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Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 11th English Reading Note-Making and Summarizing

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Notes are short written record of facts to aid the memory. Notes are usually taken to record a speech or dictation while listening to it or after reading a book, magazine or article. They are referred back whenever needed and may be reproduced in the desired way.


A Good Business Letter Note Making The Necessity Of Note-Making

Knowledge is vast and unlimited, but our memory is limited. We cannot remember all the information all the time. Hence note-making is necessary. With the help of notes we can recall the entire information read/heard months ago. It is quite useful to students preparing for many subjects. At the time of examinations, it is not possible to go through voluminous books. At such critical times, notes are quite handy. Hence note-making fulfils three useful functions:
(i) It keeps a lot of information at our disposal for ready reference.
(ii) It helps us reconstruct what was said or written and thus accelerates the process of remembering/recall.
(iii) It comes in handy in delivering a speech, participation in a debate/discussion, writing an essay and revising lessons before an examination.

How Note-Making Helps Us

While making notes we do not simply read the passage/listen to speech but consider various points made by the writer/speaker and draw our own inferences about what is being presented. Thus note-making helps us in understanding the passage in a better way and organising our thoughts systematically.


Characteristics Of Good Notes

  • Short and Compact: Good notes must be short and compact.
  • Complete Information: They must contain all the important information.
  • Logical: They must be presented in a logical way.
  • Understandable: They should be understandable when consulted at a later stage.

Mechanics Of Note-Making

While making notes we follow certain standard practices. These may be listed as follows:
(a) Heading and Sub-headings
(b) Abbreviation and Symbols
(c) Note-form
(d) Numbering and Indentation

Heading And Sub-Headings
The heading reflects the main theme whereas the sub-headings point out how it has been developed. The selection of proper heading and sub-heading reveals the grasp of the passage by the students. In the absence of proper assimilation of main ideas and subsidiary points it is impossible to make notes.


Abbreviations And Symbols
They are used for precision and economy of words and hence quite helpful in note-making. At least four recognisable abbreviations are to be used in note-making in your board examination. These are essential components of note-making. Students often make use of abbreviations and symbols in doing their written work.

Conversation Is Indeed The Most Easily Solved Questions
Read the following passages carefully:

Conversation Is Indeed The Most Easily Teachable Passage Answers Passage 1
1. The conversation is indeed the most easily teachable of all arts. All you need to do in order to become a good conversationalist is to find a subject that interests you and your listeners. There are, for example, numberless hobbies to talk about. But the important thing is that you must talk about other fellow’s hobby rather than your own. Therein lies the secret of your popularity. Talk to your friends about the things that interest them, and you will get a reputation for good fellowship, charming wit, and a brilliant mind. There is nothing that pleases people so much as your interest in their interest.


2. It is just as important to know what subjects to avoid and what subjects to select for good conversation. If you don’t want to be set down as a wet blanket or a bore, be careful to avoid certain unpleasant subjects. Avoid talking about yourself, unless you are asked to do so. People are interested in their own problems, not in yours. Sickness or death bores everybody. The only one who willingly listens to such talk is the doctor, but he gets paid for it.

3. To be a good conversationalist you must know not only what to say, but how also to say it. Be mentally quick and witty. But don’t hurt others with your wit. Finally, try to avoid mannerisms in your conversation. Don’t bite your lips or click your tongue, or roll your eyes or use your hands excessively as you speak.

4. Don’t be like that Frenchman who said, “How can I talk if you hold my hand?”

11th English Summary Writing Questions:
A. On the basis of your understanding of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary. Give an appropriate title.
B. Write a summary of the above passage in about 80 words.
A. TITLE: The Art of Conversation NOTES:
1. Conv’n—most easily tch’ble art
(i) Reqd. interest’g subject – hobbies
(ii) Talk abt other fellow’s int./hobby
(iii) Win’g reptn. as good conversationalist
(a) good f ’ship
(b) charm’g wit
(c) brl. mind


2. Fit subs, for conversationalist
(i) What subs, to avoid/select?
(ii) Avoid unpl’nt subs.
(a) sickness
(b) death
(iii) Avoid talk’g abt self

3. Qualities A a good conversationalist
(i) What to say & how to say it
(ii) ment’y quick & witty
(iii) pleasant & unhurt’g
(iv) avoid mannerisms

Key to Abbreviations and Symbols used

  • Conv’n – Conversation
  • tch’ble – teachable
  • Reqd. – Required
  • interest’g – interesting
  • abt – about
  • int. – interest
  • Win’g – Winning
  • reptn. – reputation
  • f’ship – friendship
  • charm’g – charming
  • brl. – brilliant
  • subs. – subjects
  • unpl’nt – unpleasant
  • talk’g – talking
  • A – of
  • ment’y – mentally
  • & – and
  • unhurt’g – unhurting


B. Summary
Conversation is the easiest and the most effective tool than other arts. To have such attractive quality, you need to pick a subject that interests your listeners more than you. Talk to your friends on topics that can indulge your friends in the conversation for a longer period of time. Being a good conversationalist, you have to be quick and witty. You should have a pleasant and unhurting quality. Mannerism should be avoided.

Passage 2
1. A good business letter is one that gets results. The best way to get results is to develop a letter that, in its appearance, style and content, conveys information efficiently. To perform this function, a business letter should be concise, clear and courteous.

2. The business letter must be concise: don’t waste words. Little introduction or preliminary chat is necessary. Get to the point, make the point, and leave it. It is safe to assume that your letter is being read by a very busy person with all kinds of papers to deal with. Re-read and revise your message until the words and sentences you have used are precise. This takes time, but is a necessary part of a good business letter. A short business letter that makes its point quickly has much more impact on a reader than a long-winded, rambling exercise in creative writing. This does not mean that there is no place for style and even, on occasion, humour in the business letter. While it conveys a message in its contents, the letter also provides the reader with an impression of you, its author: the medium is part of the message.


3. The business letter must be clear. You should have a very firm idea of what you want to say, and you should let the reader know it. Use the structure of the letter—the paragraphs, topic sentences, introduction and conclusion—to guide the reader point by point from your thesis, through your reasoning, to your conclusion. Paragraph often, to break up the page and to lend an air of organisation to the letter. Use an accepted business-letter format. Re-read what you have written from the point of view of someone who is seeing it for the first time, and be sure that all explanations are adequate, all information provided (including reference numbers, dates, and other identification). A clear message, clearly delivered, is the essence of business communication.

4. The business letter must be courteous. Sarcasm and insults are ineffective and can often work against you. If you are sure you are right, point that out as politely as possible. Explain why you are right, and outline what the reader is expected to do about it. Another form of courtesy j is taking care in your writing and typing of the business letter. Grammatical and spelling errors (even if you call them typing errors) tell a reader that you don’t think enough of him or can > lower the reader’s opinion of your personality faster than anything you say, no matter how idiotic. There are excuses for ignorance; there are no excuses for sloppiness.


5. The business letter is your custom-made representative. It speaks for you and is a permanent record of your message. It can pay big dividends on the time you invest in giving it a concise message, a clear structure, and a courteous tone.

Note Making Conversation Is Indeed Questions:
A. On the basis of your understanding of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary. Give an appropriate title.
B. Write a summary of the above passage in about 80 words.
A. TITLE: Writing a Business Letter
1. Features of a gd. busns. letter
(i) conveys info efficiently to get results
(ii) is concise
(iii) is clear
(iv) is courteous


2. How to write a gd. busns. letter
(i) Making letter concise
(a) Intro shd be brief
(b) make ur pt in precise words and sent’s
(c) short letr more effective
(d) style is imp.—may ocasnly have hum’
(ii) Achieving clarity
(a) Have a clear idea of what you wish to say
(b) structr the letter—intro & conclsn.
(c) use accepted format; para, topic, sent’s
(d) check facts, expl’ns, refs.
(iii) Bejng courteous
(a) Expin. ur pt. politely—avoid sarcasm/insults.
(b) careful wrtg & typg.
(c) gram. & spel’g errors to be avoided

3. Importance of busns. letr
(i) a representative
(ii) permanent rec. message


Key to Abbreviations and Symbols used

  • gd – good
  • busns – business
  • info – information
  • shd – should
  • letr – letter
  • pt – point
  • sent’s – sentences
  • ur – your
  • imp – important
  • ocasnly – occasionally
  • hum’r – humour
  • & – and
  • structr – structure
  • intro – introduction
  • conclsn – conclusion
  • para – paragraphs
  • expl’ns – explanations
  • refs – references
  • Expln – Explain
  • wrtg – writing
  • typg – typing
  • gram – grammar
  • spel’g – spelling
  • rec – record


B. Summary
A good business letter is that lends you positive and quality results. To get such results, a business letter should be effective in appearance, style and content. Apart from this a letter should be concise, clear and courteous. The business letter should be to the point as the message can be clear to the reader with an impression of you. The structure of letter should have topic sentence, introduction, paragraphs to conclusion. Re-read the points you have written to avoid sarcasm and insults that can work against your motive. Further more grammar and spelling errors need to be avoided.

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