Force and Motion

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Force and Motion Textual Evaluation

I. Choose the appropriate answer :

Force And Motion Class 7 Question 1.
A particle is moving in a circular path of radius r. The displacement after half a circle would be
(a) Zero
(b) R
(c) 2r
(d) r/2
Answer:
(c) 2r

Force And Motion Class 7 Book Back Questions And Answers Question 2.
From the given v-t graph it can be inferred that the object is
Force And Motion Class 7 Samacheer Kalvi Science Solutions Term 1 Chapter 2
(a) in uniform motion Time
(b) at rest
(c) in non uniform motion
(d) moving with uniform acceleration
Answer:
(d) moving with uniform acceleration

Force And Motion Class 7 Questions And Answers Question 3.
Which of the following figures represent uniform motion of a moving object correctly?
Force And Motion Class 7 Book Back Questions And Answers Samacheer Kalvi Science Solutions Term 1 Chapter 2
Answer:
Force And Motion Class 7 Questions And Answers Samacheer Kalvi Science Solutions Term 1 Chapter 2

Force And Motion 7th Standard Question 4.
Suppose a boy is enjoying a ride on a merry go round which is moving with a constant speed of 10 m/s. It implies that the boy is.
(a) at rest
(b) moving with no acceleration
(c) in accelerated motion
(d) moving with uniform velocity
Answer:
(c) in accelerated motion

7th Standard Science Force And Motion Question Answer Question 5.
What is one way you might increase the stability of an object?
(a) lower the centre of gravity
(b) raise the centre of gravity
(c) increase the height of the object
(d) shorten the base of the object
Answer:
(a) lower the centre of gravity

II. Fill in the blanks :

  1. The shortest distance between the two places is _______
  2. The rate of change of velocity is _______
  3. If the velocity of an object increases with respect to time, then the object is said to be in _______ acceleration.
  4. The slope of the speed-time graph gives _______
  5. In _______ equilibrium its centre of gravity remains at the same height when it is displacement

Answer:

  1. displacement
  2. acceleration
  3. positive
  4. velocity
  5. neutral

III. Match the following :

1. Displacement (a) Knot
2. Light travels through vacuum (b) Geometric centre
3. Speed of ship (c) Metre
4. Centre of gravity of the geometrical shaped object (d) Larger base area
5. Stability (e) Uniform velocity

Answer:

  1. c
  2. e
  3. a
  4. d
  5. b

IV. Analogy :

7th Science Force And Motion Question 1.
velocity : metre/ second :: acceleration : _______
Answer:
metre/second2

7th Standard Science Force And Motion Question 2.
length of scale : metre : : speed of aeroplane : _______
Answer:
knot

Samacheer Kalvi Guru 7th Science Question 3.
displacement / time : velocity : : speed / time : _______
Answer:
acceleration

V. Give very short answer :

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Books Answers Question 1.
All objects having uniform speed need not have uniform velocity. Describe with the help of examples.
Answer:
An object moving in uniform circular motion is moving around the perimeter of the circle with a constant speed. While the speed of object is constant, its velocity is changing, Ex: Merry-go-round, roller coaster, planets orbiting the sun.

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Books Science Question 2.
“She moves at a constant speed in a constant direction”. Rephrase the same sentence in fewer words using concepts related to motion.
Answer:
She moves in a straight line with constant velocity.

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Book Question 3.
Correct your friend who says “The acceleration gives the idea of how fast the position changes”.
Answer:
There are two possible answers:
Velocity gives an idea of how fast the position changes, or Acceleration gives an idea of how fast the velocity changes.

VI. Give Short Answer :

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Question 1.
Show the shape of the distance – time graph for the motion in the following cases.
a. A bus moving with a constant speed
b. A car parked on a road side.
Answer:
(a) A bus moving with constant speed.

Force And Motion 7th Standard Samacheer Kalvi Science Solutions Term 1 Chapter 2 Force And Motion

(b) A car parked on road side

7th Standard Science Force And Motion Question Answer Samacheer Kalvi Term 1 Chapter 2

Science Samacheer Kalvi 7th Books Question 2.
Distinguish between speed and velocity.
Answer:

7th Science Force And Motion Samacheer Kalvi Term 1 Chapter 2

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Standard Science Question 3.
What do you mean by constant acceleration?
Answer:
A body is said to have constant acceleration, if it travels is a straight line and its velocity increases or decreases by equal magnitude in equal intervals of time.
Ex: the motion of a freely falling body.

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Book Answers Question 4.
What is centre of gravity ?
Answer:
The centre of gravity of an object is the point through which the entire weight of the object appears to act.

VII. Answer in detail.

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Book Back Answers Question 1.
Explain the types of stability with suitable examples.
Answer:
Stability is a measure of the body’s ability to maintain its original position.
The three types of stability are

  1. Stable equilibrium
  2. Unstable equilibrium
  3. Neutral equilibrium

Stable Equilibrium:
The frustum can be tilted through quite a big angle without toppling.

7th Standard Science Force And Motion Samacheer Kalvi Term 1 Chapter 2

Its centre of gravity is raised when it is displaced. The vertical line through its centre of gravity still falls within its base. So it can return to its originalposition.

Unstable Equilibrium:
The frustum will topple with the slightest tilting. Its centre of gravity is lowered when it is displaced.

Samacheer Kalvi Guru 7th Science Solutions Term 1 Chapter 2 Force And Motion

The vertical line through its centre of gravity falls outside its base.

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Books Answers Term 1 Chapter 2 Force And Motion

Neutral Equilibrium:

  1. It causes frustum to topple.
  2. The frustum will roll about but does not topple.
  3. Its centre of gravity remains at the same height when it is displaced.
  4. The body will stay in any position to which it has been displaced.

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Standard Science Book Question 2.
Write about the experiment to find the centre of gravity of the irregularly shaped plate.
Answer:

  1. Make three holes in the lamina.
  2. Suspend the lamina from the optical pin through one of the holes
    Samacheer Kalvi 7th Books Science Solutions Term 1 Chapter 2 Force And Motion
  3. Suspend the plumb line from the pin and mark the position of the plumb line on the lamina’
  4. Draw lines on the lamina representing the positions of the plumb line.
  5. Repeat the above steps for the holes.
  6. Label the intersection of the three lines as X, the position of the center of gravity of the lamina.

VIII. Numerical problems:

Samacheer Kalvi Science 7th Standard Question 1.
Geetha takes 15 minutes from her house to reach her school on a bicycle. If the bicycle lias a speed of 2 m/s, calculate the distance between her house and the school.
Answer:
Given : time taken = 15 minutes [1 min = 60 sec]
= 15 x 60 = 900 sec
Speed – 2 m/s
Distance = ?
Formula : Distance = Speed x time = 2 x 900
Distance between her house and the school = 1,800 m

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Books Question 2.
A car started from rest and travelling with velocity of 20 m /s in 10 s. What is its acceleration?
Answer:
Given :
Initial velocity of the car (u) = 0 m/s
Final velocity of the car (v) = 20 m/s
time taken = 10s
Acceleration = ?
Formula: Acceleration = \(\frac { 20 – 0 }{ 10 }\) = \(\frac { 20 }{ 10 }\)
Acceleration of the car = 2 m/s2

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Solution Question 3.
A bus can accelerate with an acceleration 1 m/s2. Find the minimum time for the bus to reach the speed of 100 km/s from 50 km/s.
Given :
Acceleration of the bus (a) = 1 m/s2
Initial velocity (u) = 50 km/s = 50 x 103 m/s
Final velocity (v) = 100 km/s = 100 x 103 m/s
time (t) = ?
Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Book Solutions Term 1 Chapter 2 Force And Motion

IX. Fill in the boxes:

S.No. First Move Second Move Distance (m) Displacement
1. Move 4 meters east Move 2 meters west 6 2 m east
2. Move 4 meters north Move 2 meters south
3. Move 2 meters east Move 4 meters west
4. Move 5 meters east Move 5 meters west
5.. Move 5 meters south Move 2 meters north
6. Move 10 meters west Move 3 meters east

Answer:

S.No. First Move Second Move Distance (m) Displacement
1. Move 4 meters east Move 2 meters west 6 m 2 m east
2. Move 4 meters north Move 2 meters south 6 m 2 m north
3. Move 2 meters east Move 4 meters west 6 m 2 m west
4. Move 5 meters east Move 5 meters west 10 m 0 (same place)
5.. Move 5 meters south Move 2 meters north 7 m 3 m south
6. Move 10 meters west Move 3 meters east 13 m 7 m west

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Force and Motion Intext Activities

Activity

7th Samacheer Kalvi Science Question 1.
As shown in the above picture, Kavitha can reach her school in two ways. Can you tell, by choosing which path she could reach the school early.

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Solutions Term 1 Chapter 2 Force And Motion

Road A
Road B
Answer:
By choosing road A kavitha could reach the school early as the distance is less compared to road B.

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Answers Question 2.
Look at the nearby picture

Science Samacheer Kalvi 7th Books Solutions Term 1 Chapter 2 Force And Motion
In which path the leaf will reach the ground first?
Answer:
The leaf will reach the ground first by path – A, as it reaches the ground in straight line.

Question 3.
Uma and Priya are friends studying in the same school. After school hours, they go to the nearby playground, play games and return back home. One day Uma told that she would reach the playground after visiting her grandmother’s house. The path in which they took reached the playground is shown here.

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Standard Science Solutions Term 1 Chapter 2 Force And Motion
Take a twine and measure the length of the two paths (A & B). Which is the longest path among the two?
Answer:
Path A is the longest among the two. as it is not a straight line.

Question 4.
The path in which a rabbit ran is shown in figure. Find the distance and displacement of it in the two figures. Let us consider that each square is in an unit of one square meter. The rabbit starts from point A and reaches the point B.

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Book Answers Term 1 Chapter 2 Force And Motion

When will the distance and displacement be equal. Explain. But the starting and finishing points should be different. _______
Answer:
Distance : 17
Distance: 24
Displacement: 3
Displacement: 1
When the rabbit moves in a straight line from A to B, the distance and displacement will be equal.

Question 5.
Here we can consider the starting point as A and while the object moves from A to B the displacement is considered to be positive and from B to A it is negative.
Answer the following questions:
Subha goes to the nearby playground from her home.

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Book Back Answers Term 1 Chapter 2 Force And Motion
Question 1.
What is the distance she travelled?
Answer:
400 m

Question 2.
What is her displacement?
Answer:
100 m

Question 3.
The distance travelled by an object is 15 km and its displacement is 15 km. What do you infer from this?
Answer:
The object moves in a straight line in one direction without turning back.

Question 4.
The distance of a person is 30 km and his displacement is 0 km. What do you infer from this?
Answer:
The distance of a person = 30 km Displacement = 0 km.

Question 5.
The person returns to the same position where he has started.
Answer:
(i.e.) The initial and the final position is same.

Question 6.
Answer the following questions:
(i) Calculate the velocity of a car travelling with a uniform velocity covering 100 m distance in 4 seconds.
Answer:
Samacheer Kalvi 7th Standard Science Book Term 1 Chapter 2 Force And Motion

(ii) Usain Bolt covers 100 m distance in 9.58 seconds. Calculate his speed. Who will be the winner if Usain Bolt comepetes with a Cheetah running at a speed of 30 m/s
Samacheer Kalvi Science 7th Standard Term 1 Chapter 2 Force And Motion

(iii) You are walking along east covering a distance of 4 m, then 2 m towards south, then 4 m towards west and at last 2 m towards north. You cover the total distance in 21 seconds, what is your average speed and average velocity?
Total distance covered = 12 m
Total time taken =21 seconds

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Books Term 1 Chapter 2 Force And Motion
\(\frac { 12m }{ 21 }\) = 0.571 m/s
Average velocity = 0 m/s
Average velocity is zero because the starting point and the finishing point is same
∴Displacement is zero so, average velocity is also

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Solution Term 1 Chapter 2 Force And Motion

Question 7.
(a) Change in speed
(b) Change in direction
(c) Change in both speed and direction

The distance travelled by train Initial velocity (u) m/s Final

velocity (v) m/s

Change in velocity (v – u) m/s Time taken (t) s Acceleration = change in velocity / time a = (v – u) /1 m/s2
A-B 0 6 6 10 0.6
B-C
C-D
D-E
E-F

The velocity at different times of a train departing direction is given in the figure. Analyse this and complete the table .

7th Samacheer Kalvi Science Solutions Term 1 Chapter 2 Force And Motion
Answer:

The distance travelled by train Initial velocity (u) m/s Final velocity (v) m/s Change in velocity (v – u) m/s Time taken (t) s Acceleration = change in velocity / time

a = (v – u) /t m/s2

A-B 0 6 6 10 0.6
B-C 6 14 14-6 = 8 10 0.8
C-D 14 14 14-14 = 0 10 0
D-E 14 6 6- 14 =-8 10 -0.8
E-F 6 2 2 – 6 = -4 10 -0.4

Analysis:
When the train covers the distance A to B and B to C, it is accelerated motion.
When it covers the distance C-D, there is no acceleration (i.e) uniform velocity.
When it covers the distance D to E and E to F it has negative acceleration or deceleration or retardation, (i.e.) Its velocity decreases with respect to time.

Question 8.
My name is cheetah. I can run at a great speed. Do you know what my speed is? 25 m/s to 30 m/s. My speed changes from 0 to 20 m/s in 2 second. See how good my acceleration is !
From the above information, can you calculate the acceleration of the cheetah?
Answer:

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Answers Solutions Term 1 Chapter 2 Force And Motion

Question 9.

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Solutions Term 1 Chapter 1 Force And Motion
When the velocity of the object is increasing by 20 m/s the acceleration is 20 m/s2
When the velocity of the object is decreasing by 20 m/s the deceleration is 20 m/s2.
Answer:
When the velocity of the object is decreasing by 20m/s the deceleration is 20 m/s2.

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Solutions Term 1 Chapter 1 Force And Motion

The velocity of the object is decreasing by 20m/s in one second.

Question 10.
Imagine and write a story on your own for the given graph?

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Solutions Term 1 Chapter 1 Force And Motion
Answer:
Raghul and his father starting from home to the school by car. At the school gate, he stopped the car to drop Raghul. After 2 minutes he went back to home to pick up his mother. Then they both started to go to their work. On the way, they are waiting for the signal.

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Force and Motion Additional Questions

I. Choose the correct answer.

Question 1.
Distance travelled by a body in a given time
(a) is always positive
(b) can be zero or positive
(c) is always negative
(d) either (a) or (c)
Answer:
(b) can be zero or positive

Question 2.
Which of the following is correct
(a) magnitude of displacement may be greater than distance.
(b) Distance is always greater than or equal to the magnitude of displacement.
(c) Distance is always greater than the magnitude of displacement.
(d) Both are scalar quantities.
Answer:
(b) Distance is always greater than or equal to the magnitude of displacement

Question 3.
Average speed of a moving object is equal to the magnitude of its average velocity when it travels.
(a) in a straight line without turning back
(b) in a circle
(c) back and forth
(d) in a zig-zag path
Answer:
(a) in a straight line without turning back

Question 4.
A car is moving along a straight road with uniform velocity which is the correct representation

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Solutions Term 1 Chapter 1 Force And Motion
Answer:

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Solutions Term 1 Chapter 1 Force And Motion

Question 5.
The slope of a velocity-time graph gives
(a) velocity
(b) distance
(c) displacement
(d) acceleration
Answer:
(d) acceleration

Question 6.
Velocity-time graph of an object is given below the object has
(a) uniform velocity
(b) uniform retardation
(c) uniform speed
(d) variable retardation
Answer:

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Solutions Term 1 Chapter 1 Force And Motion
(b) uniform retardation

Question 7.
Which one of the following graphs is showing an object is stationary?

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Solutions Term 1 Chapter 1 Force And Motion
Answer:

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Solutions Term 1 Chapter 1 Force And Motion

Question 8.
If the velocity of a body does not a changes , then its acceleration is ________
(a) Infinity
(b) unity
(c) Zero
(d) between zero and unity
Answer:
(c) Zero

II. Fill in the Blanks.

  1. The SI unit of displacement is _______
  2. The SI unit of speed is _______
  3. _______ is the length of actual path covered by a body.
  4. _______ is the distance trtavelled by a body per unit time
  5. Distance is a _______quantity.
  6. The displacement is zero when the initial and final positions are _______
  7. Speed is always positive or zero but never be _______
  8. When the velocity of a body increases with time, its acceleration is _______
  9. The acceleration of a body moving with uniform velocity is _______
  10. A car increases its speed from 20 km/h to 50km/h in 10 seconds. Its acceleration is _______

Answer:

  1. metre (m)
  2. m/s
  3. Distance
  4. speed
  5. scalar
  6. same
  7. negative
  8. positive
  9. zero
  10. 0.83 m/s2

III. Match the following :

Column I Column II
a. Uniform motion. (i) Body having uniform acceleration
b. Non-uniform motion. (ii) Body at rest.
c. The velocity-time graph is a circle. (iii) Unequal distance covered in equal interval of time.
d. Straight line parallel to time axis in position-time graph. (iv) Equal distances covered in equal intervals of time.
e. Straight line inclined to 45° with time axis is velocity-time graph. (v) Not possible.

Answer:

  1. iv
  2. iii
  3. v
  4. i
  5. ii

Very short Answers:

Question 1.
Give one example where the displacement is zero but the distance travelled is not zero.
Answer:
When an object travels is a circular path (ie. the initial and positions are same).

Question 2.
Is displacement a scalar quantity?
Answer:
No, displacement is a vector quantity as it depends on direction.

Question 3.
Give some examples for vector quantity.
Answer:
Displacement, velocity, force.

Question 4.
Give some examples for scalar quantity.
Answer:
Mass, distance, speed, temperature.

Question 5.
Give one example for uniform acceleration.
Answer:
The motion of a freely falling object.

Question 6.
Give one example for non-uniform acceleration.
Answer:
The motion of a car on a crowded road.

Question 7.
Give an example for retardation or declaration.
Answer:
When a person applies brake on a moving car, its velocity decreases with time.

Question 8.
What are three types of stability of an object?
Answer:

  1. Stable equilibrium
  2. Unstable equilibrium
  3. Neutral equilibrium

Question 9.
Mention any two conditions for stability of a body?
Answer:

  1. Increase the area of its base.
  2. Lower its centre of gravity.

V. Give Short Answer.

Question 1.
A body moves is a circle of radius ‘2R’ what is the distance covered and displacement of the body after 2 complete rounds?
Answer:
Distance covered after 2 complete rounds
= 2 x circumference of a circle
Distance =2 × 2 π(2R) = 4π(2R)

After 2 complete rounds, the body comes back to its initial position,
so, displacement = 0

Question 2.
What are the uses of graphical study of motion?
Answer:

  1. By simply looking at the graph, one can tell whether motion is uniform or not.
  2. It is useful for comparing the motions of two moving bodies.

Question 3.
Draw distance-time graphs for the following

  1. a stationary body
  2. a body moving with variable velocity

Answer:
Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Solutions Term 1 Chapter 1 Force And Motion

Question 4.
Draw centre of gravity of the following regular shaped objects.

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Solutions Term 1 Chapter 1 Force And Motion

Answer:

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Solutions Term 1 Chapter 1 Force And Motion

Question 5.
Mention the real life applications of centre of gravity.
Answer:

  1. Luggage compartment of a tour bus is located at the bottom and not on the roof.
  2. Racing cars are built low and broad for stability.
  3. Table lamps and fans are designed with large heavy bases to make them stable

Question 6.
Explain the concept which is used in the continuous movement of Thanjavur doll?
Answer:
The centre of gravity and the total weight of the doll is concentrated at its bottom most point, generating a dance-like continuous movement with slow oscillations.

Question 7.
Write note on the following :

  1. Nautical mile
  2. knot.

Answer:

  1. Nautical mile is the unit for measuring the distance in the field of aviation and sea transportation. One nautical mile is 1.852 km.
  2. The unit for measuring the speed of aeroplanes and ships is knot. One knot is the speed taken to travel one nautical mile in hour.

Question 8.
Saranya jogs from one end A to the other end B of a straight road of length 320m in 2min 40 seconds. Then she turns back and jogs 100m to point C in 1 min. what is her average velocity in jogging.
Answer:
Total displacement = 320m
From A to C displacement = 320 -100 = 220m
Time taken = 3 min 40 sec
= 180+40=220
Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Solutions Term 1 Chapter 1 Force And Motion

Question 9.
A train starting from a railway station and moving with uniform acceleration attains a speed of 40 km/h in 10 minutes. Find its acceleration?
Answer:
Initial velocity (u) = Okm/h
Final velocity (v) = 40 km/h
Time (t) = 10 min = \(\frac { 10 }{ 60h }\) = \(\frac { 1 }{ 6h }\)
Acceleration (a) = \(\frac { v – u }{ t }\)
\(\frac { 40 – 0 }{ 1 }\) = 40 × 6
= 240 km/h

Question 10.
Define speed Mention its formula and unit.
Answer:
Speed is the rate of change of distance .
Formula : Speed = distance /time
Unit is meter/second (m/s)

Question 11.
Define velocity Mention its formula and unit.
Answer:
Velocity is the rate of change in displacement.
Formula : Velocity (v) = displacement / time
SI unit of velocity is meter / second (m/s).

Question 12.
What is uniform velocity? Give one example.
Answer:
A body has uniform velocity, if it covers equal displacement in the same direction in equal intervals of time. Eg. light travels through vacuum.

Question 13.
What is non-uniform velocity? Give example.
Answer:
If either speed or direction changes, then the velocity is non uniform. Eg. a train starting and moving out of the station.

Question 14.
Define acceleration. Mention its formula and unit.
Answer:
Acceleration is the rate of change in velocity.
Formula : Acceleration = change in velocity / time SI unit of acceleration is m/s2

Question 15.
Define the following:

  1. positive acceleration
  2. negative acceleration.

Answer:

(i) Positive acceleration:
If the velocity of an object increases with respect to time, then the object is said to be in positive acceleration or just acceleration.

(ii) Negative acceleration or deceleration or retardation:
If the velocity of an object decreases with respect to time, then the object is said to be in negative acceleration or deceleration or retardation.

VI. Long Answer
Question 1.
Write the differences between distance and displacement
Answer:

Distance Displacement
1. The total length of a path taken by an object to reach one place from the other is called distance. The shortest distance from the initial to the final position of an object.
2. Distance between two gives points may be same or different paths chosen. Displacement between two given points is always same
3. It is a scalar quantity It is a vector quantity
4. Distance covered is always positive or zero. Displacement covered may be positive, negative or zero

Question 2.
Draw velocity-time graph for the following data:

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Solutions Term 1 Chapter 1 Force And Motion
Answer:

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Solutions Term 1 Chapter 1 Force And Motion

Question 3.
Bus travelling at uniform speed of m/s
Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Solutions Term 1 Chapter 1 Force And Motion
Answer:

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Solutions Term 1 Chapter 1 Force And Motion

Question 4.
Bus travelling at uniform acceleration
Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Solutions Term 1 Chapter 1 Force And Motion
Answer:

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Solutions Term 1 Chapter 1 Force And Motion

Question 5.
Bus travelling at uniform deceleration
Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Solutions Term 1 Chapter 1 Force And Motion
Answer:

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Solutions Term 1 Chapter 1 Force And Motion

Question 6.
Bus travelling with increasing acceleration (non – uniform acceleration)
Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Solutions Term 1 Chapter 1 Force And Motion
Answer:
Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Solutions Term 1 Chapter 1 Force And Motion

Samacheer Kalvi 9th English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 3 Earthquake

You can Download Earthquake Questions and Answers, Summary, Activity, Notes, Samacheer Kalvi 9th English Book Solutions Guide Pdf Supplementary Chapter 3 help you to revise complete Tamilnadu State Board New Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 9th English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 3 Earthquake

Earthquake Warm Up:

When was the last time you helped someone? Write a few instances of your act of kindness.
Answer:
I had helped a blind person cross the road few months ago. I have helped my friends who had been absent in class due to illness to complete the notes. I had given money to people who asked they needed it to buy bus tickets.

Earthquake Textual Questions

A. Fill in the blanks with words from the text.

  1. The name of the narrator is _________________ .
  2. There were _________________ villages in the valley.
  3. Brij went to Pauri to buy his _________________ .
  4. The soldiers had set up a _________________
  5. Bhuli had been buried under the debris for _________________  hours.

Answers:

  1. Brij
  2. six hundred and seventy
  3. school books
  4. makeshift hospital
  5. hundred and sixteen

Additional Questions

Fill in the blanks with words from the text.

  1. Are you waiting for the bus to …………………. ?
  2. In ……………… minutes, Brij will have the fire going in his tea shop.
  3. Brij is a young boy aged ……………………. .
  4. Brij’s ancestral home was in ………………. village.
  5. The earthquake occured in the month of ………………. four years ago.
  6. The earthquake was felt as far as ……………. and ……………… .
  7. ………………… days were gonne by before the help arrived.
  8. Brij had a brother named ……………… and a baby sister named
  9. A ………………. camp was set up by the soldiers.
  10. ……………….. survived a hundred and sixteen hours under the debris after the earthquake.

Answers:

  1. Badrinath
  2. ten
  3. seventeen
  4. Molthi
  5. October
  6. Delhi, Lucknow
  7. Four
  8. Nilu, Bhuli
  9. makeshift
  10. Bhuli

B. Based on your understanding of the story, choose the right answers from the options.

Earthquake 9th Standard Supplementary Question 1.
Brij started a tea shop because he wanted to _________________ .
(a) start a company.
(b) serve the people.
(c) go on a pilgrimage.
(d) become a tour guide.
Answer:
(b) serve the people

Earthquake Lesson For 9th Class In English Question 2.
Molthi was completely devastated because of _________________ .
(a) a high intensity earthquake.
(b) thunder and hail storm!
(c) drought and famine.
(d) flash floods
Answer:
a high intensity earthquake.

Earthquake Supplementary Theme Question 3.
The brother searched everywhere and looked dejected because _________________ .
(a) he couldn’t find his house.
(b) he couldn’t locate his sister.
(c) he was hungry and didn’t eat for a few days.
(d) he lost his school books.
Answer:
he couldn’t locate his sister.

Earthquake 9th Standard Supplementary Summary Question 4.
The boy had great reverence and respect for Army officers as they _________________ .
(a) were brave and courageous,
(b) worked day and night
(c) saved his sister from death.
(d) all the above.
Answer:
saved his sister from death

Earthquake 9th Standard Supplementary Ppt Question 5.
Brij finally offered the traveller a _________________ .
(a) cup of milk
(b) cup of tea
(c) glass of water
(d) cup of coffee
Answer:
cup of tea

C. Identify the character or speaker of the following lines.

  1. Greetings, traveller. You looked tired and cold.
  2. Tomorrow, we will go back to Pauri.
  3. Whom are you looking for?
  4. My men have been on their feet for days.
  5. May God be with you!

Answers:

  1. Brij
  2. Uncle
  3. Army officer
  4. Army officer
  5. Brij

Additional Questions

  1. Perhaps, you are a pilgrim or a visitor to the Valley of Flowers?
  2. It was sheer chance that I was away that night.
  3. We feared the worst.
  4. When they began to clear the debris.
  5. Come, you must perform the last rites before sunset.
  6. They stood at the doorway and waved.
  7. They have not found her.
  8. But we must find her.
  9. Boy, it is no use.
  10. Whom are you looking for?
  11. All I want is to give her a proper cremation.
  12. I could see that he was bonetired.
  13. My men have been on their feet for days
  14. A terrible despair engulfed me.
  15. They laboured doggedly.
  16. He stood in the middle of a small hollow.
  17. Then, they lifted the door.
  18. She is alive!
  19. My sister and I went on to live with my uncle.
  20. And one day, I did find him.

Answers:
1. Brij, 2. Brij, 3. Brij and uncle, 4. Soldier, 5. Uncle, 6. Ma, grandma, Nilu and Bhuli, 7. Soldiers, 8. Brij, 9. Uncle, 10. Army officer, 11. Brij, 12. Brij, 13. Army officer, 14. Brij, 15. The soldiers, 16. The soldiers, 17. The soldier, 18. The soldiers, 19. Brij and Bhuli, 20. Brij, the army officer.

D. Answer the following questions in a paragraph of about 80 to 100 words.

Earthquake Supplementary Summary In English Question 1.
Explain the efforts taken by the Army Officer to save the baby.
Answer:
The officer came with three soldiers armed with spades and crowbars. Without a word, the men began to remove the debris. They laboured doggedly. When it was completely dark, some one brought a few lit petromax lamps. Two hours r later, a soldier called out, “ Sir”. He stood in the middle of a small hollow. The wall had caved in at that spot. Brij recognised a part of the door. Beneath it, was a little foot. Feverishly, the soldiers began to clear the hollow. Then they lifted the door. It was a miracle. They rescued the baby alive after a hundred and sixteen hours. A ragged cheer went up and she was carried to a make-shift hospital.

Earthquake Chapter For Class 9 English Question 2.
Brij has become a symbol of love and humanity. Explain.
Answer:
Brij was happy to have Bhuli after a tough rescue operation. The officer who helped him was never seen again. He wanted to thank that Army officer. He hoped that one day he would run into him again. So Bhuj offered special tea with love and care to all tired travellers, army officers and soon every person who went that way. He felt a surge of sheer joy. He considered it as a humble service. Brij has become an epitome of love and a symbol of humanity.

E. Answer the following questions based on the reading of the story. Do not forget to go back to the passage whenever necessary to find and confirm the answers.

Earthquake 9th Standard Supplementary Samacheer Kalvi English Solutions Chapter 3
Answer:
Earthquake Lesson For 9th Class In English Samacheer Kalvi Chapter 3

Additional Questions:

Earthquake Supplementary Summary Question 1.
Where did Brij work first?
Answer:
Brij worked in a roadside shop outside Panipat.

9th English Earthquake Summary Question 2.
Where was the Molthi village loacted?
Answer:
Molthi village was located near a valley that consisted of the epicentre.

Earthquake Supplementary Reader Question 3.
Where did Brij go on the night the earthquake occured?
Answer:
Brij had gone to Pauri to buy his school books.

Earthquake Lesson Summary Question 4.
When Brij was going to perform the last rites, who was missing?
Answer:
When Brij was going to perform the last rites his two-year old sister Bhuli was missing.

9th English Earthquake Question 5.
Did Brij find the officer who had saved his sister?
Answer:
No, Brij did not find the officer who saved his sister.

Earthquake 9th Supplementary Lesson Plan Question 6.
Who built the house Brij was living in before the earthquake?
Answer:
Brij was living in the house his great grandfather had built in Molthi.

Earthquake Summary:

Bnj is a young boy having his own tea shop by the roadside. He meets a traveler and invites him to his shop and starts telling the incidences that took place in his life. He used to stay in Molthi village with his grandmother, mother, brother and a baby sister. Their village was not far from the epicenter and hence used to experience frequent tremors. One day he happened to go to the village Pauri, to buy his school books.

As it had become late he stayed in his uncle’s house. That night they were experiencing frequent tremors because of which they could not sleep that night. This resulted in numerous landslides and it took four days for the army officers to arrive at . Molthi. Brij and his uncle were the first to arrive after the army officers. They weren’t prepared for what they had seen that day, every single house had been brought down to the ground.

The soldiers began to clear the debris and not until that evening did they find the bodies. His uncle asked him to perform the last rite, that’s when he saw that his baby sister was missing. Hoping to find her, he ran to the place where his house stood once and started clearing the debris and searching for his sister.

One officer, seeing this said that there is no point in searching anymore since they have done their maximum and that there is no hope to find anyone alive. Brij did not pay heed to him and continued his search, but the officer left. He came after ten minutes along with three more officers and started to clear the debris. On clearing the debris, after two hours they realized to be standing in the middle of a hollow and Brij could instantly see the foot of his sister.

The soldier exclaimed, saying the little girl-was alive. He immediately wrapped her and carried her to the nearby makeshift hospital. The next day, when he had gone to thank the army officer, he had already left. He was very disappointed at this and whenever he used to see an army officer or a tired traveler, he remembered the officer who saved his sister’s life and would serve him tea for free as this made him very happy. In the same way, he offers this traveler also with a cup of tea and when his bus arrives wishes him a safe journey.

Earthquake Glossary:

Earthquake Supplementary Theme Samacheer Kalvi 9th English Chapter 3
Samacheer Kalvi 9th English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 3 Earthquake 4

Samacheer Kalvi 8th Science Solutions Term 1 Chapter 8 Organisation of Life

You can Download Samacheer Kalvi 8th Science Book Solutions Guide Pdf, Tamilnadu State Board help you to revise the complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 8th Science Solutions Term 1 Chapter 8 Organisation of Life

Samacheer Kalvi 8th Science Solutions Organisation of Life Text Book Exercises

I. Choose the correct answers

Organisation Of Life 8th Standard Question 1.
……………… is tough and thick white sheath that protect the inner parts of the eye.
(a) Sclera
(b) Conjunctiva
(c) Cornea
(d) Iris
Answer:
(a) Sclera

8th Science Organisation Of Life Question 2.
Maintenance of constant internal environment of the body is known as ………………
(a) Homeostasis
(b) Homeophytes
(c) Homeokinesis
(d) Homeophilics
Answer:
(a) Homeostasis

Organisation Of Life Question 3.
In the absence of oxygen, glucose is broken down into ………………
(a) Lactic acid
(b) Citric acid
(c) Acetic acid
(d) Nitric acid
Answer:
(a) Lactic acid

Samacheer Kalvi 8th Biology Book Solutions Question 4.
……………… cells are specialised cells that can be transformed into any kind of cells.
(a) Nerve
(b) Stem
(c) Heart
(d) Bone
Answer:
(b) Stem

Samacheer Kalvi Guru 8th Science Question 5.
The process of air passing in and out the lungs is called ………………
(a) Inhalation
(b) Exhalation
(c) Breathing
(d) None of these
Answer:
(c) Breathing

Samacheer Kalvi.Guru 8th Science Question 6.
Osmosis is the movement of water molecules from a ………………
(a) Higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.
(b) Lower concentration to a region of higher concentration.
(c) Both of these
(d) None of these
Answer:
(a) Higher concentration to a region of lower concentration

Samacheer Kalvi Guru 8 Science Question 7.
The erythrocyte is placed in ……………… solution which has lesser concentration of solutes and greater concentration of water than in the cytoplasm.
(a) Hypotonic
(b) Hypertonic
(c) Neutral
(d) Acidic
Answer:
(a) Hypotonic

II. Fill in the blanks

  1. ……………… is the structural and functional unit of living organisms.
  2. The largest cell is egg of an ………………
  3. ……………… is a good example for anaerobic respiration.
  4. ……………… nerve is located at the end of the eyes behind the retina.
  5. The size of the cells are measured in units of ………………

Answer:

  1. Cell
  2. Ostrich
  3. Fermentation
  4. Optic
  5. Microns

III. Write true or False. If false, give the correct answer

Samacheer Kalvi Guru 8th Standard Science Question 1.
In hypotonic condition, concentration of the external and the internal solution of the organism are same.
Answer:
False.
Correct statement:
The concentration of external solution is less compared to concentration of internal solution of the organism.

Organization Of Life Question 2.
Diffusion is the movement of particles from an area of lower concentration to higher concentration.
Answer:
False.
Correct statement:
Diffusion is the movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to lower concentration.

Samacheer Kalvi Guru 8th Question 3.
Human beings are warm blooded in nature.
Answer:
True.

Organization Of Life Definition Question 4.
The larynx has fold of tissue which vibrate with the passage of air to produce.
Answer:
True.

Organization Of Life Worksheet Question 5.
Aqueous humour plays an important role in maintaining the shape of the eye.
Answer:
True.

V. Arrange the following words in correct sequence

Question 1.
Tissues, organ system, organism, cell, organ
Answer:
Cell, tissues, organ, organ system, organism.

VI. Answer in brief

Question 1.
What is cell differentiation?
Answer:
Our body develops from a single cell called zygote. The zygote undergoes mitotic division to form many cells of different shape, size and content. These cells attain change in structure and function which is called differentiation. This form the foetus.

Question 2.
State different types of tissues.
Answer:
Depending on the basis of their structure and function, tissues can be classified into four types.

  1. Epithelial (covering) tissue for protection.
  2. Muscular (contractile) tissue for movements and locomotion.
  3. Connective (supporting) tissue for binding different structures of body.
  4. Nervous tissue for conduction of nerve impulses.

Question 3.
Mention the function of ‘Alveoli’?
Answer:

  1. Alveoli are tiny air sacs in the lungs.
  2. They are the workhouses of the respiratory system.
  3. The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide take place in alveoli of the lungs.

Question 4.
Name the processes by which air enters and comes out of our lungs?
Answer:

  1. The process of taxing air into the lungs is called inspiration or inhalation.
  2. The process of expelling air from the lungs is called expiration or exhalation.

Question 5.
Differentiate between Osmoconformers and Osmoregulators?
Answer:
There are two major types of Osmoregulation:
Osmoconformers:
These organisms try to maintain the osmolality of their body matching with their surroundings. Most of the invertebrates, marine organisms are osmoconformers.

Osmoregulators:
These organisms maintain their internal osmolality, which can be extremely different from that of the surrounding environment, through physiological processes.

Question 6.
Define Metabolism?
Answer:

  1. Metabolism is the sum of chemical reactions by which living organisms sustain their life.
  2. Metabolism consists of anabolism (the buildup of substances) and catabolism (the breakdown of substances).

VII. Answer in few words

Question 1.
Define Prokaryotic cell?
Answer:
Organisms in which no true nucleus is seen are called prokaryotic. Ex : Bacteria.

Question 2.
Define Eukaryotic cell?
Answer:
Organisms in which true nucleus is seen (presence of nuclear membrane) are called eukaryotic. Ex : Higher plants.

Question 3.
Tabulate the difference between aerobic and an anaerobic respiration.
Answer:

S. No Aerobic Anaerobic
1. Aerobic respiration takes place in the presence of oxygen Anaerobic respiration takes place in the absence of oxygen
2. The end products of aerobic respiration are carbon dioxide and water The end products of anaerobic respiration are CO2 and ethanol or lactic acid
3 Common in all higher plants and animals Common in certain micro organisms and human muscle cell

Question 4.
State different types of epithelial cells?
Answer:
The epithelial tissue is a tissue which acts as a covering and protects the underlying tissues. It is classified into the following types.

  1. Squamous epithelium.
  2. Cuboidal epithelium.
  3. Columnar epithelium.
  4. Ciliated epithelium.
  5. Glandular epithelium.

Question 5.
Why the human eye is compared with camera?
Answer:
The human eye can be compared to a camera as both functions by gathering, focusing, and transmitting the light through the lens for creating an image of an object.

  1. The iris of the eye controls the size of the pupil depending on the amount of light entering it.
  2. The pupil is like the eyehole of a camera which allows light to come in.
  3. Lens : It is a transparent, biconvex, and an adjustable part of an eye, made up of protein. The lens with the help of the cornea refracts light focused on the retina, therefore creating images on it.
  4. The retina consists of photoreceptors and converts light rays into impulses to be sent to the brain. It is light sensitive.
    The retina is compared to the film in a camera.

Question 6.
Which organ and organ system help to maintain homeostasis?
Answer:

  1. Homeostasis is a property of a human biological system where the self – regulating process tends to maintain the balance for the survival.
  2. Behavioural and physiological responses are two important regulating mechanisms that maintain the stability of homeostasis.
  3. All the processes of integration and co – ordination of function are mediated by nervous and hormonal system. The liver, kidneys, and brain (hypothalamus), autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system help to maintain homeostasis.

VIII. Answer in detail

Question 1.
Draw the V.S of human eye and label its parts.
Answer:
Samacheer Kalvi 8th Science Solutions Term 1 Chapter 8 Organisation of Life 1

Question 2.
Explain Osmosis with an example.
Answer:
Osmosis is the movement of solvent particles across a semipermeable membrane from a dilute solution into a concentrated solution. The solvent moves to dilute the concentrated solution and equalize the concentration on both sides of the membrane. The movement of liquids in and out cells is dependent on the concentration of the solution surrounding it. There are 3 types of situations in which this could vary:

1. Isotonic:
Here the concentration of external and internal solution of the organism are the same.

2. Hypotonic:
Here the external solution concentration is less compared to the concentration of the inner solution of an organism. In this case water will rush into the organism.

3. Hypertonic:
Here the external solution concentration is greater than the concentration of the inner solution of an organism. In this case the water will rush out of the organism.
Example:
Red blood cells.

  1. When red blood cells are placed in hypertonic solution, water flows out of the cell faster than it comes in. This results in shrivelling of RBC.
  2. On the other hand if RBC is hypotonic, more water will flow into the cell than out. This results in swelling of the cell and followed by bursting.
  3. If the RBC is placed in an isotonic solutions, the flow of water in and out of the cell will happen at the same rate.

Question 3.
Differentiate between inhalation and exhalation.
Answer:
Inhalation:

  • The muscles of the diaphragm contract.
  • The diaphragm goes downward.
  • The ribs move upwards and outwards.
  • The volume of thoracic (chest) cavity increases.
  • Air enters the lungs through the nose.

Exhalation:

  • The muscles of the diaphragm relax.
  • The diaphragm goes upward.
  • The ribs move downwards.
  • The volume of thoracic (chest) cavity decreases.
  • Air goes out of the lungs through the nose.

Question 4.
Explain about the types of metabolism with an example.
Answer:

  1. Metabolism is the sum of chemical reactions by which living organisms sustain their life.
  2. Metabolism consists of anabolism (the buildup of substances) and catabolism (the breakdown of substances).

Anabolism:
Anabolism or constructive metabolism, is all about building and storing. It supports the growth of new cells, the maintenance of body tissues, and the storage of energy for use in the future. During anabolism, small molecules are changed into larger, more complex molecules of carbohydrate, protein and fat.

For example,
Glucose → Glycogen and other sugars
Amino acids → Enzymes, hormones and proteins

Catabolism:
Catabolism or destructive metabolism, is the process that produces the energy required for all activity in the cells. In this process, cells break down large molecules (mostly carbohydrates and fats) to release energy. This energy release provides fuel for anabolism, heats the body, and enables the muscles to contract and the body to move.
Carbohydrates → Glucose
Glucose → CO2, Water and heat

Question 5.
Explain the mechanism of breathing.
Answer:

  1. The process of taking air into the lungs is called inspiration or inhalation.
  2. During inspiration, the sternum is pushed up and outward and the diaphragm is pulled down.
  3. This increases the volume of the thoracic cavity and the pressure decreases.
  4. The air outside the body flows into the lungs. Here exchange of gases takes place between the air and the blood.
  5. The process of expelling air from the lungs is called expiration or exhalation. Upon exhalation, the lungs recoil to force the air out of the lungs.
  6. The intercostal muscles relax, returning the chest wall to its original position. During exhalation, the diaphragm also relaxes, moving higher into the thoracic cavity.
  7. This increases the pressure within the thoracic cavity relative to the environment.
  8. Air rushes out of the lungs due to the pressure gradient. This movement of air out of the lungs is a passive event.

Question 6.
Read the given paragraph about human eye carefully and correct the mistakes. Our eye is cylindrical shaped. The wall of the eyeball is composed of five layers. The outermost layer is cornea. The innermost layer is called sclera. The eyeball consists of elastic nerves and biconcave lens. The pupil attaches lens to iris. Iris has rod and cone shaped cells. Aqueous humour is present between lens and retina. The vitreous humour is present between cornea and lens. The brain changes the light into nerve impulses and sends them to retina.
Answer:
Our eye is cylindrical shaped. The wall of the eyeball is composed of three layers. The outermost layer is sclera. The innermost layer is called retina. The eyeball consists of elastic nerves and biconvex lens. The pupil attaches lens to ciliarybody. Retina has rod and cone shaped cells. Vitreous humour is present between lens and retina. The aqueous humour is present between cornea and lens. The retina changes the light into nerve impulses and sends them to brain.

IX. HOT Questions

Question 1.
Why do we need instant energy? Does glucose give that energy? Explain.
Answer:

  1. Energy is needed for performing day to day activities of the body which is got through intake of food. This provides energy for all organ systems.
  2. Instant energy may be required in cases of extended physical activities like running or physical ailments like tiredness or giddiness.
  3. Glucose is the simplest form of carbohydrate. Intake of glucose help it to solubilise in the blood immediately, and is carried to organs of the body thus helping to provide instant energy digestion of carbohydrates also converts it to glucose finally.

Question 2.
How are they preparing pickles? What are the causes involved in that?
Answer:

  1. Pickles are prepared usually by addition of excess salt. The salty solution creates a high concentration (hypertonic) in the external medium of the vegetable / fruit which is used for making pickles.
  2. Therefore water comes out of the vegatable and it undergoes plasmolysis and begins to shrink.
  3. Thus when water content is lost the pickle is able to retain its shelf life for a longer period.

X. Value Based Questions

Question 1.
Dr. Usha is a pulmonologist (Doctor for respiratory diseases). One day, a school student named Arjun, met her with respiratory problems. After diagnosis, the doctor advised him to go playground daily and play football or basketball. She also advised to do pranayamam in the morning.
(a) Why did the doctor advised him to go to the playground?
(b) What is the use of pranayamam?
Answer:
(a) Playing is a good physical activity which helps to improve breathing and blood circulation in the body. It also helps to relieve anxiety.

(b)

  1. Pranayamam teaches us the proper way of breathing, slowly and deeply.
  2. It increases the capacity of the lungs and brings more oxygen into the body.
  3. It is especially very useful when one has respiratory problems and the breathing is irregular and unsteady.
  4. It improves blood circulation.

Question 2.
Explain why are you not able to breathe normally when you are in closed and crowded places?
Answer:
In a closed and crowded place, the number of people are more. All of them breathe out carbon dioxide. Therefore the amount of CO2 in the air is much more than the amount of oxygen available for inhalation. Therefore we find it difficult to breathe in a closed and crowded place.

Question 3.
Shylesh is a school going kid studying standard VIII. He is crazy about playing video games in mobile phones. After couple of months, his eyes turned red and he felt severe pain in his eyes. His science teacher enquired about this and advised his parents to take him to consult an eye doctor.
(i) How does excessive usage of mobile phone affect our eyes?
(ii) What are the values shown by the teacher?
Answer:
Impact of excessive usage of mobile phones:

(i)

  1. Cell phone radiation can damage eyes and cause early cataract.
  2. It can also lead to cataract in lens apart from affecting retina, cornea etc.
  3. It strains the eye muscles.
  4. It also caused temporary problems like dry and itchy eyes, blurry vision, pain in eyes etc.

(ii) The teacher has shown values of:

  1. Empathy
  2. Responsibility
  3. Personal care.

Samacheer Kalvi 8th Science Solutions Organisation of Life Additional Questions

I. Choose the correct answer

Question 1.
………………. is a type of connective tissue.
(a) Bone
(b) Cardiac muscle
(c) Neuron
(d) Ciliated epithelium
Answer:
(a) Bone

Question 2.
………………. is a transparent layer.
(a) Sclera
(b) Cornea
(c) Choroid
(d) Retina
Answer:
(b) Cornea

Question 3.
is not an example of diffusion.
(a) Tea bags in hot water
(b) Incense sticks
(c) Exchange of respiratory gases
(d) Pickling
Answer:
(d) Pickling

Question 4.
Each glucose molecule produces ATP.
(a) 38
(b) 40
(c) 36
(d) 34
Answer:
(c) 36

Question 5.
…………….. of the eye is comparable to film of a camera.
(a) Retina
(b) Sclera
(c) Lens
(d) Cornea
Answer:
(a) Retina

II. Fill in the Blanks

  1. The smallest cell in human body is ………………
  2. The coloured portion of the eye is the ………………
  3. The transparent membrane that keeps the eye moist is ……………..
  4. The lungs are covered by a membrane called …………….
  5. The voice box is called ……………..

Answer:

  1. Red blood cell
  2. Iris
  3. Conjunctiva
  4. Pleura
  5. Larynx

III. True or False – if false give the correct statement

Question 1.
Blood is a fluid connective tissue.
Answer:
True.

Question 2.
Stem cells can serve as inbuilt repair system for our body.
Answer:
True.

Question 3.
Ribosome is an organelle seen in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Answer:
True.

Question 4.
The wind pipe is called larynx.
Answer:
False.
Correct statement:
The wind pipe is called trachea.

Question 5.
No energy is produced in anaerobic respiration.
Answer:
False.
Correct statement:
Less energy is produced in anaerobic respiration.

IV. Match the following

Question 1.

i Alveoli (a) Yeast
ii Ethanol (b) Gaseous exchange
iii Diffusion (c) Amino acids
iv Protein (d) Perfume

Answer:

i. b
ii. a
iii. d
iv. c

Question 2.

i Conjunctiva (a) Coloured part of eye
ii Cornea (b) Photosensitive layer
iii Iris (c) Refraction
iv Retina (d) Protection

Answer:

i. d
ii. c
iii. a
iv. b

V. Assertion and Reason

Direction:
In each of the following questions, a statement of Assertion is given and a corresponding statement of Reason is given just below it. Of the four statements, given below, mark one as the correct answer.
(a) If both Assertion and Reason are true and Reason is the correct explanation of Assertion.
(b) If both Assertion and Reason are true and Reason is not the correct explanation of Assertion.
(c) If Assertion is true but Reason is false.
(d) If both Assertion and Reason are false.

Question 1.
Assertion : During inhalation, the diaphragm goes downward.
Reason : The volume of thoracic cavity decreases.
Answer:
(c) Assertion is true but Reason is false

Question 2.
Assertion : Diffusion of molecules occurs through a semipermeable membrane.
Reason : Molecules of gases are only involved in diffusion.
Answer:
(d) Both Assertion and Reason are false

VI. Very short Answers

Question 1.
What is a complex tissue?
Answer:
Complex tissue is made up of different types of cells but all the cells perform the same function.

Question 2.
What is a stem cell?
Answer:
It is a cell which is capable of becoming another more differentiated type of cell such as skin cell, nerve cell etc., in the body.

Question 3.
What is ‘white of the eye’?
Answer:
Sclera is called as white of the eye. It is a tough and thick white sheath that protects the inner parts of the eye.

Question 4.
Define diffusion.
Answer:
Diffusion is the movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to lower concentration. The overall effect is to equalize concentration throughout the medium.
Example: Perfume filling a whole room.

Question 5.
Write the equation for aerobic respiration.
Answer:
Glucose + Oxygen → Carbon dioxide + Water + Energy.

VII. Short Answer

Question 1.
What is osmoregulation?
Answer:

  1. Osmoregulation is the process by which an organism regulates the water balance in its body and maintains the homeostasis of the body.
  2. It includes controlling excess water loss or gain and maintaining the fluid balance and the osmotic concentration, that is, the concentration of electrolytes.
  3. It ensures that the fluids in the body do not get too diluted or concentrated

Question 2.
Differentiate aqueous humour and vitreous humour.

Aqueous humour:

  • It is a watering fluid.
  • It is found between cornea and lens of the eye.

Vitreous humour:

  • It is semi – solid, transparent and jelly like.
  • It is found between lens and retina of the eye.

Question 3.
What is the signification of ciliated epithelium present in the nostrils?
Answer:

  1. The inner surface of nasal cavity is lined with cilia and mucus producing cells, which make it sticky and moist.
  2. The cilia and mucus trap dust and germs and prevent them from going deeper into the respiratory tract.

Question 4.
How is connective tissue classified?
Answer:
Connective:

(i) Areolar:

  • Tendon
  • Ligament

(ii) Adipose:

(iii) Skeletal:

  • Bone
  • Artilage

(iv) Fluid:

  • Blood
  • Lymph

VI. Long Answer

Question 1.
Describe the parts in the external structure of the eye.
Answer:
The external Structure of an Eye:
The parts of the eye that are visible externally comprise of the external structure of
the eye.

1. Sclera:
It is a tough and thick white sheath that protects the inner parts of the eye. It is the ‘White of the eye’.

2. Conjunctiva:
It is a thin transparent membrane that is spread across the sclera. It keeps the eyes moist and clear by secreting small amounts of mucus and tears.

3. Cornea:
It is the transparent layer of membrane that is spread over the pupil and the iris. The main role of the cornea is to refract the light that enters the eyes.

4. Iris:
It is a pigmented layer of tissues that make up the colored portion of the eye. Its primary function is to control the size of the pupil, depending on the amount of light entering it.

5. Pupil:
It is the small opening located at the middle of the Iris. It allows light to come in

Question 2.
Draw a neat labelled diagram of human respiratory system.
Answer:
Samacheer Kalvi 8th Science Solutions Term 1 Chapter 8 Organisation of Life 2

Question 3.
Answer:

  1. The lungs are organs in the chest cavity that allow our body to take in oxygen from the air. They also help to remove carbondioxide from the body.
  2. The lungs lie on either side of the breast bone and fill the inside of the chest cavity. The left lung is slightly smaller than the right lung to allow room for the heart.
  3. Within the lungs, each bronchiole leads to a bunch of air sacs called alveoli (singular : alveolus).
  4. The lungs are two spongy elastic bags, on each side of the thoracic cavity.

Alveoli:

  • Alveoli are tiny air sacs in the lungs.
  • Alveoli are the workhorses of your respiratory system.
  • About 480 million alveoli, are located at the end of bronchial tubes.
  • Alveoli, is meant for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place.

VII. Creative questions : Hots

Question 1.
Is breathing similar to respiration? Justify.
Answer:
Breathing refers to the physical process of inhalation and exhalation. Respiration is the process by which organisms breakdown glucose into a form that the cells can use as energy

Samacheer Kalvi 8th Social Science Economics Solutions Term 1 Chapter 1 Money, Savings and Investments

You can Download Samacheer Kalvi 8th Social Science Book Solutions Guide Pdf, Tamilnadu State Board help you to revise the complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 8th Social Science Economics Solutions Term 1 Solutions Chapter 1 Money, Savings and Investments

Samacheer Kalvi 8th Social Science Money, Savings and Investments

I. Choose the correct answer

Money And Banking 8th Class Social Notes Question 1.
Which metals were used for metallic money?
(a) Gold
(b) Silver
(c) Bronze
(d) All the above
Answer:
(d) All the above

8th Standard Economics Question 2.
Who introduced the paper money?
(a) British
(b) Turkish
(c) The Mugual Empire
(d) Mauryas
Answer:
(a) British

Social Money Solutions Question 3.
The value of money is
(a) Internal value of money
(b) External value of money
(c) Both a & b
(d) None of these
Answer:
(c) Both a & b

Money And Credit Class 10 Intext Solutions Question 4.
Which is the Bank Money?
(a) Cheque
(b) Draft
(c) Credit and Debit cards
(d) All the above
Answer:
(a) Cheque

Primary Secondary And Contingent Functions Of Money Question 5.
Pick out the incorrect one:
Investment can be made in different vehicle.
(a) Stock
(b) Bonds
(c) Mutual fund
(d) Pay tax
Answer:
(d) Pay tax

Question 6.
Who is responsible for the collection and publication of monetary and financial information?
(a) Finance commission
(b) Finance Ministry
(c) Reserve Bank of India
(d) Auditor and Comptroller General of India
Answer:
(c) Reserve Bank of India

Fill in the Blanks

  1. Online Banking is also known as ……………
  2. ……………. is what money does.
  3. The term of bank is derived from ……………. word.
  4. Value of money is meant …………….. of money.
  5. The Indian banking regulation act of ……………..

Answer:

  1. Net Banking
  2. Money
  3. German
  4. The purchasing power
  5. 1949

III. Match the following

Money And Banking 8th Class Social Notes Samacheer Kalvi Term 1 Chapter 1
Answer:

  1. iv
  2. v
  3. ii
  4. iii
  5. i

IV. Write the one word answer

Question 1.
The word Money is derived from?
Answer:
The word Money is derived from Roman word “Moneta Juno”

Question 2.
Which bank gives to both short term and long term loans?
Answer:
Rural cooperative credit institutions.

V. Choose the correct statement

Question 1.
Barter system had many deficiency like –
I. Lack of double coincidence of wants
II. No difficulties of storing wealth
III. Common measure of value
IV. Indivisibility of commodities

(a) I and II is correct
(b) I and IV is correct
(c) I, III and IV is correct
(d) All are correct
Answer:
(c) I, III and IV is correct

VI. Find out the odd one

Question 1.
Recent forms of money transactions are
(a) Credit card
(b) Barter system
(c) Debit card
(d) Online banking
Answer:
(b) Barter system

Question 2.
Effects of black money on economy is
(a) Dual economy
(b) Undermining equity
(c) No effects on production
(d) Lavish consumption spending
Answer:
(c) No effects on production

VII. Write short answer

Question 1.
What is the Barter System?
Answer:
A barter system is an old method of exchange. Barter system is exchanging goods for goods without the use of money in the primitive stage.

Question 2.
What are the recent forms of money?
Answer:
Plastic Money and E – Money

Question 3.
Short note on E – Banking and E – Money.
Answer:
1. E – Money:
Electronic Money is money which exists in banking computer systems and is available for transactions through electronic system.

2. E – Banking:
Electronic banking, also known as National Electronic Funds Transfer (NEFT), is simply the use of electronic means to transfer funds directly from one account to another rather than by cheque or cash.

Question 4.
What are the essential of Money in your life?
Answer:
Money is used as the source to fulfill basics needs as well as comforts in life. It gets people accommodation, clothes, food and other things which add to luxury in life. It is an important source to live a healthy life too.

Question 5.
What is the Value of Money?
Answer:
Value of money is the purchasing power of money over goods and services in a country.

Question 6.
What is the Commercial Bank and its types of Deposits?
Answer:
A bank that offers services to the General public and companies is a commercial banks. The types of deposits in a commercial bank are

  1. Time deposits. Example Fixed deposit
  2. Recurring deposit and Demand deposit Example Current Account and Savings Account.

Question 7.
What is Savings and Investment?
Answer:

  1. Savings represents that part of the person’s income which is not used for consumption
  2. Investment refers to the process of investing funds in capital asset, with a view to generate returns

Question 8.
What is meant by Black Money?
Answer:
Black Money is money earned through any illegal activity controlled by country regulations.

Question 9.
What are the effects of black money on economy?
Answer:

  1. Dual economy
  2. Tax evasion, thereby loss of revenue to government.
  3. Undermining equity
  4. Widening gap between the rich and poor

VIII. Write Brief answer

Question 1.
What are the disadvantages of barter system?
Answer:

  1. Lack of double coincidence of wants,
  2. Common measure of value
  3. Indivisibility of commodities
  4. Difficulties of storing wealth

Question 2.
Write about the evolution of Money.
Answer:
Money has evolved through different stages according to the time, place and circumstances.

1. Commodity Money:
In the earliest period of human civilization, any commodity that was generally demanded and chosen by common consent was used as money. Example Goods like furs, skins, salt, rice, wheat, utensils, weapons etc. Such exchange of goods for goods was known as ‘Barter Exchange’.

2. Metallic Money:
With progress of human civilization, commodity money changed into metallic money. Metals like gold, silver, copper, etc. were used as they could be easily handled. It was the main form of money throughout the major portion of recorded history.

3. Paper Money:
(a) It was found inconvenient as well as dangerous to carry gold and silver coins from place to place. So, invention of paper money marked a very important stage in the development of money.

(b) Paper money is regulated and controlled by Central bank of the country (Reserve Bank of India). At present, a very large part of money consists mainly of currency notes or paper money issued by the central bank.

4. Credit Money or Bank Money:
(a) Emergence of credit money took place almost side by side with that of paper money. Example Cheque.

(b) The cheque (known as credit money or bank money), itself, is not money, but it performs the same as functions of money.

5. Near Money:
The final stage in the evolution of money has been the use of bills of exchange, treasury bills, bonds, debentures, savings certificate etc.

Question 3.
What are the functions of Money? and explain it.
Answer:
Functions of money are classified into Primary or Main function, Secondary function and Contingent function.

Primary or main functions:
The important functions of money performed in very economy are classified under main functions:

1. Medium of exchange or means of payment – Money is used to buy the goods and services.

2. Measure of value – All the values are expressed in terms of money it is easier to determine the rate of exchange between various type of goods and services.

Secondary functions:
The three important of secondary functions are
1. Standard of deferred payment – Money helps the future payments too. A borrower borrowing today places himself under an obligation to pay a specified sum of money on some specified future date.

2. Store of value or store of purchasing power – Savings were discouraged under barter system as some commodities are perishable. The introduction of money has helped to save it for future as it is not perishable.

3. Transfer of value or transfer of purchasing power – Money makes the exchange of goods to distant places as well as abroad possible. It was therefore felt necessary to transfer purchasing power from one place to another.

Contingent functions:

  • Basis of credit
  • Increase productivity of capital
  • Measurement and Distribution of National Income

Question 4.
Explain the types of bank Deposits.
Answer:
1. Student Savings Account:
There are savings accounts some banks offer specifically for young people enrolled in high school or college, and they main feature more flexible terms such as lower minimum balance requirements.

2. Savings Deposits:
Savings deposits are opened by customers to save the part of their current income. The customers can withdraw their money from their accounts when they require it. The bank also gives a small amount of interest to the money in the saving deposits.

3. Current Account Deposit:
Current accounts are generally opened by business firms, traders and public authorities. The current accounts help in frequent banking transactions as they are repayable on demand.

4. Fixed Deposits:
Fixed deposits accounts are meant for investors who want their principle to be safe and yield them fixed yields. The fixed deposits are also called as Term deposit as, normally, they are fixed for specified period.

Question 5.
What are the difference between savings and investment?
Answer:
8th Standard Economics Samacheer Kalvi Solutions Term 1 Chapter 1 Money, Savings And Investments

Question 6.
What are the effects of black money on economy?
Answer:|
Effects of Black Money on economy

  1. Dual economy
  2. Tax evasion, thereby loss of revenue to government.
  3. Undermining equity
  4. Widening gap between the rich and poor
  5. Lavish consumption spending
  6. Distortion of production pattern
  7. Distribution of scarce resource
  8. Effects on production.

Intext Hots

Question 1.
If there is no invention of money – Imagine.
Answer:
Money is one of the most fundamental inventions of mankind. “Every branch of knowledge has its fundamental discover”. In mechanics, it is the wheel, in science fire, in politics the vote. Similarly in economics, in the whole commercial side of Man’s social existence, money is the essential invention on which all the rest is based.

Intext Activity

Question 1.
Fill up the following Table:
Answer:
Social Money Solutions Samacheer Kalvi 8th Economics Solutions Term 1 Chapter 1 Money, Savings And Investments

Samacheer Kalvi 8th Social Science Economics Money, Savings and Investments Additional Questions

I. Choose the correct answer

Question 1.
‘Rupya’ in Sanskrit mean ……………. coin.
(a) Gold
(b) Silver
(c) Bronze
(d) Copper
Answer:
(b) silver

Question 2.
……………. doesn’t involve money.
(a) Bartering
(b) Net banking
(c) E – banking
(d) Credit card
Answer:
(a) Bartering

Question 3.
The ……………… came up with the Punch Marked Coins minting of silver, gold copper or lead.
(a) Mughals
(b) Kushans
(c) Mauryas
(d) Greeks
Answer:
(c) Mauryas

Question 4.
The …………… Empire from 1526 AD consolidated the monetary system for the entire empire.
(a) Greeks
(b) Turks
(c) Mauryas
(d) Mughals
Answer:
(d) Mughals

Question 5.
The receipts of ………….. were a substitute for money and became paper money.
(a) Bankers
(b) Gold smiths
(c) Carpenters
(d) Zamindars
Answer:
(b) Gold smiths

Question 6.
The symbol of Rupee was approved by the Government of India on ……………..
(a) 15 July 2010
(b) 15 June 2010
(c) 10 July 2011
(d) 12 July 2011
Answer:
(a) 15 July 2010

II. Fill in the blanks

  1. …………… of Lydia innovated mental coin the 8th Century BC.
  2. …………… kings introduced the Greek custom of engraving portraits on the coins.
  3. …………… Sultans of Delhi replaced the royal designs of Indian king with Islamic Calligraph.
  4. In the 12th Century AD, the currency made up of gold, silver and copper was known as ……………. and lower valued coin as ……………
  5. Silver coin of 178gms issued by Sher Shah Suri was called ……………….
  6. ……………. the Mughal Emperor gave permission to the Britishes to coin Mughal money at the Bombay mint.
  7. The relation between the value of money and price level is an ……………. one.
  8. The Indian Rupee symbol was designed by ……………. of Villupuram district.
  9. …………….. has the legal power to discharge debts.
  10. The Government of India announced demonitization on ……………..

Answer:

  1. Kind Midas
  2. Indo – Greek Kushan
  3. Turkish
  4. Tanka, Jittal
  5. Rupiya
  6. Farrukhsiyar
  7. Inverse
  8. Udayakumar
  9. Money
  10. 8 November 2016

III. Match the following

Primary Secondary And Contingent Functions Of Money Samacheer Kalvi 8th Social Science Economics Solutions Term 1 Chapter 1
Answer:

  1. iii
  2. iv
  3. i
  4. ii

IV. Choose the correct statement

Question 1.
(i) In November 2016, Government of India announced demonetization of all 100 rupee bank notes
(ii) Demonetization is a step against Black money.
(iii) Prevention of corruption Act was passed in 1988.
(iv) Benami transactions prohibition act 1988 was amended in 2011.

(a) i and ii are correct
(b) ii and iii are correct
(c) iii and iv are correct
(d) i, ii and iii are correct.
Answer:
(b) ii and iii are correct

V. Find the odd one

Question 1.
Investment can be made in
(a) Stock
(b) Bonds
(c) Insurance
(d) Credit card
Answer:
(d) Credit card

VI. Give Short Answers

Question 1.
What is Robertson’s definition of money?
Answer:
Robertson is defined as, “Money is anything which is widely accepted in payment for goods or in discharge of other business obligations”.

Question 2.
Name the stages through which money has evolved.
Answer:
Commodity Money, Metallic Money, Paper Money, Credit Money, Near Money and recent forms of Money.

Question 3.
How were the British coins termed?
Answer:
The British gold coins were termed as Carolina, the silver coins as Angelina, the copper coins as cupperoon and the tin coins as tinny.

Question 4.
What is plastic money?
Answer:
The latest type of money is plastic money in the form of Credit cards and Debit cards. They aim for cashless transactions.

Question 5.
Write a short note on Online banking.
Answer:

  1. Online Banking, also known as internet banking is an electronic payment system.
  2. It enables customers of a bank or other financial institutions to conduct a range of financial transactions through website.

Question 6.
Mention the types of value of money and describe them.
Answer:
The value of money is of two types

  1. Internal value of money
  2. External value of money

The Internal value of money refers to the purchasing power of money over domestic goods and services. The External value of money refers to the purchasing power of money over foreign goods and services.

Question 7.
Answer:
Define Inflation and Deflation.

  1. Inflation refers to the prices are rising, the value of money will fall.
  2. Deflation refers to the prices are falling, the value of money will rise.

Question 8.
State some ways in which investments are made.
Answer:
Investment can be made in different investment vehicles like,

  1. Stock
  2. Bonds
  3. Mutual funds
  4. Commodity futures
  5. Insurance
  6. Annuities
  7. Deposit account or any other securities or assets

Question 9.
What is the root cause for the increasing rate of black money in a country?
Answer:
The root cause for the increasing rate of black money in the country is the lack of strict punishments for the offenders.

Question 10.
Brief the recent steps of the Government of India against black money.
Answer:

  1. Under pressure from India and other countries, Switzerland has made key changes in its local laws governing assist foreign allegedly stashed in Swiss Banks.
  2. Special Investigation Team appointed by government on the directions of Supreme Court on black money.
  3. Demonetization

VII. Answer the following

Question 1.
What are the benefits of saving?
Answer:
Benefits of Savings

  1. You will be financially independent sooner.
  2. You would not have to worry any unforeseen expenses.
  3. In future, you will have financial backup in place if you lose your job.
  4. You will be prepared if your circumstances change.
  5. You will be more comfortable in retirement.
  6. Save today for better tomorrow.

Samacheer Kalvi 11th English Solutions Poem Chapter 3 Lines Written in Early Spring

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Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 11th English Solutions Poem Chapter 3 Lines Written in Early Spring

Check out the topics covered in Poem Chapter 3 Lines Written in Early Spring Questions and Answers before you start your preparation. Improve your grammar skills with the help of Samacheer Kalvi 11th English Book Solutions Questions and Answers pdf links. The solutions for Tamilnadu State Board 11th English Textbook are prepared by the English experts. So, if you follow Tamilnadu State Board Solutions 11th English Textbook Solutions you can cover all the topics in Poem Chapter 3 Lines Written in Early Spring Questons and Answers. This helps to improve your communication skills.

Warm Up

Lines Written In Early Spring Questions And Answers Question 1.
Do you go for leisurely walks? If you are a city-dweller, what or who would you expect to see on your way?
Answer:
Yes, I do go for morning walks with my classmate Ragu. I live in Chennai. We go to the beach for the walk. We come across policemen, doctors, aged people and some small children too briskly engaged in long walks. They enjoy the morning sun at the back drop of the golden sea. Also I find a host of vendors selling vegetable soups, bittergourd soup and nourishing drinks on the seashore. There are points where pure water is sold in glasses. The spring dug out a few hundred metres near the sea is really sweet. I find one ‘Green volunteer group’ collecting all plastic garbage and cleaning the beach.

Lines Written In Early Spring Questions And Answers Pdf Question 2.
If you go to a village, what scenes would you observe?
Answer:
If I go to a village, I will find Water-thirsty lands and their owners longing for rains. I will also . find some farmers trying to coax their borewell owners to provide necessaiy water for their little vegetable garden to help them eke out a living. I will also find young children getting ready to go to school. There would be hens busy searching for their breakfast or chanticleers announcing their supremacy on the roof-tops.

Samacheer Kalvi 11th English Lines Written in Early Spring Textual Questions

1. Find words from the poem that convey the following ideas.

I heard a thousand blended notes
While in a grove I sate reclined,
In that sweet mood when pleasant thoughts
Bring sad thoughts to the mind.

To her fair works did Nature link
The human soul that through me ran;
And much it grieved my heart to think
What Man has made of Man.

 

Through primrose tufts, in that sweet bower,
The periwinkle trail’d its wreaths;
And ‘tis my faith that every flower
Enjoys the air it breathes.

The birds around me hopp’d and play’d
Their thoughts I cannot measure,
But the least motion which they made
It seem’d a thrill of pleasure.

The budding twigs spread out their fan
To catch the breezy air;
And I must think, do all I can,
That there was pleasure there.

If this belief from heaven be sent,
If such be Nature’s holy plan,
Have I not reason to lament
What Man has made of Man?

(a) connected together
(b) spread over the surface of the ground in a straggling manner
(c) make out or understand
(d) slender woody shoots growing from branches or stems of trees
Answer:
(a) blended
(b) tailed
(c) reason
(d) twigs

2. Complete the summary of the poem by filling in the blanks with the words given below

bower grove distressed
pleasant breezy peace
sorrow nature calm

The speaker says that while sitting in a (1) _____ , his mind is filled with both (2) _____ and sad thoughts. He could associate himself with (3) _____ . But he feels (4) _____ at the fact that human beings are exploiting nature. The atmosphere around is (5) _____ and pleasant with flowers in the sweet (6) _____ The air is (7) _____ and everything seems to be happy. When Nature desires such (8) _____ , it is only the irresponsible act of human beings that brings (9) _____ to other human beings and to nature.
Answer:

  1. grove
  2. pleasant
  3. nature
  4. distressed
  5. calm
  6. bower
  7. breezy
  8. peace
  9. sorrow

3. Read the lines given below and answer the questions that follow.

(i) And ‘tis my faith that every flower
Enjoys the air it breathes…

Lines Written In Early Spring Poem Questions And Answers Question (a)
What is the poet’s faith?
Answer:
The poet has faith that nature lives, breathes and enjoys its own presence. Twigs, birds, creepers all live in harmony with each other in absolute bliss and contentment.

Lines Written In Early Spring Question (b)
What trait of Nature do we see here?
Harmonious relationship of birds, brook, plants and creepers and willingness to co-exist with one another is the trait evident in nature.

(ii) And I must think, do all I can,
That there was pleasure there…

11th English Unit 3 Poem Question (a)
What did the poet notice about the twigs?
Answer:
The budding twigs spread out their fan to catch the breezy air.

Lines Written In Early Spring Question Answers Question (b)
What was the poet’s thought about then?
Answer:
The poet thought the twigs were experiencing the joy of their contact with the breezy air.

Lines Written In Early Spring Summary Question (iii)
If this belief from heaven be sent,
If such be Nature’s holy plan.

Lines Written In Early Spring Reference To Context Question (a)
What does ‘heaven’ refer to?
Answer:
Heaven refers to the natural source, the heaven, (i.e) God that created life on the earth.

Question (b)
Why does the poet call it ‘holy’?
Answer:
The poet believes that the harmonious, peaceful and happy co-existence of birds, plants, trees and brooks soothes the troubled mind of man. So, the poet feels as if he were inside a sacred place when he is in the woods. So, he calls the plan ‘holy’.

4. Explain the following lines with reference to the context in about four to five sentences each.

Question (i)
In that sweet mood when pleasant thoughts
Bring sad thoughts to the mind.
Answer:
Reference: These lines are from the poem “Lines Written in Early Spring” written by William Wordsworth.
Context: William Wordsworth was inspired in a small woodland grove, a landscape of beauty. He came upon this spot when walking near Alford village. While sensing the blissful mood and happiness of birds, plants, creepers and the murmuring brook, he juxtaposed what humans did to their kind in Napoleonic wars and amidst happy nature couldn’t help feeling sad. At that occasion, he said these words.

Explanation: The poet was captivated by the celestial beauty of the woodland near Alford village. The chirping of birds, the blooming flowers and the brooks expressed their ecstasy of being alive. But their charm, peace and contentment made Wordsworth compare the lives of war-mongers. Suddenly he became sad.
Comment: The poet beautifully portrays his mixed feelings.

 

Question (ii)
The birds around me hopp’d and play’d,
Their thoughts I cannot measure. .
Answer:
Reference: These lines are from the poem “Lines Written in Early Spring” written by William Wordsworth.
Context: The poet was quite impressed with the beauty and peace that prevailed in the woodland. The birds were oblivious to the presence of the poet. They hopped and chirped around him in absolute bliss. The poet said these words while trying to fathom their thoughts. Explanation: The poet was overwhelmed with delight in the company of birds, plant kingdom and the brook. He tried hard to understand the thoughts of the birds through the bird’s language. But he couldn’t succeed. He simply inferred that they were thrilled and enjoying the jocund company.
Comment: The. lines bring out the nature of the ‘Nature Poet’. .

Question (iii)
Have I not reason to lament
What Man has made of Man?
Answer:
Reference: These lines are from the poem “Lines Written in Early Spring” written by William Wordsworth.
Context: William Wordsworth was inspired by a small woodland grove, a landscape of beauty. He came upon this spot when walking near Alford village. While sensing the blissful mood and happiness of birds, plants, creepers and the murmuring brook, he juxtaposed what humans did to their kind in Napoleonic wars and amidst happy nature couldn’t help feeling sad. At that occasion, he said these words.

Explanation: William Wordsworth derived extreme pleasure listening to the songs of birds and voiceless communication of joy between plants, twigs and flowers. Though he could not fathom the meaning, he realized the blissful state of nature. But he remembered the depravity of man which was evident in Napoleonic wars. He was fed up with man’s capacity to destroy innocent lives and property. So, he lamented “what man has made of man”.
Comment: The mixed feelings of happiness and sadness is well brought out.

5. A. Read the following sets of lines and identify the figures of speech used in each extract.

Question (i)
To her works did Nature link
Answer:
Personification

Question (ii)
The human soul that through me ran…
Answer:
Metaphor

Question (iii)
And ‘tis my faith that every flower…
Answer:
Personification

 

Question (iv)
What Man has made of Man?
Answer:
Alliteration man, made, man

B. Read the poem once again. Identify the rhyme scheme and pick out the rhyming pairs of words.

ab, ab is the rhyming scheme of the poem
link – think, wreaths -breathes, measure – pleasure, fan – can, air – there, plan – man, ran – man . are some of the rhyming words found in the poem.

6. Based on your reading of the poem,answer the following questions in a sentence or two each.

Question (a)
How does the poet feel while enjoying the beauty of Nature?
Answer:
The poet was in a sweet mood reclining in a grove. Hearing a thousand blended notes, his mind was filled with pleasant thoughts. He was very happy.

 

Question (b)
Does Nature affect a person’s thoughts and feelings? Explain.
Answer:
Yes, the beauty, harmony, peace and nature’s pure joy enlivened the poet’s spirits. He couldn’t help comparing the happiness of nature with self-destructive wars of human beings. He was sad remembering humans.

Question (c)
How do people bring grief and sorrow to one another?
Answer:
People are jealous of one another’s wealth and possessions. One tries to harm the other by waging or provoking wars. Thus people bring grief and sorrow to one another.

Question (d)
Why does the poet think that the birds were happy?
Answer:
The poet thinks that the birds were happy because they hopped and played around him. Their least motion displayed their most joy.

Question (e)
The poet finds joy in various objects of Nature. Explain.
Answer:
The poet found joy in the primrose tufts, the sweet bower, the periwinkle and the singing ; birds.

Question (f)
Bring out the poet’s thoughts, while comparing Nature with human behaviour.
Answer:
The poet’s joy of witnessing the soul refreshing joy of plants, flowers and birds did not last long. He remembered the cruelty with which dictators were throwing bombs and taking away the lives of innocent people. He couldn’t bear the destruction of life and property. He lamented, “What man has made of man?”.

7. Complete the following sentences by choosing the best options.

Question (a)
The poet experiences sadness because _________
(i) the blended notes are jarring
(ii) Nature is filled with negativity
(iii) he is worried about the destruction caused to Nature
(iv) natural calamities occur frequently
Answer:
(iii) he is worried about the destruction caused to Nature

Question (b)
The poem is set in a _________
(i) city
(ii) village
(iii) grove
(iv) park
Answer:
(iii) grove

Question (c)
The poem speaks of _________ .
(i) Man’s plan to shape destiny
(ii) Man seeking pleasure and riches
(iii) Man indulging in wars and acts of destruction
(iv) Man’s fear of Nature
Answer:
(iii) Man indulging in wars and acts of destruction

8. Answer in a paragraph of about 100-150 words.

Question 1.
Do you think the poet wants to say that man is unhappy because he has lost his link with nature and forgotten how to enjoy nature or because man is cruel to other men?
Answer:
The poet William Wordsworth wants to convey the readiness of nature to teach the art of ‘living together in harmony, peace and bliss. But man has lost his sensitivity to listen to the joyful lessons of nature. His greed and love for possession of territories and abject cruelty to [ fellow humans and nature has disillusioned the poet. He has almost lost faith in the capacity of humans to love and live in harmony with nature, Man has gone to the extent of denuding

the forest which really sustain life on earth. Rare species in the forests are on the brink of; destruction. Animals and birds in the red list are growing in number to the great distress of nature lovers. So, I believe Wordsworth is unhappy for both (i.e) man’s losing the link with nature and his infinite capacity to be cruel to other men.

Listening Activity

9. Some phrases have been left out in the poem below. First, read the poem. Then, fill in the missing words on listening to the reading or the recording of it in full. You may listen ’ again, if required.

(For listening to the poem refer to our website wwwfullcircleeducation. in)
“To Autumn” by William Blake (1783)

O Autumn, laden with fruit, and stain’d
’With the blood of the grape, pass not, but sit
,Beneath my shady roof; there thou may’st rest,
And tune thy jolly voice to my fresh pipe,
And all the daughters of the year shall dance!
Sing now the lusty song of fruits and flowers.’
“The narrow bud opens her beauties to
The sun, and love runs in her thrilling veins;

Blossoms hang round the brows of Morning,
and Flourish down the bright cheek of modest Eve, .
Till clust’ring Summer breaks forth into singing,
And feather’d clouds strew flowers round her head.
The spirits of the air live in the smells
Of fruit; and joy, with pinions light, roves round
The gardens, or sits singing in the frees.”
Thus sang the jolly Autumn as he sat,
Then rose, girded himself, and o’er the bleak .
Hills fled from our sight; but left his golden load. .

To Autumn:
O Autumn, laden with fruit, and stained
With the blood of the grape, pass not, but sit
Beneath my (1) _____ , there thou may’st rest,
And tune thy jolly voice to my (2) _____ ;
And all the daughters of the year shall dance !
Sing now the (3) _____ of fruits and flowers. “
The (4) _____ opens her beauties to
The sun, and love runs in her (5) _____ v.;

Blossoms hang round the brows of morning, and
Flourish down the . (6) _____ of modest eve,
Till clust’ring Summer breaks forth into singing,
And (7) _____ strew flowers round her head.
The spirits of the air live on the smells
Of fruit; and joy, with (8) _____ , roves round
The gardens, or sits singing in the trees.”
Thus sang the (9) _____ as he sat,
Then rose, girded himself, and o’er the bleak Hills fled from our sight; but left his (10) _____
Answer:

  1. shady roof
  2. fresh pipe
  3. lusty song
  4. narrow bud
  5. thrilling veins
  6. bright cheek
  7. feathered clouds
  8. pinions of light
  9. jolly autumn
  10. golden load

Speaking Activity

10. Answer the following Questions

Question (a)
What scene in nature gives you pleasure? Talk for a minute describing a natural scene that gave you a lot of joy. What did you see, hear, smell or feel that gave you joy?
Answer:
Every morning I take a walk in the Municipality’s park. The landscaping has been done with an aesthetic mind by gardener Kali. During daybreak, the yellow sun embraces the flowers in the park. They face the sun with coyness befitting a bride. They blush and spread their fragrance. I watch the beauty of the roses and some yellow flowers. I feel refreshed. The morning breeze, the pearl – like mist beads crowning the grass, the swallows which chirp and look for grains or crumbs, all the aged couple walking with empathy for one another fills my heart with joy. These everyday scenes makes my day all through the year.

Question (b)
Work in groups of 4-6. Discuss how you would preserve the environment and protect Nature. One or two representatives may share their ideas with the class.
Answer:
Janani : I represent “Green warriors” group. My group is of the strong opinion that . National Green Corps must wage a war against ignorance of people. People do not know that’ by cutting woods, they are perpetuating their own poverty. We believe sustainable lumbering is the only way to help poor people and at the same time turn them into guardian angels of the forest.
Karthick : I represent “Green Earth” group. Could you please throw more light on “Sustainable lumbering”? Do you mean to say that people would use the woods and yet protect them too.

Janani : Thank you for asking a very intelligent question. Poor people who live in forest village do not have money to buy gas cylinders. We don’t have enough forest officers to neither protect the trees nor the poor animals which are kept even inside the most protected National forest in Kazirenga. Haven’t you heard of Jamuna Tudu, the Lady Tarzan of Jharkhand? In Maturkhan village, Jamuna the newly wedded bride, was deeply disturbed by the illegal felling of long tall trees. To her shock, Timber mafias had brow beaten the villagers.

Since 2000, Jamuna spoke to the village women to use dry sticks and twigs for firewood but she made them understand that only if trees survived, there would be rains and villagers will be able to cultivate their lands. She has created 300 forest protection women committees. They protect the forest. About 50 hectares of forests have been reclaimed. Niti Ayog has conferred “Women transforming India award of 2017”. Seeing Women’s determination to conserve the environment, forest officials and State Government have provided water facilities and schooling facilities, to this remote village.

Karthick : We place on records the valuable information provided by Janani. We would like . to supplement her ideas.
We, the student community can go on a campaign against the rising carbon footprint, pollution, global warming and all man-made evils due to the failure of man to protect the environment.

Because of man’s failure to live in harmony with nature the possibility of perpetuation of human race is at stake. Let us love nature and protect the environment for making the earth a safer place to live for future generation. Thank you

11. Answer the following in a paragraph of 100-150 words each.

Question (a)
‘Nature can nurture’. Describe how this process happens.
Answer:
Human beings are able to live on earth simply because earth offers them enough food to live on. The plants, trees, flowers, crops, cereals and greens that grow on earth gives all the nutrients necessary for man to survive inclement weather and other challenges. Where there is still heavy rains, we have forest coverage which supports ‘water cycle’ and periodic rainfall. If forests are well-guarded from timber mafia and stupid people who fell them indiscriminately for fire wood, forests would pay back thousand times by pumping out oxygen and taking in carbon-di-oxide.

All of us know that they are free washermen of the air. Earth tries to grow drought-resistent plants and trees where rainfall is poor. With efficient water management. Nature would grow more food for us and nurture us and ensure the continuity of human race on this planet.

 

Question (b)
When humanity fails to live in harmony with Nature, its effects are felt around the world. Why and how?
Answer:
Man, the worst predator, kills for no reason. Man has to protect forests and live in harmony with nature. Instead man is callous. He kills elephants for their tusks, Rhinoceros for their hom, and polar bears for their fur. Huge trees, in Rainforests, which have been protecting lives of many

species and insects, are being felled for timber and industrialization. Due to the increase in the denudation of forests, global warming has increased. Water levels in the ocean is increasing. Heat waves are threatening the lives of people. Polar ice is melting. Scientists fear that if this, persists, there will be hostility caused by water-sharing. Like Karnataka and Tamil Nadu, there will be political unrest and community conflicts demanding share in drinking water and water for irrigation purposes. In South Africa, zero waterday is fast approaching.

The scarcity of pottable water is going to be a huge humanitarian crisis. As we have failed to protect the national resources, carbon foot print is expanding to alarming levels. Delhi experiences difficulty as planes struggle to land or take off due to thick smog in and around Delhi. As toxic waste is released by Sterlyte and other industries people in Thoothukudi are becoming victim of cancer and other lung related disorders. Atomic power plants also retain potential hazards like radio-activity. Thus humanity’s failure to live in harmony with nature is threatening to wipe out human race.

Question (c)
Write a letter to the Councillor of your Ward, explaining why a park is necessary in your locality.

XYZ
18.10.2018
From
ABC
18, Mukilan Street,
Nehru Colony,

To
Thiru Mayavan,
Councillor, Ward 1,
Dharmapuri
Sir,
Sub: Request for establishing a Children’s park in Nehru colony in XYZ – reg.
I am living at the above address with my parents. Nehru colony is now fast developing. I am told that the land ear-marked for children’s park is going to be sold for construction of shopping mall. Since all the plots have been sold, we children and the aged, need the park for some morning exercises and evening relaxation. I request you to intervene and advise municipality not to sell the park space for commercial purposes. PleaSe take steps to establish a park for us.
Thanking you in advance for immediate action.
Yours sincerely,
ABC

To
Thiru Mayavan
Councillor, Ward 1
Dharmapuri

Lines Written in Early Spring About the Poet

Lines Written In Early Spring Questions And Answers Samacheer Kalvi 11th English Solutions Poem Chapter 3

William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge published together Lyrical Ballads in 1798. It was Wordworth who broke the myth of writing poetry lor an elite audience. It is nothing but ‘a man speaking to man’. He defined poetry as “spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings” and “emotions recollected in tranquility”. Wordsworth, the nature poet wrote poems easy to be read and enjoyed by common people. His Lucy poems, Michael. Daffodils, The Solitary Reaper, To the cuckoo. Lines composed a few miles above Tintern Abbey have established his reputation as a poet.

Lines Written in Early Spring Summary

Introduction: Wordsworth presents the natural world of birds and flowers as one of calm agreement and pleasure, contrasted with the implied failure of mankind to live up to such a model. What precisely “Man has made of what man” is unstated and that’s probably for the best to explicit about how Wordsworth feels man has failed his fellow men – whether through allowing his fellow humans to starve from poverty and exploitation or through reverting to savage violence. The poem was written against Napoleonic wrars, which followed on the hot heels of the reign of terror.

This poem signals the start of Romantic era and is included in “preface to lyrical ballads”. It also signals the beginning of a platonic relationship between S.T. Coleridge and William Wordsworth. The poem is in a form of a ballad consisting of six quartains. The rhyming scheme is ab ab.

Lines Written In Early Spring Questions And Answers Pdf Samacheer Kalvi 11th English Solutions Poem Chapter 3

In the first quartain, the divinity of nature is revealed in the phrase “a thousand blended notes” implying almost a pervasive presence of nature akin to omnipresence of God.

The second quartain moves briefly away from nature to reminisce on the misery that other humans have caused each other since time immemorial. The poet says man’s state by nature is close to nature “Through primrose tufts, in that green bower. The periwinkle trailed its wreaths; And’tis my faith that every flower enjoys the air it breaths”. The presence of nature as living things strikes. Through out the poem, Wordsworth builds up the idea of a living, breathing world that is only a fraction removed from humanity. “The hopping birds”, “the budding twigs” enjoy their being there. The plants, creepers and birds fulfil nature’s holy plan of living in harmony with one another. But the poet is quick to add “Have I no reason to lament. What man has made of man!”

Through out the poem, there was an attempt made by nature to heal the injured soul of the poet. The world of nature untouched by the miseries of humanity, continues on while human soul, bound in its rigid case of mortality and reason, is left behind to experience the misery of the human world.

Lines Written in Early Spring Glossary

Textual:

bower – a pleasant shady place under trees
grieve – mourn or to feel intense sorrow
grove – a small area of land with a group of trees
lament – to express sorrow or unhappiness about something
periwinkle – a trailing plant with large blue flowers
primrose – a wild plant with yellow flowers
recline – lean back in a position of rest
sate – old fashioned spelling for sat
tufts – bunches

Additional:
attempt – effort
celestial – heavenly
chirping – singing
faith – trust
harmony – everywhere
peaceful co-existence
heal – cure
misery – difficulty
pervasive – prevalent

The main aim is to share the knowledge and help the students of 11th English to secure the best score in their final exams. Use the concepts of Samacheer Kalvi 11th English Book Solutions Poem Chapter 3 Lines Written in Early Spring Questions and Answers in Real time to enhance your skills. If you have any doubts you can post your comments in the comment section, We will clarify your doubts as soon as possible without any delay.

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Solutions Term 3 Chapter 1 Light

Students can Download Science Chapter 1 Light Questions and Answers, Notes Pdf, Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Book Solutions Guide Pdf helps you to revise the complete Tamilnadu State Board New Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Solutions Term 3 Chapter 1 Light

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Light Textual Evaluation

I. Choose the correct option:

Light That Hits A Mirror Gets Question 1.
Light travels only in a ______ .It is because of this property that.
(a) curved line, shadows
(b) straight line, shadows
(c) straight line, reflection
(d) curved line and then straight line, shadows
Answer:
(b) straight line, shadows

Light That Hits A Mirror Gets Answer Question 2.
Light that hits a mirror gets ______
(a) Transmitted
(b) Reflected
(c) Absorbed
(d) Refracted
Answer:
(b) Reflected

Samacheer Kalvi Guru 7th Science Question 3.
______ surface reflects the light well
(a) Water
(b) Compact disc
(c) Mirror
(d) Stone
Answer:
(c) Mirror

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Guide Question 4.
Light is a form of ____
(a) matter
(b) energy
(c) medium
(d) partical
Answer:
(b) energy

Light Samacheer Kalvi Question 5.
You can see your image in polished floors, but not in wooden table because ______
(a) regular reflection takes place in wooden table and irregular reflection in polished floor
(b) regular reflection takes place in polished floor and irregular reflection in wooden table
(c) regular reflection takes place in both polished floor and wooden table
(d) irregular reflection takes place in both polished floor and wooden table
Answer:
(b) regular reflection takes place in polished floor and irregular reflection in wooden table

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Books Answers Question 6.
Choose the translucent substance from the following
(a) glass
(b) wood
(c) water
(d) Clouds
Answer:
(d) clouds

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Question 7.
Reflection occurs , when the light
(a) about to reach a surface
(b) approaches a surface
(c) passes through a surface
(d) None Of these
Answer:
(b) approaches a surface

7th Science Term 3 Question 8.
Which of the following is the best reflector
(a) plastic plate
(b) plane mirror
(c) wall
(d) paper
Answer:
(b) plane mirror

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Answers Question 9.
Sivarajan placed a meter stick in the playground at 7.00 am in the morning. How will the shadow of the stick at noon look in comparison to the one in the morning
(a) There will be no shadow
(b) The shadow will be longer and on the opposite side as the sun
(c) The shadow will be shorter and on the same side as the sun
(d) The shadow will be shorter
Answer:
(d) The shadow will be shorter

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Book Back Answers Question 10.
The image formed by a pinhole camera is inverted because,
(a) light travels in straight lines
(b) light rays become laterally inverted as they pass through a pinhole camera
(c) light rays pass through the pinhole
(d) light rays get reflected
Answer:
(a) light travels in straight lines

7th Science Samacheer Kalvi Question 11.
Which of the following facts explain how shadows are formed?
(a) Light travels in straight lines
(b) Opaque bodies do not allow light to pass through them
(c) Reflection occurs at a smooth surfaces like mirrors
(d) Lateral inversion happens
(a) both A and B
(b) both A and D
(c) both B and C
(d) only A
Answer:
(a) both A and B

II. Fill in the blanks:

  1. A plane mirror produces a _________ image
  2. A _________ reflection helps us to see the objects.
  3. The light ray gets _________ when it falls on any polisher surface
  4. Sunlight is a blend of _________ colours
  5. The splitting of white light into seven colours is called _________
  6. The moon _________ sun light.
  7. The sunlight can be split into its constituent colours using _________
  8. Reflection of light from rough surface is called _________ reflection

Answer:

  1. virtual and erect
  2. regular
  3. reflected
  4. seven
  5. dispersion
  6. reflects
  7. prism
  8. irregular

III. Say TRUE or FALSE.

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Book Question 1.
The image of right hand in a plane mirror looks like a left hand.
Answer:
True

7th Standard Term 3 Science Question 2.
Rainbow is formed by dispersion of which light by water drops.
Answer:
True

Light Chapter Of Class 7 Pdf Question 3.
The image formed by the plane mirror is laterally inverted, hence the image seen through the periscope is also laterally inverted
Answer:
False
Correct statement: The image formed by the plane mirror is laterally inverted, hence the image seen through the periscope is This is because in periscope, image is reflected by two mirrors.

Question 4.
We see planets because they reflect light from the sun
Answer:
True

Question 5.
We see a book because it reflects the light that falls on its surface
Answer:
True

Question 6.
The image formed in a pinhole camera is always inverted
Answer:
True

Question 7.
The image formed in a pinhole camera is always the satne size as the object
Answer:
False

Question 8.
The image formed in a plane mirror is upside down
Answer:
False
Correct statement: The image formed in a plane mirror is erect.

Question 9.
A plane mirror is opaque Ans.
Answer:
True

Question 10.
A shadow is formed on the same side of the object as the source of light.
Answer:
False
Correct statement: A shadow is formed on the side of the object as the source of light.

Question 11.
We are able to see things around us with the help of regular reflection
Answer:
True

Question 12.
After passing through a prism, white light splits into a band of seven colours
Answer:
True

IV. Match the following

1. Rectilinear propagation Primary source of light
2. Rectilinear propagation Non-luminous object
3. Plane Mirror Fire fly Periscope
4. The Moon Pinhole camera
5. Wide light source Spectrum of light
6. Regular reflection luminous object
7. The sun Penumbra
8. Band of seven colors Glossy surface

Answer:

1. Rectilinear propagation Pinhole camera
2. Rectilinear propagation Periscope
3. Plane Mirror Fire fly luminous object
4. The Moon Non-luminous object
5. Wide light source Penumbra
6. Regular reflection Glossy surface
7. The sun Primary source of light
8. Band of seven colors Spectrum of light

V. Answer the following questions in short:

Question 1.
With the help of a diagram, state the laws of reflection
Answer:
Laws of reflection:
Light That Hits A Mirror Gets Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Solutions Term 3

  1. The angle of incidence is always equal to the angle of reflection li =l*
  2. The incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal at the point of incidence lie on the same plane.

Question 2.
Figure shows a pencil placed above a mirror

Light That Hits A Mirror Gets Answer Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Solutions Term 3
a) Draw its image formed by the mirror
b) Show how light rays from the object are reflected at the mirror to form the image for the eye.
Answer:

Samacheer Kalvi Guru 7th Science Solutions Term 3 Chapter 1 Light

Question 3.
A person is looking at the image of a tree in a mirror placed 3.5 m in front of him. Given that the tree is at 0.5 m behind his eyes. Find the distance between the image of the tree and his eyes. What are needed to see an object?
Answer:
Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Guide Solutions Term 3 Chapter 1 Light
Distance between the person and the mirror = 3.5 m
Distance between the person and tree (object) = 0.5 m
The image formed in the mirror = 4 m
The distance between the image of the tree and his eyes = 4 + 3.5 = 7.5

Question 4.
What are luminous objects?
Answer:
All objects which emit light energy by themselves are called luminous objects. Ex.: Sun, electric bulb.

Question 5.
Is thr moon a luminous object?
Answer:
No, the moon is non-luminous. The reason is that moon does not produce its own light. Instead, it reflects the light of the sun falling on it.

Question 6.
What are the three types of materials based on the absorption of light?
Answer:

  1. Transparent Material
  2. Translucent Material
  3. Opaque Material

Question 7.
What are the parts of shadow?
Answer:

  1. Umbra
  2. Penumbra

Question 8.
What are the properties of shadow?
Answer:
Properties of shadow:

  1. All objects do not form shadows. Only opaque objects form shadows.
  2. Shadows will be formed in the opposite side of light source.
  3. It cannot be determined the characteristics of an object by its shadow.
  4. The shadow will be always darker, whatever may be the color of light rays.
  5. Light source, opaque object are shadow all are in a straight line.
  6. The size of shadow depends upon the distance between light source and object and the distance between object and the screen.

Question 9.
What is plane mirror?
Answer:
A plane mirror is a mirror with a flat reflective surface. A plane mirror makes an image of objects in front of it.

Question 10.
What is prism?
Answer:
A prism is an object made up of a transparent material, like glass or plastic that has at least two flat surfaces that form an acute angle (less than 90°).

Question 11.
What do you mean by visible light?
Answer:
Visible light is a spectrum of a number of waves with different wavelength range from 400nm to 700nm (lnm = 10″9 meter) each wave has a definite wavelength represents a particular colour.

Question 12.
Write the items given here in the correct column (Stars, brick walls, plants, mirror, planets, electric light bulb, candle)

Sources of Light Objects that reflect light

Answer:

Sources of Light Objects that reflect light
Stars Brick walls
Electric light bulb Plants
Candle Mirror
Planets

Question 13.
A boy of height lm 45 cm is standing in front of a long mirror at a distance of 2 m. From this information, fill up the following sentences:
a) The distance between the boy and his image is ______
b) The height of the image is ______
c) When the boy moves 1 m forward, the distance between her and her image is ______
Answer:
(a) The distance between the boy and his image is 4m
(b) The height of the image is same.
(c) When the boy moves 1 m forward, the distance between her and her image is 2m.

Question 14.
Draw a diagram of a pinhole camera showing the rays of light passing between the Object and its image
Answer:

Light Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Solutions Term 3 Chapter 1

Question 15.
Why is the writing on the front of an ambulance back to front as shown in the picture
Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Books Answers Term 3 Chapter 1 Light
Answer:

  1. This is due to lateral inversion.
  2. The phenomenon due to which the left side of an object appears to be right side of the object in its image in a reflecting medium (mirror).
  3. So that drivers see the word the right way around in their rear-view mirror.

Question 16.
Explain with examples, why some capital letters look the same in a mirror but others are reversed.
Answer:
Any letter that has a bilateral symmetry will have its mirror image the same as that of the object.
Example:
Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Solutions Term 3 Chapter 1 Light

Question 17.
Two plane mirrors M1 and M2 are placed perpendicular with each other, as shown in figure. The ray AB makes an angle 39° with the plane mirror M , then

  1. The reflected rays are _________, ____________
  2. The incident rays are _________, ____________
  3. What is the angle of incident corresponding to the ray BC?
  4. What is the angle of reflection corresponding to the ray CD

7th Science Term 3 Samacheer Kalvi Chapter 1 Light
Answer:

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Answers Term 3 Chapter 1 Light

  1. BC, CD
  2. AB, BC
  3. \(\lfloor i\) = 39°
  4. \(\lfloor r\) = 39°

Question 18.
Raj an was playing with the mirror images of a clock. He looked at the clock in his roomIt was showing 1:40. Draw the position of the hands on the real clock and on its mirror reflection .Write below the picture what time each picture

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Book Back Answers Term 3 Chapter 1 Light
Answer:

7th Science Samacheer Kalvi Solutions Term 3 Chapter 1 Light

Question 19.
What is reflection of light?
Answer:
The bouncing back of light from a reflecting surface of an object is called as reflection of light

Question 20.
If a ray of light is falling on a plane mirror at an angle of 50° is formed, what will be the angle of reflection?
Answer:

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Book Solutions Term 3 Chapter 1 Light
Angle of incidence \(\lfloor i\) = 90° – 50°
\(\lfloor i\) = 40°
According to laws of reflection,
\(\lfloor i\) = \(\lfloor k\)
Angle of incidence = Angle of reflection
\(\lfloor i\) = 40°
∴ \(\lfloor r\) – 40°
Angle of reflection \(\lfloor r\) = 40°

Question 21.
What do you mean by lateral inversion?
Answer:
The phenomenon due to which left hand side of object appears as right hand side and vice versa is called lateral inversion.

Question 22.
How do you obtain a spectrum of light?
Answer:
When white light is made to fall on the surface of a prism, it disperses and we obtain a spectrum of light.

Question 23.
Why do we see white color in Newton’s disc, when we rotate it very fast?
Answer:
When the disc turned quickly, the retina receives the sensation of the spectrum simultaneously and disc appears white.

Question 24
What is a shadow? What things are necessary for the formation of a shadow?
Answer:

  1. Shadows are formed because light travels in straight lines.
  2. Shadow is always against, opposite side of light source.
  3. Shadow is formed by opaque objects that stop high from propagating.
  4. Things necessary for the formation of shadow: source of light,opaque object

VI. Answer the following questions in detail:

Question 1.
What are regular and irregular reflection? Explain with the help of diagrams
Answer:
(i) Regular reflection When a parallel beam of light on striking some smooth and polished surface is reflected as a parallel beam of light, such a reflection is called regular reflection.

7th Standard Term 3 Science Samacheer Kalvi Term 3 Chapter 1 Light
(ii) Irregular reflection : When a parallel beam of light, on striking some rough surface, is reflected in different directions, then such a reflection is called irregular or diffused reflection.

Light Chapter Of Class 7 Pdf Samacheer Kalvi Term 3 Science

Question 2.
What are the difference between luminous and non-luminous objects? Give two examples of each.
Answer:

Luminous objects Non-luminous objects
1.

 

All objects which emit light energy by themselves are called luminous objects. All objects which do not emit light energy of their own, but reflect the light energy falling on them and hence, become visible are called non- luminous object.
2. Ex.: Sun, stars, torch light, burning candle etc. Ex.: Metals, trees, houses, stones, moon etc.

Question 3.
Write about two everyday situations that tell you that light travels in a straight line.
Answer:

  1. Formation of shadow: Shadows are formed when some light rays continue its travel in straight lines while other rays are stopped by an object.
  2. When there is a small hole in a room, light travels only in a straight line.

Question 4.
Differentiate between a reflection and a shadow
Answer:

Reflection Shadow
When light falls on a surface, the direction of ray is changed. This change in direction is known as reflection of light. Shadow is an image formed by obstruction of light.
Eg.: You see your reflection in a pool of water or mirror. Eg.: If you place your hand in front of a candle, you will see the image of the hand on the wall. This image will show only the outline of the object placed in front of the light source.

Question 5.
What are the characteristics of an image formed in a plane mirror?
Answer:

  1. Image formed in a plane mirror is upright.
  2. Image formed in a plane mirror is virtual The image is of the same size as the object
  3. The distance of the image from the plane mirror is equal to the distance of the object from the mirror.
  4. Image is laterally inverted.

Question 6.
Describe the picture

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Solutions Term 3 Chapter 1 Light image - 15
Answer:

  1. When the tube is bent, we cannot see the source of light
  2. When the tube is held straight we can see the flame. The two pictures verify that light travels in straight lines. This is known as rectilinear propagation of light.

Question 7.
Define the following terms
a. Incident ray
b. Reflected ray
c. Normal
d. Angle of incidence
Answer:
(a) Incident tavi The ray of light that falls on the surface of the reflection materials.
(b) Reflected ray: The ray of light that comes from the point when the incident ray falls on the reflection material.
(c) Normal: The perpendicular line drawn from, the point of incidence to the plane of reflecting surface is called normal.
(d) Angl e of incidence The angle formed between the incident ray PO and the normal ‘ON’ is angle of incidence.

Question 8.
Compare the images formed by plane mirror with that by pinhole camera
Answer:
Difference between the images formed in Pinhole camera and Plane mirror:

Image formed by Pin hole camera Images formed in Plane mirror
The image is real. The image is virtual
The image may not be equal to the size of the object The image is equal to the size of the object
The image is inverted The image is erect

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Light Intext Activities

Activity – 4

Let’s categorize transparent material, translucent material and opaque material among f the given materials
(Clear plastic ruler, cellophane paper, some water in a glass jar, tissue paper, drinking glass, beaker, tap water, kerosene, coconut oil, note paper, card board, milk, diluted milk, aluminum foil, thick colored plastic lid, rough glass piece, measuring glass with water, wooden piece) Place all the materials given above in the dark room. Focus a torch light on one side of each material. Inspect the light coming out at the other side of each material and then classify the materials in the table.

S.No Transparent Material Translucent Material Opaque Material
1. Clear plastic ruler Kerosene Card board
2. Drinking glass Milk Wooden piece
3. Beaker diluted milk aluminium foil
4. Tap water rough glass piece thick coloured plastic lid.
5. Measuring glass with water tissue paper
6. Cell phone paper Note paper

Activity – 6

Surfaces Property of Image (Clearer / blurred)
Glass Blurred
Metal Sheet Blurred
Aluminum foil Clearer
Whitepaper Clearer

Activity – 7

There are eight letters in the word EINSTEIN
Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Solutions Term 3 Chapter 1 Light image - 16

  1. Write the word in front of a plane mirror shown in diagram
  2. Write down how these letters appear in the mirror
  3. How many of these letters appear to be different, when the word is reflected?
  4. Write down the letters that appear to be the same.

Answer:
(i)Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Solutions Term 3 Chapter 1 Light image - 17

(ii)Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Solutions Term 3 Chapter 1 Light image - 18

(iii) 3 letters (E,N,S)
(iv) I,T

Activity – 10
You need Gelatin papers of Red, Blue and Yellow. Fold each gelatin paper three times and look different colour objects listed below through each folded paper. Observe what colour each object has. Write your observations in the table.

Object Original colour of object Colour through Red gelatin paper Colour through Blue gelatin paper Colour through Yellow gelatin paper
Blue sky Blue
Orange flower Orange
Yellow banana Yellow
leaves Green
Brown trouser Brown
White shirt White Red Blue Yellow
Black board Black

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Light Additional Questions

I. Choose the correct answer.

Question 1.
Which of the following is a natural source of light?
(a) Electric lamp
(b) Electric filament
(c) Torch light
(d) Sunlight
Answer:
(d) Sunlight

Question 2.
Light shows ________
(a) curvilinear propagation
(b) random propagation
(c) rectilinear propagation
(d) none of these
Answer
(c) rectilinear propagation

Question 3.
Rectilinear propagation is ________
(a) mode of travelling in straight lines
(b) mode of travelling in curved lines
(c) ability to bend around obstacles
(d) displaying the phenomenon of diffraction
Answer
(a) made of travelling in straight lines

Question 4.
Plane mirrors are arranged parallel to each other to get ________
(a) a single image
(b) two images
(c) a large number of reflected image
(d) no image
Answer:
(d) two images

Question 5.
Which of the following is not luminous object?
(a) Sun
(b) Moon
(c) Candle
(d) Bulb
Answer
(b) Moon

Question 6.
White light is composed of ________
(a) seven colours
(b) five colours
(c) three colours
(d) only one colours
Answer:
(a) seven colours

Question 7.
The image which can be obtained on screen is called ________
(a) erect
(b) real
(c) virtual
(d) inverted
Answer:
(b) real

Question 8.
If we mix lights of the colours of the rainbow we will get .
(a) pink light
(b) brown light
(c) colourless light
(d) black light
Answer:
(c) colourless light

Question 9.
Which one of the following is involved for the formation of rainbow in the sky?
(a) Expansion of light
(b) Expansion of heat by the Sun
(c) Distance between the Earth and the Moon
(d) Dispersion of light
Answer:
(d) Dispersion of light

Question 10.
A virtual image is
(a) always real
(b) always uncapturable on a screen
(c) always inverted
(d) always caught on a screen
Answer:
(b) always uncapturable on a screen

II. Fill in the Blanks.

  1. Objects which are able to emit light are known as ______
  2. Passing electricity through certain gases at a very low pressure can produce ______
  3. ______ is a simple device which helps us to understand about the rectilinear propagation of light.
  4. The light falling on the mirror is called ______ as and the light reflected is called
  5. The angle formed between the reflected ray and the normal is ______
  6. Light travels ______ km per second in air or vacuum.
  7. Materials that allow light to pass through completely are known as ______ material.
  8. Materials that allow light to pass through partially are called ______ materials.
  9. Materials that are not able to allow light to pass through it are called ______ materials.
  10. ______ is always against, opposite side of light source.
  11. The ______ is the darkest part of a shadow.
  12. The lighter shade of shadow is the ______
  13. Only ______ objects forms shadows.
  14. ______ eclipse occurs, when the moon arrives between the sun and the Earth.
  15. ______ cables are able to carry more signals than traditional copper cable telephone lines.
  16. The images that are obtained on a screen are called ______ and that which cannot be obtained on a screen is ______
  17. When all colours of visible light strikes the retina of our eye at the same time, our brain perceives ______
  18. ______ colour is scattered the least by air molecules.
  19. ______ is the method of creating colour by mixing various proportion of two or three distinct colours of light.
  20. ______ Magenta, Cyan and yellow are called colours.

Answer:

  1. light sources
  2. Light
  3. Pin-hole camera
  4. incident ray, reflected ray
  5. angle of reflection
  6. 3 lakh
  7. transparent
  8. translucent
  9. opaque
  10. Shadow
  11. umbra
  12. penumbra
  13. opaque
  14. Solar
  15. Fibre optic
  16. real image, virtual image
  17. white
  18. Red
  19. Synthesis
  20. secondary

III. True or False – If false give the correct statement.

Question 1.
Angle of incidence is greater than the angle of reflection.
Answer:
False
Correct statement: Angle of incidence is o the angle of reflection.

Question 2.
The image formed by a plane mirror is real.
Answer:
False.
Correct statement: The image formed by a plane mirror is virt ual and erect.

Question 3.
Diffused reflection gives a sharp image.
Answer:
False.
Correct statement: reflection gives a sharp image.

Question 4.
The image formed by a plane mirror is always that far behind the mirror as far the object lies in front of it.
True.
You can see a rainbow only when your back is towards the sun.
True.

Question 5.
You can see a rainbow only when your back is towards the sun.
Answer:
True.

Question 6.
The image of symmetrical letters like A, H, I, M, R, K, T, U are not affected by lateral inversion.
Answer:
Correct statement: The image of symmetrical letters like A, H, I, M, T, U are not affected by lateral inversion.

Question 7.
Plane mirrors are used as looking glass, to reflect light on objects and in periscopes.
Answer:
True

Question 8.
We can not get white light when we mix seven colours.
False
Correct statement: We can get white light when we mix seven colours.

Question 9.
Materials that allow light to pass through completely are known as transparent material
Answer:
True

Question 10.
Solar and lunar eclipses are occuring due to the property of light known as the rectilinear propagation of light.
Answer:
True

IV. Match the following :

Question 1.

1. Rubber (a) Erect
2. Greased paper (b) Inverted
3, Real image (c) Opaque medium
4. Virtual image (d) Translucent medium

Answer:

  1. c
  2. d
  3. b
  4. a

Question 2.

1. Real image (a) Diffuse reflection
2. Virtual image (b) An optical device which produces reflection
3. Mirror (c) Cannot be taken on screen
4. A type of light scattering (d) Can be taken on screen

Answer:

  1. d
  2. c
  3. b
  4. a

V. Assertion and Reason.

Mark the correct choice as
(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of assertion.
(b) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of assertion.
(c) A is true but R is false.
(d) A is false but R is true.

Question 1.
Assertion (A) : A plane mirror produces virtual, erect image for any position of the object.
Reason (R) : Lateral inversion is an important property of image formed by a plane mirror.
Answer:
(b) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of assertion.
Correct reason: It is because of the property of image formed in a plane mirror.

Question 2.
Assertion (A) : When an object is placed between two plane mirrors; then all the images
found are of unequal intensity.
Reason (R) : In case of plane parallel mirrors, only two images are possible.
Answer:
(c) A is true but R is false
Correct reason: In case of plane parallel mirrors, infinite images are formed.

Question 3.
Assertion (A) : Virtual object can’t be seen by human eye.
Reason (R) : Virtual image is formed by converging rays.
Answer:
(c) A is true but R is false
Correct reason: Virtual image is formed by diverging rays.

Question 4.
Assertion (A) : A ray incident along normal to the mirror retraces its path.
Reason (R) : In reflection, angle of incidence is always equal to angle of reflection.
Answer:
(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of assertion

VI. Very short Answers:

Question 1.
What is the composition of sunlight?
Answer:
Sunlight is a mixture of seven colours.

Question 2.
How does light travel?
Answer:
Light travels along a straight line.

Question 3.
What kind of surface reflects light?
Answer:
Smooth and shiny surface reflects light.

Question 4.
Name the triangular piece of glass that splits white light into different colours.
Answer:
Prism.

Question 5.
What is reflection of light?
Answer:
When light falls on smooth surface like mirror then it changes its direction, it is called reflection.

Question 6.
State the size of the image formed by a plane mirror?
Answer:
The size of image formed by a plane mirror is same as that of the object infront of the mirror.

Question 7.
What is Newton’s disc?
Answer:
Newton Disc is a card board disc with seven equal sectors colored red, yellow, orange, green, blue, indigo and violet. When the disc turned quickly, the retina receives the sensation of the spectrum simultaneously and disc appears white.

Question 8.
What is an eclipse?
Answer:
An eclipse is an incident, when any astronomical object is partially or fully obscured due to the placement of another astronomical object in the presence of light.

Question 9.
What is light?
Answer:
Light is type of energy, that helps us to see all the things around us.

VII. Short Answer.

Question 1.
What is natural sources of light? Give example.
Answer:
Sources which emit light naturally are known as natural sources of light. The Sun is the primary and the major source of natural light.

Question 2.
Mention the properties of light.
Answer:
Light has some fundamental properties as mentioned below.

  • Rectilinear propagation of light
  • Reflection
  • Speed
  • Interaction of light with matter.
  1. Types of material according to permeability.
  2. Formation of shadows.
  3. Plane mirror and images.
  4. Spectrum.

Question 3.
State laws of reflection.
Answer:
Laws of reflection:

  1. The angle of incidence is always equal to the angle of reflection. \(\lfloor i\) = \(\lfloor r\)
  2.  The incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal at the point of incidence lie on the same plane.

Question 4.
Define transparent materials. Give example.
Answer:

  1. Materials that allow light to pass through completely are known as transparent material.
  2. Example: Eye glasses, clear drinking glass, clear water, face glasses used in buses.

Question 5.
Define opaque material. Give example.
Answer:

  1. Materials that are not able to allow light to pass through, are called opaque material.
  2. Example: Wall, thick card board, stone, etc.

Question 6.
What is lunar eclipse?
Answer:

  1. Lunar eclipse occurs, when the Earth (E) comes between the Sun (S) and the Moon (M).
  2. The Earth prevents light coming from the Sun and makes shadow on the Moon. This is lunar eclipse.

Question 7.
Why danger lights in vehicles are red in colour?
Answer:

  1. Red color is scattered the least by air molecules.
  2. Red color has the highest wavelength of all the other colors. So red color is able to travel the longest distance through air, fog.

Question 8.
What is meant by synthesis of colour?

  1. Synthesis of colour is the method of creating colour by mixing various proportion of two (or) three distinct colours of light. .
  2. These distinct colours are Red, Green and Blue called as primary colours.

Question 9.
When lighting a bulbs in a dark room, light spreads the whole room quickly. Give reason.
Answer:

  1. When lighting a bulb in a dark room, light spreads the whole room quickly.
  2. This is because the light travels very fast.
  3. Light travels three lakh kilometers per second in air or vacuum.
  4. In theory, nothing can travel faster than light.

VIII. Long Answer:

Question 1.
Write the difference between real image and virtual image.
Answer:

Real image Virtual image
1. It can be taken on a screen. It cannot be taken on a screen.
2. The rays of light, after reflection The rays of light, after reflection appear to
3. It is always inverted It is always erect but laterally inverted

Question 2.
Explain the importance of optical fiber.
Answer:

  1. Optical fiber is a device that works on the principle of total internal reflection by which light signals (huge data) can be transmitted from one place to another place with a negligible loss of energy in a very short time.
  2. It consists of a cable having one or more thin flexible fibers with a glass core through which light signals can be sent.
  3. Optical fiber can be twisted and bent easily.
  4. When a light a ray of light is incident at one end of the core of optical fiber, it suffers total internal reflection at the many places inside the fiber and emerges at the other end with negligible loss of energy.
  5. The data or information in the form of pulses of light, can be sent through bundles of optical fibers.
  6. Optical fibers have become very important in high-speed communications, such as cable TV and high-speed broadband services.Fiber optic cables are able to carry more signals than traditional copper cable telephone lines.

Question 3.
With help of a diagram, write a note on : a. Solar eclipse, b. Lunar eclipse.
Answer:
(a) Solar eclipse

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Solutions Term 3 Chapter 1 Light image - 20
Solar eclipse occurs, when the Moon arrives between the Sun (S) and the Earth(E). The shadow of the Moon appears on the Earth at A as shown in picture. Hence, those who are at the region A are unable to see the Sun instantly. This is solar eclipse. But, those who are at the region B and C are able to see the sun partially.
(b) Lunar eclipse

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Solutions Term 3 Chapter 1 Light image - 21
Lunar eclipse: Lunar eclipse occurs, when the Earth (E) comes between the Sun (S) and the Moon (M). The Earth prevents light coming from the Sun and makes shadow on the Moon. This is lunar eclipse

IX. Problems for practice:

Question 1.
Calculate the number of images formed by plane mirrors kept at an angle of 10° to each others.
Solution:
Number of image n = \(\frac { 360° }{ θ}\) – 1 = \(\frac { 360° }{ 10°}\) – 1
= 36 – 1
= 35 images

Question 2.
A ray of light fall on a plane surface at an angle of incidence 9° and reflection occurs. Calculate the angle of reflection in degree.
Solution:
By first law of reflection, angle of incidence is always equal to angle of reflection.
\(\lfloor i\) = \(\lfloor r\) . Here, angle of incidence is 9°. So angle of reflection must be equal to 9°.

Question 3.
A plane mirror forms a virtual image. The distance between Maria and her image in a plane mirror is 10 m. How much distance should she move in order to get the distance of 5 m between herself and her image?
Solution:
Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Solutions Term 3 Chapter 1 Light image - 22
The distance between Maria and her image in a plane mirror = 10 m
Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Solutions Term 3 Chapter 1 Light image - 23
So, she shouuld move a distance of 2.5 m toward the plane mirror

X. Higher order thinking skill (HOTS) :

Question 1.
Why are we able to see the tap water in a glass even though it is colourless?
Answer:
Top water reflects the light into our eyes. As long as an object reflects light into our eyes, we can see it.

Question 2.
Imagine that parallel rays are incident on an irregular surface. Are the rays reflected from this surface parallel to each other?
Answer:
No, the reflected rays from irregular surface are in different directions.

Question 3.
Ram planned an activity to observe an object through pipes as shown in figure, so that he could see objects which he could not directly see.

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Solutions Term 3 Chapter 1 Light image - 24
(a) Mention how many mirrors should he use to see the objects.
(b) If any of the mirrors is removed, will he be able to see the objects?
(c) Indicate the positions of the mirrors in the figure.
Answer:
(a) Number of mirrors = 3
(b) He will not be able to see the objects if any of the mirror is removed, since he will not get the rays after removal of mirror.
Samacheer Kalvi 7th Science Solutions Term 3 Chapter 1 Light image - 25

Samacheer Kalvi 12th Accountancy Solutions Chapter 3 Accounts of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals

Students can Download Accountancy Chapter 3 Accounts of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals Questions and Answers, Notes Pdf, Samacheer Kalvi 12th Accountancy Book Solutions Guide Pdf helps you to revise the complete Tamilnadu State Board New Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 12th Accountancy Solutions Chapter 3 Accounts of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals

Samacheer Kalvi 12th Accountancy Accounts of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals Text Book Back Questions and Answers

I. Choose the Correct Answer

12th Accountancy 3rd Chapter Solutions Question 1.
In the absence of a partnership deed, profits of the firm will be shared by the partners in …………….
(a) Equal ratio
(b) Capital ratio
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) None of these
Answer:
(a) Equal ratio

12th Accountancy Chapter 3 Question 2.
In the absence of an agreement among the partners, interest on capital is …………….
(a) Not allowed
(b) Allowed at bank rate
(c) Allowed @ 5% per annum
(d) Allowed @ 6% per annum
Answer:
(a) Not allowed

Samacheer Kalvi 12th Accountancy Solutions Chapter 3 Question 3.
As per the Indian Partnership Act, 1932, the rate of interest allowed on loans advanced by partners is …………….
(a) 8% per annum
(b) 12% per annum
(c) 5% per annum
(d) 6% per annum
Answer:
(d) 6% per annum

Class 12 Accountancy Chapter 3 Solutions Question 4.
Which of the following is shown in Profit and loss appropriation account?
(a) Office expenses
(b) Salary of staff
(c) Partners’ salary
(d) Interest on bank loan
Answer:
(c) Partners’ salary

Chapter 3 Accountancy Class 12 Solutions Question 5.
When fixed capital method is adopted by a partnership firm, which of the following items will appear in capital account?
(a) Additional capital introduced
(b) Interest on capital
(c) Interest on drawings
(d) Share of profit
Answer:
(a) Additional capital introduced

12th Account Chapter 3 Question 6.
When a partner withdraws regularly a fixed sum of money at the middle of every month, period for which interest is to be calculated on the drawings on an average is …………….
(a) 5.5 months
(b) 6 months
(c) 12 months
(d) 6.5 months
Answer:
(b) 6 months

Class 12th Accounts Chapter 3 Solutions Question 7.
Which of the following is the incorrect pair?
(a) Interest on drawings – Debited to capital account
(b) Interest on capital – Credited to capital account
(c) Interest on loan – Debited to capital account
(d) Share of profit – Credited to capital account
Answer:
(c) Interest on loan – Debited to capital account

Class 12 Accountancy Chapter 3 Question 8.
In the absence of an agreement, partners are entitled to …………….
(a) Salary
(b) Commission
(c) Interest on loan
(d) Interest on capital
Answer:
(c) Interest on loan

12th Accountancy Chapter 3 Solutions Question 9.
Pick the odd one out …………….
(a) Partners share profits and losses equally
(b) Interest on partners’ capital is allowed at 7% per annum
(c) No salary or remuneration is allowed
(d) Interest on loan from partners is allowed at 6% per annum.
Answer:
(b) Interest on partners’ capital is allowed at 7% per annum

Accountancy Chapter 3 Class 12 Question 10.
Profit after interest on drawings, interest on capital and remuneration is ₹ 10,500. Geetha, a partner, is entitled to receive commission @ 5% on profits after charging such commission. Find out commission. …………….
(a) ₹ 50
(b) ₹ 150
(c) ₹ 550
(d) ₹ 500
Answer:
(d) ₹ 500

II. Very short answer questions

Accountancy Class 12 Chapter 3 Solutions Question 1.
Define partnership.
Answer:
According to Section 4 of the Indian Partnership Act, 1932, partnership is defined as, “the relation between person who have agreed to share the profits of a business carried on by all or any of them acting for all.

Samacheer Kalvi Guru 12th Accountancy Question 2.
What is a partnership deed?
Answer:
Partnership deed is a document in writing that contains the terms of the agreement among the partners. It is not compulsory for a partnership to have a partnership deed as per the Indian Partnership Act, 1932. But, it is desirable to have a partnership deed as it serves as an evidence of the terms of the agreement among the partners.

Samacheer Kalvi 12th Accountancy Solutions Chapter 2 Question 3.
What is meant by fixed capital method?
Answer:
Under fixed capital method, the capital of the partners is not altered and it remains generally fixed. Two accounts are maintained for each partner namely:

  1. Capital account and
  2. Current account

The transactions relating to initial capital introduced, additional capital introduced and capital permanently withdrawn are entered in the capital account and all other transactions are recorded in the current account.

Class 12 Account Chapter 3 Solution Question 4.
What is the journal entry to be passed for providing interest on capital to a partner?
Answer:
(a) For providing interest on capital
12th Accountancy 3rd Chapter Solutions Samacheer Kalvi Accounts Of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals

(b) For closing interest on capital account
12th Accountancy Chapter 3 Samacheer Kalvi Accounts Of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals

12th Accountancy Answer Pdf Question 5.
Why is Profit and loss appropriation account prepared?
Answer:
The profit and loss appropriation account is an extension of profit and loss account prepared for the purpose of adjusting the transactions relating to amounts due to and amounts due from partners. It is nominal account in nature. The balance being the profit or loss is transferred to the partners’ capital or current account in the profit sharing ratio.

III. Short answer questions

Class 12 Accountancy Chapter 3 Notes Question 1.
State the features of partnership.
Answer:

  1. Partnership is an association of two or more persons. The maximum number of partners is limited to 50.
  2. There should be an agreement among the persons to share the profit or loss of the business. The agreement may be oral or written or implied.
  3. The agreement must be to carry on a business and to share the profits of the business.
  4. The business may be carried on by all the partners or any of them acting for all.

12th Accountancy Guide Samacheer Kalvi Question 2.
State any six contents of a partnership deed.
Answer:
The contents of partnership deed are:

  1. The name of the firm and nature and place of business.
  2. Date of commencement and duration of business.
  3. Names and address of all partners.
  4. Capital contributed by each partner.
  5. Profit sharing ratio.
  6. Amount of drawings allowed to each partner.

12th Final Accounts Problems With Solutions Pdf Question 3.
State the differences between fixed capital method and fluctuating capital method.
Answer:
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Accountancy Solutions Chapter 3 Accounts Of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals

Samacheer Kalvi 12th Accountancy Solutions  Question 4.
Write a brief note on the applications of the provisions of the Indian Partnership Act, 1932 in the absence of partnership deed.
Answer:
1. Remuneration to partners : No salary or remuneration is allowed to any partner. [Section 13(a)]

2. Profit sharing ratio : Profit and losses are to be shared by the partners equally. [Section 13(b)]

3. Interest on capital : No interest is allowed on the capital. When a partner is entitled to interest on capital contributed as per partnership deed, such interest on capital will be payable only out of profits [Section 13(c)]

4. Interest on loans advanced by partners to the firm : Interest on loan is to be allowed at the rate of 6 percent per annum. [Section 13(d)]

5. Interest on drawings : No interest is charged on the drawings of the partners.

Question 5.
Jayaraman is a partner who withdrew ₹ 10,000 regularly in the middle of every month. Interest is charged on the drawings at 6% per annum. Calculate interest on drawings for the year ended 31st December, 2018.
Answer:
Jayaraman:
Interest on drawings: 10,000 × \(\frac { 12 }{ 24 }\) × \(\frac { 6 }{ 100 }\) × 12 = ₹ 3600

IV. Exercises

Question 1.
Akash, Bala, Chandru and Daniel are partners in a firm. There is no partnership deed. How will you deal with the following?

  1. Akash has contributed maximum capital. He demands interest on capital at 10% per annum.
  2. Bala has withdrawn ₹ 3,000 per month. Other partners ask Bala to pay interest on drawings @ 8% per annum to the firm. But, Bala did not agree to it.
  3. Akash demands the profit to be shared in the capital ratio. But, others do not agree.
  4. Daniel demands salary at the rate of ₹ 10,000 per month as he spends full time for the business.
  5. Loan advanced by Chandru to the firm is ₹ 50,000. He demands interest on loan @ 12% per annum.

Answer:

  1. No interest on capital is payable to any partner.
  2. No interest is charged on drawing made by the partner.
  3. Profit should be distributed equally.
  4. No remuneration is payable to any partner.
  5. Interest on loan is payable at 6% per annum.

Question 2.
From the following information, prepare capital accounts of partners Rooban and Deri, when their capitals are fixed.
Class 12 Accountancy Chapter 3 Solutions Samacheer Kalvi Accounts Of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals
Answer:
Capital Account
Chapter 3 Accountancy Class 12 Solutions Samacheer Kalvi  Accounts Of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals
Current Account
12th Account Chapter 3 Samacheer Kalvi Accounts Of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals

Question 3.
Arun and Selvam are partners who maintain their capital accounts under fixed capital method. From the following particulars, prepare capital accounts of partners.
Class 12th Accounts Chapter 3 Solutions Samacheer Kalvi Accounts Of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals
Answer:
Capital Account
Class 12 Accountancy Chapter 3 Samacheer Kalvi Accounts Of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals
Current Account
12th Accountancy Chapter 3 Solutions Samacheer Kalvi Accounts Of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals

Question 4.
From the following information, prepare capital accounts of partners Padmini and Padma, when their capitals are fluctuating.
Accountancy Chapter 3 Class 12 Samacheer Kalvi Accounts Of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals
Answer:
Accountancy Class 12 Chapter 3 Solutions Samacheer Kalvi Accounts Of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals

Question 5.
Mannan and Ramesh share profits and losses in the ratio of 3:2 and their capital on 1st April, 2018 was Mannan ₹ 1,50,000 and Ramesh ₹ 1,00,000 respectively and their current accounts show a credit balance of’ 25,000 and ₹ 20,000 respectively. Calculate interest on capital at 6% p.a. for the year ending 31st March, 2019 and show the journal entries.
Answer:
Samacheer Kalvi Guru 12th Accountancy Solutions Chapter 3 Accounts Of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals

Question 6.
Prakash and Supria were partners who share profits and losses in the ratio of 5:3. Balance in their capital account on 1st April, 2018 was Prakash ₹ 3,00,000 and Supria ₹ 2,00,000. On 1st July, 2018 Prakash introduced additional capital of ₹ 60,000. Supria introduced additional capital of ₹ 30,000 during the year. Calculate interest on capital at 6% p.a. for the year ending 31st March, 2019 and show the journal entries.
Answer:
Class 12 Account Chapter 3 Solution Samacheer Kalvi Accounts Of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals
Journal Entries
12th Accountancy Answer Pdf Samacheer Kalvi Chapter 3 Accounts Of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals

Question 7.
The capital account of Begum and Fatima on 1st January, 2018 showed a balance of ₹ 50,000 and ₹ 40,000 respectively. On 1st October, 2018, Begum introduced an additional capital of? 10,000 and on 1st May, 2018 Fatima introduced an additional capital of ₹ 9,000.
Answer:
Calculate interest on capital at 4% p.a. for the year ending 31st December, 2018.
Class 12 Accountancy Chapter 3 Notes Samacheer Kalvi Accounts Of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals

Question 8.
From the following balance sheets of Subha and Sudha who share profits and losses in 2:3, calculate interest on capital at 5% p.a. for the year ending 31st December, 2018.
Balance sheet as on 31st December, 2018
Class 12 Accountancy Chapter 3 Notes Samacheer Kalvi Accounts Of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals
Drawings of Subha and Sudha during the year were ₹ 8,000 and ₹ 10,000, respectively. Profit earned during the year was ₹ 30,000.
Answer:
12th Accountancy Guide Samacheer Kalvi Chapter 3 Accounts Of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals
12th Final Accounts Problems With Solutions Pdf Samacheer Kalvi Accounts Of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals

Question 9.
From the following balance sheets of Rajan and Devan who share profits and losses 2:1, calculate interest on capital at 6% p.a. for the year ending 31st December, 2018.
Balance sheet as on 31st December 2018
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Accountancy Solutions Chapter 3 Accounts of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals 18
On 1st April, 2018, Rajan introduced an additional capital of ₹ 40,000 and on 1st September, 2018, Devan introduced ₹ 30,000. Drawings of Rajan and Devan during the year were ₹ 20,000 and ₹ 10,000 respectively. Profit earned during the year was ₹ 70,000.
Answer:
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Accountancy Solutions Chapter 3 Accounts of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals 19
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Accountancy Solutions Chapter 3 Accounts of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals 20

Question 10.
Ahamad and Basheer contribute ₹ 60,000 and ₹ 40,000 respectively as capital. Their respective share of profit is 2 : 1 and the profit before interest on capital for the year is ₹ 5,000. Compute the amount of interest on capital in each of the following situations:

  1. if the partnership deed is silent as to the interest on capital
  2. if interest on capital @ 4% is allowed as per the partnership deed
  3. if the partnership deed allows interest on capital @ 6% per annum.

Answer:
1. No Interest on capital is allowed.

2. Since the profit is sufficient, Interest on capital will be provided.
Ahamad:
60, 000 × \(\frac { 4 }{ 100 }\) = ₹ 2, 400
Basheer:
40, 000 × \(\frac { 4 }{ 100 }\) = ₹ 1, 600

3. Since the profit is insufficient, Interest on capital will be provided.
Ahamad:
60, 000 × \(\frac { 6 }{ 100 }\) = ₹ 3, 600
Basheer:
40, 000 × \(\frac { 6 }{ 100 }\) = ₹ 2, 400
Profit of 5,000 will be distributed to the partners in their capital ratio of 3:2.

Question 11.
Mani is a partner, who withdrew ₹ 30,000 on 1st September, 2018. Interest on drawings is charged at 6% per annum. Calculate interest on drawings on 31st December, 2018 and show the journal entries by assuming that fluctuating capital method is followed.
Answer:
Mani:
30, 000 × \(\frac { 6 }{ 100 }\) = ₹ 600
Interest on drawings of Mani = ₹ 600.

Question 12.
Santhosh is a partner in a partnership firm. As per the partnership deed, interest on drawings is charged at 6% per annum. During the year ended 31st December, 2018 he withdrew as follows:
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Accountancy Solutions Chapter 3 Accounts of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals 24
Calculate the amount of interest on drawings.
Interest on Drawings = Amount x Rate of Interest x Period
Feb 1 ⇒ 2,000 x \(\frac { 6 }{ 100 }\) = ₹ 600
May 1 ⇒ 10, 000 x \(\frac { 6 }{ 100 }\) x \(\frac { 8 }{ 12 }\) = ₹ 400
July 1 ⇒ 4,000 x \(\frac { 6 }{ 100 }\) x \(\frac { 6 }{ 12 }\) = ₹ 120
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Accountancy Solutions Chapter 3 Accounts of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals 21

Question 13.
Kumar is a partner in a partnership firm. As per the partnership deed, interest on drawings is charged at 6% per annum. During the year ended 31st December, 2018 he withdrew as follows:
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Accountancy Solutions Chapter 3 Accounts of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals 33
Interest on Drawings = Amount x Rate of Interest x Period
March 1 ⇒ 4, 000 x \(\frac { 6 }{ 100 }\) = ₹ 200
June 1 ⇒ 4, 000 x \(\frac { 6 }{ 100 }\) x \(\frac { 7 }{ 12 }\) = ₹ 140
Sep 1 ⇒ 4,000 x \(\frac { 6 }{ 100 }\) x \(\frac { 4 }{ 12 }\) = ₹ 80
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Accountancy Solutions Chapter 3 Accounts of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals 23

Question 14.
Mathew is a partner who withdrew ₹ 20,000 during the year 2018. Interest on drawings is charged at 10% per annum. Calculate interest on drawings on 31st December 2018.
Mathew:
20 000 x \(\frac { 10 }{ 100 }\) x \(\frac { 6 }{ 12 }\) = ₹ 1, 000

Question 15.
Santhosh is a partner in a partnership firm. As per the partnership deed, interest on drawings is charged at 6% per annum. During the year ended 31st December, 2018 he withdrew as follows:
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Accountancy Solutions Chapter 3 Accounts of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals 22
Calculate the amount of interest on drawings by using product method.
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Accountancy Solutions Chapter 3 Accounts of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals 25
Interest on drawings = Product x Rate of interest x \(\frac { 1 }{ 12 }\)
= 1,44,000 x \(\frac { 6 }{ 100 }\) x \(\frac { 1 }{ 12 }\) = ₹ 720

Question 16.
Kavitha is a partner in a firm. She withdraws ₹ 2,500 p.m. regularly. Interest on drawings is charged @ 4% p.a. Calculate the interest on drawings using average period, if she draws

  1. At the beginning of every month
  2. In the middle of every month
  3. At the end of every month

Answer
1. At the beginning of every month:
= 2, 500 x 12 x \(\frac { 4 }{ 100 }\) x \(\frac { 13 }{ 24 }\) = ₹ 650

2. In the middle of every month:
= 2,500 x 12 x \(\frac { 4 }{ 100 }\) x \(\frac { 12 }{ 24 }\) = ₹ 600

3. At the end of every month:
= 2, 500 x 12 x \(\frac { 4 }{ 100 }\) x \(\frac { 11 }{ 24 }\) = ₹ 550

Question 17.
Kevin and Francis are partners. Kevin draws ₹ 5,000 at the end of each quarter. Interest on drawings is chargeable at 6% p.a. Calculate interest on drawings for the year ending 31st March 2019 using average period.
Answer:
Calculation of interest on drawings of Kevin.
Total amount of drawings: 5000 x 4 = 20,000
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Accountancy Solutions Chapter 3 Accounts of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals 34
= 20,000 x \(\frac { 6 }{ 100 }\) x \(\frac { 4.5 }{ 12 }\) = ₹ 450

Question 18.
Ram and Shy am were partners. Ram withdrew ₹ 18,000 at the beginning of each half year. Interest on drawings is chargeable @ 10% p.a. Calculate interest on the drawings for the year ending 31st December 2018 using average period.
Answer:
Total amount of drawing: 18, 000 x 2 = 36,000
Interest on drawings = Amount x Rate of Interest x Samacheer Kalvi 12th Accountancy Solutions Chapter 3 Accounts of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals 34
= 36,000 x \(\frac { 10 }{ 100 }\) x \(\frac { 9 }{ 12 }\) = ₹ 2700

Question 19.
Janani, Kamali and Lakshmi are partners in a firm sharing profits and losses equally. As per the terms of the partnership deed, Kamali is allowed a monthly salary of ₹ 10,000 and Lakshmi is allowed a commission of ₹ 40,000 per annum for their contribution to the business of the firm. You are required to pass the necessary journal entry. Assume that their capitals are fluctuating.
Answer:
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Accountancy Solutions Chapter 3 Accounts of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals 26

Question 20.
Sibi and Manoj are partners in a firm. Sibi is to get a commission of 20% of net profit before charging any commission. Manoj is to get a commission of 20% on net profit after charging all commission. Net profit for the year ended 31st December 2018 before charging any commission was ₹ 60,000. Find the commission of Sibi and Manoj. Also show the distribution of profit.
Answer:
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Accountancy Solutions Chapter 3 Accounts of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals 27

Question 21.
Anand and Narayanan are partners in a firm sharing profits and losses in the ratio of 5 : 3. On 1st January 2018, their capitals were ₹ 50,000 and ₹ 30,000, respectively. The partnership deed specifies the following:

  1. Interest on capital is to be allowed at 6% per annum.
  2. Interest on drawings charged to Anand and Narayanan are ₹ 1,000 and ₹ 800, respectively.
  3. The net profit of the firm before considering interest on capital and interest on drawings amounted to ₹ 35,000.

Give necessary journal entries and prepare profit and loss appropriation account as on 31st December 2018. Assume that the capitals are fluctuating.
Answer:
Profit and Loss Appropriation Account
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Accountancy Solutions Chapter 3 Accounts of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals 28
Journal Entries
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Accountancy Solutions Chapter 3 Accounts of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals 29

Question 22.
Dinesh and Sugumar entered into a partnership agreement on 1st January 2018, Dinesh contributing ₹ 1,50,000 and Sugumar ₹ 1,20,000 as capital. The agreement provided that:

  1. Profits and losses to be shared in the ratio 2 : 1 as between Dinesh and Sugumar.
  2. Partners to be entitled to interest on capital @ 4% p.a.
  3. Interest on drawings to be charged Dinesh: ₹ 3,600 and Sugumar: ₹ 2,200
  4. Dinesh to receive a salary of ₹ 60,000 for the year, and
  5. Sugumar to receive a commission of ₹ 80,000

During the year ended on 31st December 2018, the firm made a profit of ₹ 2,20,000 before adjustment of interest, salary and commission.
Prepare the Profit and loss appropriation account.
Profit and Loss Appropriation Account
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Accountancy Solutions Chapter 3 Accounts of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals 30

Question 23.
Antony and Ranjith started a business on 1st April 2018 with capitals of ₹ 4,00,000 and ₹ 3,00,000 respectively. According to the Partnership Deed, Antony is to get salary of ₹ 90,000 per annum, Ranjith is to get 25% commission on profit after allowing salary to Antony and interest on capital @ 5% p.a. but before charging such commission. Profit – sharing ratio between the two partners is 1:1. During the year, the firm earned a profit of ₹ 3,65,000.
Answer:
Prepare profit and loss appropriation account. The firm closes its accounts on 31st March every year.
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Accountancy Solutions Chapter 3 Accounts of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals 31

Samacheer Kalvi 12th Accountancy Accounts of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals Additional Questions and Answers

I. Choose the correct answer

Question 1.
Under fixed capital system, the capitals of the partners ……………. year after year.
(a) keep changing
(b) remain fixed
(c) Both are possible
Answer:
(b) remain fixed

Question 2.
Under fluctuating capital system, the capitals of the partners year after years …………….
(a) keep changing
(b) Remain fixed
(c) Both are possible
Answer:
(a) keep changing

Question 3.
Under fluctuating capital system, the partners ……………. accounts are opened.
(a) current
(b) drawing
(c) capital
Answer:
(c) capital

Question 4.
Under fixed capital system, the profits and losses of partners will be transferred to their ……………. accounts.
(a) current
(b) drawings
(c) Both
Answer:
(a) current

Question 5.
Interest capital is calculated as the …………….
(a) opening capital
(b) closing capital
(c) Both
Answer:
(a) opening capital

Question 6.
……………. is an extension of profit and loss account
(a) Balance sheet
(b) Profit and loss appropriation account
(c) Both
Answer:
(b) Profit and loss appropriation account

Question 7.
The persons who have entered into partnership are collectively known as …………….
(a) partnership
(b) partners
(c) firm
Answer:
(c) firm

Question 8.
Name the method of calculating interest on drawings of the partner if different amounts are withdrawn are different dates …………….
(a) Direct method
(b) Product method
(c) Average period method
Answer:
(A) Product method

Question 9.
Which of the following items, does not appear in the profit and loss appropriation account?
(a) Salaries to partners
(b) Interest on capital
(c) Interest on drawings
(d) Drawings
Answer:
(d) Drawings

II. Fill in the Blanks

Question 10.
The partners share the ……………. of the business.
Answer:
Profit and losses.

Question 11.
The ……………. accounts of partners may show credit or debit balance.
Answer:
Current.

Question 12.
Interest on partners drawings is changed to their respective …………….
Answer:
Capital A/c.

Question 13.
Salary to the partner will be paid only if it is allowed by the …………….
Answer:
Agreement

Question 14.
The capital accounts of partners may be ……………. or fluctuating.
Answer:
Fixed

Question 15.
Interest Drawings for regular interval is calculated by the formula …………….
Answer:
Total Drawings x \(\frac { Rate }{ 100 }\) x \(\frac { 16 }{ 12 }\)

Question 16.
In the case of fluctuating capital, where will you record drawings, interest on drawing …………….
Answer:
Dr. Side of Capital A/c

III. Match the following

Question 17.
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Accountancy Solutions Chapter 3 Accounts of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals 35
Answer:
(ii) 4 3 2 1

IV. Short answer Questions

Question 1.
What is Current Account?
Answer:
Under fixed capital method, Capital Account and Current accounts are maintained. In current a/c all adjustments relating to partners are recorded on the credit side of current account viz. Interest on capital, share of profits, salary and commission etc., are recorded. On the debit side, drawings, interest on drawings, share of loss are recorded. Current account sometimes show credit balance or debit balance.

Question 2.
Interest on Capital: Mr A and B started a business on 1.4.2014, with capital of Rs. 60,000 and 50,000, respectively. On 1st July 2014. Mr. A withdrew Rs 8,000 from his capital. Mr. B introduced additional capital of Rs 10,000 on 30.9.2014. Calculate interest on capital @ 5% p.a. for year ending 31.3.2015.
Solution:
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Accountancy Solutions Chapter 3 Accounts of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals 36

Question 3.
Prince, Queen and Kings had capital of Rs. 1,60,000, Rs. 1,20,000 and Rs. 80,000 respectively, on 1.4.2010. Queen withdraw Rs. 16,000 on 30.9.2010. King introduced additional capital Rs. 24,000 on 31.12.10. Calculate interest on capital @ 6% p.a. on 31.3.2011.
Solution:
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Accountancy Solutions Chapter 3 Accounts of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals 37

Question 4.
A and B are partners, sharing profits and losses in an equal ratio with Capital of Rs. 50,000 and Rs 40,000 on 1.4.2017. On 1st July 2017, A introduced Rs 10,000 as his additional capital, where B introduced only Rs 1,000. Interest 10% p.a. Calculate interest on capital.
Solution:
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Accountancy Solutions Chapter 3 Accounts of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals 38

Question 5.
Interest on Drawings:
Sundar and Shanmugam are two partners equally. Sundar drew regularly Rs. 4,000 end of every month. Shanmugam draws Rs. 8,000 regularly beginning of every month. Calculate interest on their drawings @10%.
Solution:
Interest on Drawings of Sundar:
Total drawings x \(\frac { Rate }{ 100 }\) x \(\frac { 5.5 }{ 12 }\)
4000 x 12 x \(\frac { 10 }{ 100 }\) x \(\frac { 5.5 }{ 2 }\) = ₹ 2, 200
Interest on Drawings of Shanmugam:
Total drawing x \(\frac { Rate }{ 100 }\) x \(\frac { 6.5 }{ 12 }\)
8000 x 12 x \(\frac { 10 }{ 100 }\) x \(\frac { 6.5 }{ 12 }\) = ₹ 5, 200

Question 6.
Priya and Kala are partners Priya draws Rs. 8,000 at end of each quarter. Interest on drawings @6% p.a. Kala draws Rs. 2000/- per month at the end of the month.
Solution:
Interest of drawings:
Priya: 8,000 x 4 = 32,000
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Accountancy Solutions Chapter 3 Accounts of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals 39

V. Exercise

Question 1.
Arun and Arora were partners sharing profits and losses in the ratio 5:3. Their fixed capitals on 1.4.2016 were Arun Rs. 60,000; Arora Rs. 80,000. Interest on capital @ Rs. 12%. Interest on drawings @15% p.a. Profit for the year ended 31.3.2017 before all above adjustment was Rs. 12,600. Drawings: Arun Rs. 2,000. Arora Rs. 4,000 during the year. Prepare profit and loss appropriation account.
Solution:
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Accountancy Solutions Chapter 3 Accounts of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals 40
Interest on Drawings:
Arun: 2000 x \(\frac { 15 }{ 100 }\) x \(\frac { 6 }{ 12 }\) = ₹ 150
Arora: 4000 x \(\frac { 15 }{ 100 }\) x \(\frac { 6}{ 12 }\) = ₹ 300

Question 2.
Write up the capital accounts and current accounts of the partners Kaviya and Divya from the following:
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Accountancy Solutions Chapter 3 Accounts of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals 41
Solution:
Capital Account
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Accountancy Solutions Chapter 3 Accounts of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals 42
Current Account
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Accountancy Solutions Chapter 3 Accounts of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals 43

Question 3.
Distribution of Profits: Anitha, Ramita were partners sharing profit and losses in the ratio of 7:3. Their capitals were Rs. 80,000 and Rs. 60,000, respectively.

  1. Interest on capital @10% p.a.
  2. Interest on drawings @12% p.a.
  3. Both to get a salary of Rs. 10,000 each per annum.
  4. Anitha to get a commission of 10% on the net profit before charging such commission.

The profit for the year Rs. 60,000. Drawings were Anitha Rs. 12,000 and Ramita Rs. 8,000. Show profit and loss appropriation account and the capital A/c.
Solution:
Profit and Loss Appropriation Account
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Accountancy Solutions Chapter 3 Accounts of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals 44
Capital Accounts
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Accountancy Solutions Chapter 3 Accounts of Partnership Firms-Fundamentals 45

Samacheer Kalvi 12th English Solutions Poem Chapter 2 Our Casuarina Tree

Students can Download English Poem 2 Our Casuarina Tree Questions and Answers, Summary, Activity, Notes, Samacheer Kalvi 12th English Book Solutions Guide Pdf helps you to revise the complete Tamilnadu State Board New Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 12th English Solutions Poem Chapter 2 Our Casuarina Tree

Warm Up

12th English Our Casuarina Tree Paragraph Question 1.
You visit your school after several years. As you cross the banyan tree at the entrance, cheerful memories fill your mind. Fill the bubbles with a your memories.

12th English Our Casuarina Tree Paragraph Samacheer Kalvi Chapter 2

Answer:

Our Casuarina Tree Poem Questions Answers Samacheer Kalvi 12th English Chapter 2

Samacheer Kalvi 12th English Our Casuarina Tree Textual Questions

1. Fill in the blanks choosing the words from the box given and complete the summary of the poem.

[python, statue, nature, casement, nostalgic, lamenting, impressive, forgotten, giant, consecrates, springing, sanctified]

The casuarina tree is tall and strong, with a creeper winding around it like a (1) _____ The tree stands like a (2) _____ with a colourful scarf of flowers. Birds surround the garden and the sweet song of the birds is heard. The poet is delighted to see the casuarina tree through her (3) _____ She sees a grey monkey sitting like a (4) _____ on top of the tree, the cows grazing and the water lilies (5) _____ in the pond. The poet feels that the tree is dear to her not for its (6) _____ appearance but for the (7) _____ memories of her happy childhood that it brings to her. She strongly believes that (8) _____ communicates with human beings. The poet could communicate with the tree even when she was in a far-off land as she could hear the tree (9) _____ her absence. The poet (10) _____ the tree’s memory to her loved ones, who are not alive. She immortalizes the tree through her poem like the poet Wordsworth who (11) _____ the yew tree of Borrowdale in verse. She expresses her wish that the tree should be remembered out of love and not just because it cannot be (12) _____
Answer:

  1. python
  2. giant
  3. casement
  4. statue
  5. springing
  6. impressive
  7. nostalgic
  8. nature
  9. lamenting
  10. consecrates
  11. sanctified
  12. forgotten

2. Based on your understanding of the poem, answer the following questions in one or two sentences each.

Our Casuarina Tree Poem Questions Answers Question (a)
What is the creeper compared to?
Answer:
The creeper is compared to a lady love.

Our Casuarina Tree Paragraph Question (b)
How does the creeper appear on the tree?
Answer:
The creeper appears like a huge python.

12th English Our Casuarina Tree Question (c)
Describe the garden during the night.
Answer:
At night, the garden overflows with endless melodious song sung by the dark king from the Casuarina Tree when the men are sleeping.

Our Casuarina Tree Poem Paragraph Question (d)
How does the poet spend her winter?
Answer:
In winter the poet observes a gray baboon that sits in the crust of Casuarina Tree. It looks like a statue sitting and watching the sunrise. At the same time, her young ones leap about and play in the lower branches of the tree.

Our Casuarina Tree Poem Book Back Answers Question (e)
Name the bird that sings in the poet’s garden.
Answer:
Nightingale sings in the poet’s garden.

Our Casuarina Tree Appreciation Questions Question (f)
Why is the casuarina tree dear to poet’s heart?
Answer:
Casuarina tree is dear to the poets’ heart because she and her childhood friends played under that tree.

Our Casuarina Tree Book Back Answers Question (g)
Does nature communicate with human beings?
Answer:
Yes, nature communicates with human beings. William Wordsworth is a strong advocate of this communication.

Our Casuarina Tree Poem 12th English Question (h)
What has Wordsworth sanctified in his poem?
Answer:
Wordsworth has sanctified trees in Borrowdale in his poems.

Our Casuarina Tree Questions Answers Question (i)
To whom does Toru Dutt want to consecrate the tree’s memory?
Answer:
Torn Dutt wants to consecrate the memories of the tree to her loved ones.

Our Casuarina Tree Class 12 Question (J)
The casuarina tree will be remembered for ever. Why?
Answer:
The casuarina tree will be remembered forever because it is immortalized in Toru Dutt’s poem.

Appreciate The Poem

3. Read the lines given below and answer the questions that follow.

(a) “A creeper climbs, in whose embraces bound
No other tree could live.’’

Our Casuarina Tree Poem Figures Of Speech Question (i)
Which tree is referred to in the above lines?
Answer:
Casuarina tree is referred to in the above line.

Casuarina Tree In Tamil Question (ii)
How does the tree survive the tight hold of the creeper?
Answer:
The tree takes the tight hold of the creeper like the embraces of a lady love. So, it doesn’t hurt the tree. It grows stronger bearing the bite marks of love.

Our Casuarina Tree Question And Answer Question (iii)
Why does Toru Dutt use the expression ‘a creeper climbs’?
Answer:
A creeper cannot grow without the support of another tree or a pole. While climbing, it tries to sap the energy from the living tree. If the creeper doesn’t climb, it would die without sunlight. So, the poet says the creeper climbs. It twines its body around the tree and keeps climbing.

(b) “The giant wears the scarf, and flowers are hung
In crimson clusters all the bough among!”

(i) Who is the giant here?
Answer:
Casuarina tree is the giant here.

(ii) Why is the scarf colourful?
Answer:
The scarf is colourful because the tight embrace of the creeper has caused the crimson colour on its outer skin. The poem has a reference to the three young Dutt’s who were affected by tuberculosis and eventually died. The creeper could also refer to TB which sapped the tree’s life.

(c) “Fear, trembling Hope, and Death, the skeleton,
And Time the shadow”, and though weak the verse That would thy beauty fain, oh, fain rehearse,
May Love defend tree from oblivion’s curse.”

Our Casuarina Tree Poem Summary In Tamil Question (i)
What does the poet mean by the expression ‘May love defend thee from oblivion’s curse?’
Answer:
Any living thing will have to meet death. But the poet deeply believes that her love for the tree would ensure its immortality. She will live for ever in her verses.

12th English Unit 2 Poem Question (ii)
What does the expression ‘fain’ convey?
Answer:
Fain means eagerly.

Our Casuarina Tree Summary In Tamil Question (iii)
What does the poet convey through the expression ‘Fear, trembling hope’?
Fear and trembling hope mean the fear of lurking death and trembling hope is that death may not attack in the near future.

Additional Questions

Read the lines given below and answer the questions that follow.

(a) “And oft at nights the garden overflows
With one sweet song that seems to have no close,
Sung darkling from our tree, while men repose ”

Question (i)
What overflows the garden at night?
Answer:
One sweet song overflows in the garden at night.

Question (ii)
What is called the ‘darkling’?
Answer:
Nightingale is called the darkling.

Question (iii)
When does the bird sing her sweet song?
Answer:
The bird sings her sweet song when people sleep at night.

Question (b)
“A gray baboon sits statue-like alone
Watching the sunrise; while on lower boughs
His puny offspring leap about and play; ”

Question (i)
What is called a baboon?
Answer:
Baboon is a type of large monkey.

Question (ii)
What is curious about the baboon?
Answer:
The baboon sits like a statue and watches sunrise from the crest of the Casuarina tree.

Question (iii)
What do the puny offsprings of the monkey do?
Answer:
The puny offsprings of the monkey were leaping and playing at the lower branches of the tree.

(c) “But not because of its magnificence Dear is the Casuarina to my soul:
Beneath it we have played; though years may roll,”

Question (i)
What is not the cause for Toru Dutt’s love for the Casuarina tree?
Answer:
The magnificance or the impressive appearance of the tree is not the cause for Toru Dutt’s love for the Casuarina tree.

Question (ii)
What makes the tree dear to the poet?
Answer:
As children, the poet and her friends had played under the tree. This experience has made the tree dear to the poet.

Question (iii)
What is the poet unable to forget despite the passage of years?
Answer:
The poet is unable to forget the wonderful time she had under the tree with her friends.

(d) “For your sakes, shall the tree be ever dear.
Blent with your images, it shall arise
In memory, till the hot tears blind mine eyes!”

Question (i)
For whose sake the trees will be dear to the poet?
Answer:
For the sake of three younger Dutts who died of Tuberculosis, the tree will be dear to Toru ‘ Dutt.

Question (ii)
Whose images bring out hot tears?
Answer:
The images of siblings who died due to TB bring out hot tears.

Question (iii)
What blinds the poets’ eyes?
Answer:
Tears fill and blind her eyes.

Question (e)
“ What is that dirge-like murmur that I hear Like the sea breaking on a shingle-beach?
Answer:
It is the tree’s lament, an eerie speech, ”

Question (i)
What do you mean by dirge?
Answer:
‘Dirge’ means a lament for the dead.

Question (ii)
Why does the tree lament?
Answer:
The tree laments the absence of the poet.

Question (iii)
What appears to be an “eerie speech”?
The dirge like murmer appears to be an “eerie speech”.
OR
What do you mean by “eerie speech?”
Eerie speech means unearthly or ghostly speech.

(f) “Mine inner vision rose a form sublime,
Thy form, O Tree, as in my happy prime
I saw tbiee, in my own loved native clime.”

Question (i)
What rose in the mind of the poet?
Answer:
A glorious inner vision rose in the mind of the poet.

Question (ii)
What was found in the sublime inner vision?
Answer:
The tree’s youthful and handsome figure was found in the inner vision of the poet.

(iii) What do you mean by native clime?
Answer:
It means natural climate in the home background.

(g) “Therefore I fain rould consecrate a lay
Unto thy honor, Tree, beloved of those
Who now in blessed sleep for aye repose,”

Question (i)
What does the poet want to do?
Answer:
The poet wants to consecrate the tree.

Question (ii)
In whose honour does she want to consecrate the tree?
Answer:
She wants to consecrate the tree to the memory of her beloved siblings.

Question (iii)
What does ‘blessed sleep’ mean?
Answer:
‘Blessed sleep’ means death.

Question (h)
“Maysi thou be numbered when my days are done
With deathless trees – like those in Borrowdale,
Under whose awful branches lingered pale’”

Question (i)
What does the poet predict in the words “when my days are done”?
Answer:
The poet predicts her own death in the words “when my days are done”.

Question (iii)
What were the condition of the trees in Borrowdale?
Answer:
The tree was ageing fast. It looked sickly as if it was waiting for the sickle of death.

Question (iii)
Who made the tree deathless? How?
Answer:
William Wordsworth sang about the trees in Borrowdale and thus the trees became deathless.

4. Explain the following lines with reference to the context.

Question (a)
“Dear is the Casuarina to my soul;”
Answer:
Reference: These words are from the poem ‘Our Casuarina Tree” written by Torn Dutt.
Context and Explanation: The poet says this while highlighting the importance of Casuarina tree in her life. The poet explains that she, her friends and siblings have spent long hours playing and enjoying themselves under the tree’s shade. So, it is dear to her soul.

Question (b)
“It is the tree’s lament, an eerie speech,…”
Answer:
Reference: These words are from the poem ‘Our Casuarina Tree” written by Torn Dutt.
Context and Explanation: The poet says these words while explaining the grief experienced by the Casuarina tree in the long spells of her absence. Even when she was as far as in the coasts of Italy and France she could hear the murmer of grief or lament from her tree. It appeared an eerie speech.

Question (c)
“Unto thy honor, Tree, beloved of those
Who now in blessed sleep for aye repose,”
Answer:
Reference; These lines are from the poem ‘Our Casuarina Tree” written by Torn Dutt.
Context and Explanation: The poet says this while consecrating the memories of the tree to the dear departed. The poet remembers with pain three younger Dutts who succumbed to tuberculosis.

Additional Questions

Explain the following lines with reference to the context.

Question (a)
“A creeper climbs, in whose embraces bound No other tree could live”
Answer:
Reference: These words are from the poem ‘Our Casuarina Tree” written by Torn Dutt.
Context and Explanation: The poet says this while appreciating the strength of her Casuarina tree. The creeper saps the tree for its survival and growth. But the tree treats the creeper’s tight hold as a lover’s embrace. It ignores bite marks oflove.lt allows the creeper to lean on its trunk and live. The tree also grows stout and strong.

Question (b)
“The giant wears the scarf, and flowers are hung”
Answer:
Reference: These words are from the poem ‘Our Casuarina Tree” written by Toru Dutt.
Context and Explanation: The poet says these words while describing the might of the Casuarina tree. The climber has climbed around the tree like a python trying to sap its life out. But the gallant tree wears the creeper like a scarf around its neck. The poet calls the tree a ‘giant’ unmindful of the attempt of the creeper to strangle it.

Question (c)
“Sung darkling from our tree, while men repose”
Answer:
Reference: These lines are from the poem ‘Our Casuarina Tree” written by Toru Dutt.
Context and Explanation: The poet says this while describing Casuarina and its inhabitants at night. When men are sleeping, Darkling (i.e.) Nightingale sings sweetly from the Casuarina tree. It is a kind of a lullaby to sleeping humans.

Question (d)
“When first my casement is wide open thrown
At dawn, my eyes delighted on it rest;”
Answer:
Reference: These lines are from the poem ‘Our Casuarina Tree” written by Toru Dutt.
Context and Explanation: The poet says these words while talking about the early influences of the Casuarina tree in her life. Her day started with seeing the tree with delight. The very first thing she used to see was the Casuarina tree through her casement (i.e.) door like window.

Question (e)
“Unknown, yet well-known to the eye of faith! Ah,
I have heard that wail far, far away”
Reference: These words are from the poem ‘Our Casuarina Tree” written by Toru Dutt.
Context and Explanation: The poet says these words while talking about the faith-fuelled communication between herself and the Casuarina though divided by thousands of kilometers of distance. William Wordsworth also could sense communication of nature similar to Toru Dutt. The tree and the poet shared an emotional bond. Even when she was far away she could hear the ‘wail’ or lament of the tree expressing the grief of missing her presence.

Question (f)
“Thy form, O Tree, as in my happy prime
I saw thee, in my own loved native clime.”
Answer:
Reference: These lines are from the poem ‘Our Casuarina Tree” written by Toru Dutt.
Context and Explanation: The poet says these words recalling the appearance of the lush green giant Casuarina tree when she was a little girl. The image of the giant Casuarina tree is etched in the memory of the poet.

(g) “Dearer than life to me, alas, were they!”
Answer:
Reference: These lines are from the poem ‘Our Casuarina Tree” written by Toru Dutt.
Context and Explanation: The poet says these words while recalling younger Dutts who had succumbed to Tuberculosis. She remembers with poignance the numerous days they had spent under the Casuarina tree.

Question (h)
“May Love defend thee from oblivion’s curse. ”
Answer:
Reference: These lines are from the poem ‘Our Casuarina Tree” written by Tom Dutt.
Context and Explanation: The poet says these words while expressing her wish to ensure the immortality of the tree. Her love for the Casuarina tree frozen in her poem will invariably help the tree to escape the curse of death and death-caused oblivion or forgetfulness.

Question (i)
“Mays/ thou be numbered when my days are done With deathless trees – like those in Borrowdale,”
Answer:
Reference: These lines are from the poem ‘Our Casuarina Tree” written by Tom Dutt.
Context and Explanation: The poet says these words while sharing her obvious concern for the ageing Casuarina tree. She is sure that the tree may meet the fate of humans and all other trees. But her unfathomable love for the tree influences her to make it as immortal as the yew tree in Borrowdale which was immortalized by William Wordsworth.

5. Identify the figure of speech used in each of the extracts given below and write down the answer in the space given below. The first one is done for yon.

Question (а)
“LIKE a huge Python, winding round and round
The rugged trunk, indented deep with scars”,
Answer:
Zoomorphism / Simile

Question (b)
“A creeper climbs, in whose embraces bound
No other tree could live. But gallantly
The giant wears the scarf, and flowers are hung. ”
Answer:
Personification (As the creeper is said to embrace the tree, the tree also gallantly, like a bold lover, accepts the embrace)

Question (c)
“A gray baboon sits statue-like aloner”
Answer:
Simile

Question (d)
“The water-lilies spring, like snow enmassed.”
Answer:
Simile

Question (e)
“ What is that dirge – like murmur that I hear Like the sea breaking on a shingle – beach?”
Answer:
Simile

Additional Questions

Identify the figure of speech used in each of the extracts given below and write down the answer in the space given below. The first one is done for you.

Question (a)
“It is the tree’s lament, ”
Answer:
Personification

Question (b)
“Fear trembling hope. ”
Answer:
Personification

Question (e)
“Time the shadow”
Answer:
Metaphor

Question (d)
“The giant wears the scarf”
Answer:
Personification

Question (e)
“Like snow enmassed”
Answer:
Simile

Question (f)
“The waves gently kissed”
Answer:
Personification

Question (g)
“The earth lay tranced in dreamless…”
Answer:
Personification

Question (h)
“Ah, I have heard that wail far awayn
Answer:
Personification

6. Answer each of the following questions in a paragraph of 100 -150 words.

Question (a)
Describe the reminiscences of the poet, when she sees the casuarina tree.
Answer:
The poet remembers how her days started with the sight of the Casuarina tree from her casement. She remembers how her loving companions played under the giant Casuarina tree. The memory of her beloved companions bring hot tears because they had succumbed to cruel tuberculosis. She remembers how well the tree accomodated birds to sing songs duimg days and nights. The tree had allowed the creeper to embrace it like a lady love. Though it sapped its vitality, like a gallant lover, allowed the creeper to stay around its neck like a scarf. She remembers how a baboon seated at the crest of the tree had watched beautiful sunrise while her young ones were leaping and playing in the lower branches of the giant tree.

Question (b)
How does nature communicate with the poet?
Answer:
Like Wordsworth, Toru Dutt is also a great lover of nature. She has also had mystical experiences in communion with nature. The emotional bonding between herself and the giant Casuarina tree is beyond reason. When she is away on the shores of Italy and France, she could distinctly hear the dirge-like murmer of her beloved tree who obviously missed her. She could perceive it as the tree’s lament and eerie speech expressing its anguish over the long spells of her absence. Ordinary human eyes will fail to perceive the distinct communication of the Casuarina tree. But through the eyes of faith, similar to William Wordsworth’s inward eye in the poem ‘Daffodils’ it is possible. She was able to vividly see in her inner vision the sublime form of the Casuarina tree. The surprising thing is that she was able to see the tree in its prime in her own “loved native clime.”

Question (c)
The poet immortalizes the tree. Elucidate.
Answer:
The poet, Toru Dutt was conscious of the fact that her most endeared Casuarina tree was growing old. The fate that befalls aged humans and trees would ultimately grab the Casuarina tree too. Time, though slow, is ready with its sickle to harvest the lives of all living things. Being a well-read poet, she recalls how William Wordsworth had immortalised his favourite lonely tall yew tree in his poem, “Yew-trees”. Taking inspiration from him, she decides to prevent her favourite tree from dying and passing into the irreversible world of oblivion by writing a poem about the tree. True to her faith the tree lives on in our memories. As long as tongues can speak and eyes can see, the Casuarina tree will live in the hearts of millions of people till the end of the world.

Additional Questions

Question (a)
Give a summary of the poem
“Our casuatina tree”
Answer:
The poet Toru Dutt describes the perpetually young Casuarina tree in this poem. The tree is tall and mighty. A creeper winds around its huge and wide trunk like a python. Birds chirp happily. The poet is ecstatic seeing the tree from her casement / window. In fact, she greets the tree everyday soon after getting up from bed. She finds a baboon sitting like a statue on top of the tree. The cows are grazing in the lush green meadows around the tree. Water lilies add to the charm of the pond. She recalls that the tree is dear not because of its majestic looks but because of the nostalgic memories attached to it.

She remembers the happy times she had spent with her siblings, who are now no more, under the tree. They died of consumption. Their absence makes the tree much more endearing to the poet. Mysteriously she hears the grief-filled lament of the tree when she is on the shores of France and Italy. She consecrates the tree’s memory to her dear departed siblings. Taking inspiration from William Wordsworth’s poem ‘Yew-trees’, she also wishes to immortalize the Cauarina tree. So she sings about it in her poem.

Listening Activity

First read the questions given below, then listen to the poem, read aloud by the teacher or played on an audio player. Then answer the questions based on your listening of the poem.

Midnight Wonders
I was tossing in my bedin the midnight hour, struggling to get a wink of sleep, but my eyes lay on the clock tower.

I looked upon the dark sky; it was adorned with sparkling pearls, which giggled at meand put a shine to my curls.

I gazed at the chubby moon, who was white and glistening like milk. Gave me a lovely, motherly smile through her lips as rosy pink.

All these magnificent objects made my mind calm. My eyelids started drooping. I was grateful for their wonderful charm.

Nature had arrived to aid me when I was trying to catch sleep. She, with her caring palms, lulled me to a slumber, so deep.

Question 1.
The poet was tossing in the bed awake because ________
(a) he was worried
(b) he was struggling to sleep
(c) it was day time
(d) he was tired
Answer:
(b) he was struggling to sleep

Question 2.
The ________ were ‘sparkling as pearls’.
(a) moon
(b) sun
(c) stars
(d) meteoroids
Answer:
(c) stars

Question 3.
The ________ gave the poet a motherly smile.
(a) sun
(b) stars
(c) moon
(d) sky
Answer:
(c) moon

Question 4.
________ made the poet’s eyelids droop.
(a) Nature
(b) Rosy lips
(c) Songs
(d) Tiredness
Answer:
(a) Nature

Question 5.
________ is the title of the poem.
(a) Wonders
(b) Midnight Wonders
(c) Nature
(d) Midnight dreams
Answer:
(b) Midnight Wonders

Our Casuarina Tree About The Poet

Our Casuarina Tree Paragraph Samacheer Kalvi 12th English Solutions Poem Chapter 2

Torn Dutt (1856 – 1877) was a Bengali poet from the Indian subcontinent, who wrote in English and French. She was the third daughter of the family. The Dutt family was a family of distinguished intellectuals and poets. Despite being taught by British tutors, she retained her fondness for Indian culture and sensibilities. ‘Ancient Ballads’ and ‘Legends of Hindustan’ (1882) are her well-known collections of poems in English. She has to her credit a volume of poems in French titled ‘Sheaf Gleaned in French Fields’ (1875). ‘Our Casuarina Tree’, the most well-known of Toru’s poems, was included in her ‘Miscellaneous Poems’.

Our Casuarina Tree Summary in English

Introduction
12th English Our Casuarina Tree Samacheer Kalvi Chapter 2
‘Our Casuarina Tree’ is a most celebrated poem of Torn Dutt. The theme of the poem is about last friendships and lost childhood. The Casuarina Tree is the living symbol of their childhood friendship. So, she writes an ode to it.

Description of the tree
The poet recalls that the Casuarina Tree was almost tall enough to touch the stars. It was strong with scars on its trunk. Though the creeper had cut into its trunk, it had given its support like a gentleman, for the creeper to lean and grow.She remembers that the tree was always in full bloom giving room to bees and birds. Throughout her childhood, the tree was seen not only as a paragon of strength but also as gentle and peaceful asylum loved by birds and bees.

Mornings in the company of the Casuarina Tree
She always used to wake up to the sight of the tree. Whatever be the season (i.e.) winter or summer, her mornings would never be complete without seeing the the Casuarina Tree. She had often seen a baboon sitting at its crest. The poet paints a serene picture of the morning. Kokilas sing, cows graze in the pasture and water lillies smile in the spring. But the tree plays the central role in the mornings and in the life of the poet.

Reasons for the bonding between the tree and the poet

Our Casuarina Tree Poem Paragraph Samacheer Kalvi 12th English Solutions Chapter 2

The poet does not hold the tree dear just because of its gigantic structure. There was an emotional bond between her and the tree. She and her friends played under the tree during their childhood days. As she held her childhood friends dear she couldn’t think the tree apart because it had become a living reminder of her precious friends.

Lament of the friendly tree
Whenever the poet was away far in the coasts of Italy or France, she could hear the lament of the tree conveying its grief of feeling her absence. Strolling under moonlight on the sea coasts she could hear the sad song of the tree.It reminded her of the the Casuarina Tree. In moments of tranquil solitude. She travels down the memory lane to the childhood days which are interlinked with the Casuarina Tree. The tree has become an integral part of her life. She moved on. Her friends also did. But the tree is rooted to the same spot as a monument of her pure childhood friendship with her friends

Immortality conferred
Similar to Shakespeare, the poet believes in the ability of her poem to immortalize the Casuarina Tree. She wishes to add it to the list of deathless trees of Borrowdale. She expresses her wish that her love expressed in her poems would confer immortality on the tree. The tree would live forever.

Conclusion
The Casuarina Tree holds a special place in the heart of Torn Dutt because it was under the same tree she and her friends played. Her own younger siblings also had spent a lot of time under the tree. They had died. The tree had become a symbol of their everlasting friendship. So, the tree is endearing to the poet.

Our Casuarina Tree Summary in Tamil

முன்னுரை:

Our Casuarina Tree Poem Book Back Answers Samacheer Kalvi 12th English Solutions Poem Chapter 2

டோரு தத் அவர்களின் மிகவும் (புகழ் பெற்ற) கவிதை ‘Our Casuarina Tree’ “எங்கள் சவுக்கு மரம்” ஆகும். தொலைந்த நண்பர்கள் மற்றும் தொலைந்த குழந்தை பருவம் என்ற கருவை மையமாகக் கொண்ட கவிதை. சவுக்கு மரம் குழந்தை பருவ நட்பின் நினைவுச் சின்னமாகும். இந்தக் கவிதை அந்த மரத்திற்கு சமர்ப்ப ணம்.

மரத்தின் விளக்கம்:
வானத்து நட்சத்திரத்தைத் தொடும் அளவுக்கு சவுக்கு மரம் உயர்ந்து வளர்ந்திருந்தது எனக் கதையாசிரியர் நினைவு கூர்கிறார். அடிமரத்தில் ஆழமான தழும்புகள் காணப்படும் அளவுக்கு முரடான மரம் அது.
| தன்னைச் சுற்றியக் கொடிகளை பெருந்தன்மையுடன் படரவிட்டு கம்பீரமாக பூக்கள் பூக்க, கொத்தாக குலுங்க பறவைகளுக்கும், தேனீக்களுக்கும் இருப்பிடமாக நின்றது அம்மரம் என நினைவு கூர்கிறார்.

சவுக்கு மரத்தடியில் கழிந்த காலை காலைப் பொழுதுகள்:
அதிகாலை கண்விழித்துப் பார்க்கும் போது முதலில் தெரிவது சவுக்கு மரம்தான். எக்காலமாக இருப்பினும், மழைக் காலமோ அல்லது வெயில் காலமோ சவுக்கு மரத்தைக் காணாமல் தன் பொழுது நிறைவடைவதில்லை என்கிறார். உச்சியில் ஒரு வாலில்லாக் குரங்கு மரத்தில் உட்கார்ந்து இருப்பது அவர் அடிக்கடி காணும் காட்சியாக இருந்தது. கவிஞர் அதிகாலை வேலையின் அமைதியை வர்ணிக்கிறார். குயில்கள் கூவுவதும், மாடுகள் புல்வெளியில் மேய்ந்துக் கொண்டிருப்பதும், இளவேனிற் காலத்தில் அல்லிப் பூக்கள் பூத்துக் குலுங்குவதுமே அந்தக் காட்சி. அந்த மரம் கருத்தில் நின்றது அதிகாலை வேலையிலும் மற்றும் கவிஞரின் வாழ்க்கையிலும் எனலாம்.

மரத்திற்கும், கவிஞருக்கும் ஏற்பட்ட உறவின் காரணம்:

Our Casuarina Tree Appreciation Questions Samacheer Kalvi 12th English Solutions Poem Chapter 2

மரத்தின் பிரம்மாண்டத்திற்காக மட்டும் அவர் அதன்பால், ஈர்க்கப்படவில்லை . இருவருக்கும் | இடையே உணர்ச்சி பூர்வமான நெருக்கம் இருந்தது. | கவிஞரும் அவர் தோழிகளும் அம்மரத்தடியில் குழந்தைப் பருவத்தில் விளையாடி உள்ளனர். தன் சிறு வயது தோழிகள் போலவே அவர் அந்த மரத்திற்கும் தன் இதயத்தில் இடமளித்திருந்தார். அவர் அந்த மரத்தைப் பிரித்து பார்த்ததே இல்லை. ஏனெனில், அது தன் தோழிகளை நினைவூட்டும் அது சின்னமாக அமைந்துவிட்டது.

அன்பார்ந்த மரத்தின் புலம்பல்:
அம்மரத்திடம் இருந்து தூரமாக இத்தாலியிலோ, | பிரான்ஸ் நாட்டிலோ இருந்தால் அந்த மரம் கவிஞரை காணாமல் அழுது புலம்புவது கேட்பதாக கூறுகிறார். நிலவொளியில் கடலோரம் நடக்கும் போது அம்மரம் வேதனையோடு பாடும் பாட்டு சத்தம் கேட்பதாகக் கூறுகிறார். அந்தத் தருணங்கள் சவுக்கு மரத்தை நினைவு கூர்ந்தன. தனிமையில் அங்ஙனம் தோன்றுகிறது என்கிறார். தன் | நினைவுப் பாதையில் கீழிறங்கிச் செல்கையில் சிறு | பருவத்தில் சவுக்கு மரத்துடன் உண்டான நெருக்கத்தை நினைவு கூர்கிறார். இளம் பருவத்தில் காச நோயால் மரணம் அடைந்த தனது

சாகாவரம் பெற்றது:
சேக்ஸ்பியர் போல் தன் கவிதை வாயிலாக சவுக்கு மரம் சாகாவரம் பெறக் கூடும் என நம்புகிறார். வேர்ட்ஸ்வெர்த்தின் பொர்ரோடேலின் (Borrowdale) சாகாவரம் பெற்ற மரங்களின் வரிசையில் இதையும் சேர்க்க விரும்புகிறார். இந்த மரம் சாகாவரம் பெற்று வாழும்.

முடிவுரை:
சவுக்கு மரம் டொரு டத்தின் மனதில் ஓர் அரிய இடத்தைப் பிடிக்கக் காரணம் அவரும் அவர் தம் தோழிகளும் அதன் அடியில் விளையாடியதே எனலாம். அந்த மரம் அவர்களின் நிரந்தரமான தோழமையின் அடையாளமாகத் திகழ்ந்தது. அதனால் தான் அம்மரம் கவிஞரின் அன்புக்குரியதாய்த் திகழ்ந்தது.

Our Casuarina Tree Glossary

Textual:
Our Casuarina Tree Book Back Answers Samacheer Kalvi 12th English Solutions Poem Chapter 2

Additional:

Our Casuarina Tree Poem 12th English Samacheer Kalvi Chapter 2