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Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Solutions Chapter 5 Taxonomy and Systematic Botany

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Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Taxonomy and Systematic Botany Text Book Back Questions and Answers

I. Multiple Choice Questions
Choose the correct answer
Question 1.
Specimen derived from non – original collection serves as the nomenclatural type, when original specimen is missing. It is known as …………… .
(a) Holotype
(b) Neotype
(c) Isotype
(d) Paratype
Answer:
(b) Neotype

Question 2.
Phylogenetic classification is the most favoured classification because it reflects …………… .
(a) Comparative Anatomy
(b) Number of flowers produced
(c) Comparative cytology
(d) Evolutionary relationships
Answer:
(d) Evolutionary relationships

Question 3.
The taxonomy which involves the similarities and dissimilarities among the immune system of different taxa is termed as …………… .
(a) Chemotaxonomy
(b) Molecular systematics
(c) Serotaxonomy
(d) Numerical taxonomy
Answer:
(c) Serotaxonomy

Question 4.
Which of the following is a flowering plant with nodules containing filamentous nitrogen – fixing micro – organisms?
(a) Crotalaria juncea
(b) Cycas revoluta
(c) Cicer arietinum
(d) Casuarina equisetifolia
Answer:
(a) Crotalaria juncea

Question 5.
Flowers are zygomorphic in …………… .
(a) Ceropegia
(b) Thevetia
(c) Datura
(d) Solarium
Answer:
(a) Ceropegia

Question 6.
What is the role of national gardens in conserving biodiversity – discuss.
Answer:
Botanical Gardens plays the following important roles.

  1. Gardens with aesthetic value which attract a large number of visitors. For example, the Great Banyan Tree (Ficus benghalensis) in the Indian Botanical Garden at Kolkata
  2. Gardens have a wide range of species and supply taxonomic material for botanical research.
  3. Garden is used for self-instruction or demonstration purposes.

Question 7.
Where will you place the plants which contain two cotyledons with cup shaped thalamus?
Answer:
The plants which contain two cotyledons with cup shaped thalamus:

  • Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Subclass: Polypetalae
  • Series: Calyciflorae

Question 8.
How does molecular markers work to unlock the evolutionary history of organisms?
Answer:
Molecular taxonomy using molecular markers like RAPD’s etc, helps in establishing the relationship between the members of different taxonomic groups at DNA level. Thus it helps to unlock the evolutionary history of  organisms.

Question 9.
Give the floral characters of Clitoria ternatea.
Answer:
Flower: Bracteate, bracteolate, bracteoles usually large, pedicellate, heterochlamydeous, complete, bisexual, pentamerous, zygomorphic and hypogynous.

Question 10.
How will you distinguish Solanaceae members from Liliaceae members?
Answer:

Characters

Solanaceae members

Liliaceae members

Root Branched taproot Adventitious fibrous root
Stem Herbaceous bulbous / rhizomatous
Leaf Reticulate venation Parallel venation
Inflorescence Solitary and axillary cyme Simple or branched raceme
Flowers pentamerous Trimerous
Androecium Stamens 5, epipetalous Stamens 6, epiphyllous
Gynoecium Bicarpellary Tricarpellary

Textbook Activities Solved

Question 1.
Write common name and scientific name of 10 different plants around your home.
Answer:

Common name of plants Scientific name of plants
1. Mango 1. Mangifera indica
2. Banana 2. Musa paradisiaca
3. Shoe flower 3. Hibiscus rosa – sinensis
4. Neem 4. Azadirachta indica
5. Coconut 5. Cocus nucifera
6. Rice 6. Oryza sativa
7. Onion 7. Allium cepa
8. Tomato 8. Solanum lycopersicum
9. Carrot 9. Dacus carota
10. Brinjal 10. Solanum melongena

Question 2.
Can you identify this?
Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Solutions Chapter 5 Taxonomy and Systematic Botany 6
(a) Name the family
(b) Write the binomial
(c) List the economic uses
Answer:
(a) Liliaceae family
(b) Aloe vera
(c) List the economic uses:

  • The gel – like part of Aloe vera contain proteole enzymes which repairs and rejunuveates the skin.
  • It acts as a great conditioner for hair.
  • Aloe juice acts as coolant and soothes gastric problems like ulcer.

Entrance Examination Questions Solved

Choose the correct answer:
Question 1.
Leaves become modified into spines in …………… . [AIPMT – 2015]
(a) Silk Cotton
(b) Opuntia
(c) Pea
(d) Onion
Answer:
(b) Opuntia

Question 2.
Keel is the characteristic feature of flower of …………… . [AIPMT – 2015]
(a) Tomato
(b) Tulip
(c) Indigofera
(d) Aloe
Answer:
(c) Indigofera

Question 3.
Perigynous flowers are found in …………… .[AIPMT – 2015]
(a) Rose
(b) Guava
(c) Cucumber
(d) China rose
Answer:
(a) Rose

Question 4.
Which one of the following statements is correct? [AIPMT – 2014]
(a) The seed in grasses is not endospermic
(b) Mango is a parthenocarpic fruit
(c) A proteinaceous aleurone layer is present in maize grain
(d) A sterile pistil is called a staminode
Answer:
(c) A proteinaceous aleurone layer is present in maize grain

Question 5.
An example of edible underground stem is …………… . [AIPMT – 2014]
(a) Carrot
(b) Groundnut
(c) Sweet potato
(d) Potato
Answer:
(d) Potato

Question 6.
Placenta and pericarp are both edible portions in …………… . [AIPMT – 2014]
(a) Apple
(b) Banana
(c) Tomato
(d) Potato
Answer:
(c) Tomato

Question 7.
When the margins of sepals or petals overlap one another without any particular direction, the condition is termed as …………… . [AIPMT – 2014]
(a) Vexillary
(b) Imbricate
(c) Twisted
(d) Valvate
Answer:
(b) Imbricate

Question 8.
An aggregate fruit is one which develops from …………… . [AIPMT – 2014]
(a) Multicarpellary syncarpous gynoecium
(b) Multicarpellary apocarpous gynoecium
(c) Complete inflorescence
(d) Multicarpellary superior ovary
Answer:
(b) Multicarpellary apocarpous gynoecium

Question 9.
Non – albuminous seed is produced in …………… .
(a) Maize
(b) Castor
(c) Wheat
(d) Pea
Answer:
(d) Pea

Question 10.
Seed coat is not thin, membranous in …………… .
(a) Coconut
(b) Groundnut
(c) Gram
(d) Maize
Answer:
(a) Coconut

Question 11.
In china rose the flower are …………… .
(a) Actinomorphic,. Epigynous with valvate aestivation
(b) Zygomorphic, hypogynous with imbricate aestivation
(c) Zygomorphic, epigynous with twisted aestivation
(d) Actinomorphic, hypogynous with twisted aestivation
Answer:
(d) Actinomorphic, hypogynous with twisted aestivation

Question 12.
Placentation in tomato and lemon is …………… .
(a) Marginal
(b) Axile
(c) Parietal
(d) Free central
Answer:
(b) Axile

Question 13.
Vexillary aestivation is characteristic of the family …………… .
(a) Solanaceae
(b) Brassicaceae
(c) Fabaceae
(d) Asteraceae
Answer:
(c) Fabaceae

Question 14.
Phyllode is present in …………… . [AIPMT Prelims – 2012]
(a) Australian Acacia
(b) Opuntia
(c) Asparagus
(d) Euphorbia
Answer:
(c) Asparagus

Question 15.
How many plants in the list given below have composite fruits that develop from an inflorescence? Walnut, poppy, radish,pineapple, apple, tomato …………… . [AIPMT Prelims – 2012]
(a) Two
(b) Three
(c) Four
(d) Five
Answer:
(a) Two

Question 16.
Cymose inflorescence is present in …………… . [AIPMT Prelims – 2012]
(a) Trifolium
(b) Brassica
(c) Solanum
(d) Sesbania
Answer:
(b) Brassica

Question 17.
Which one of the following organism is correctly matched with its three characteristics? [AIPMT Mains – 2012]
(a) Pea : C3 pathway, Endospermic seed,Vexillary aestivation
(b) Tomato : Twisted aestivation, Axile placentation, Berry
(c) Onion : Bulb, Imbricate aestivation, Axile placentation
(d) Maize : C3 pathway, Closed vascular bundles, scutellum
Answer:
(c) Onion : Bulb, Imbricate aestivation, Axile placentation

Question 18.
How many plants in the list given below have marginal placentation? Mustard, Gram, Tulip, Asparagus, Arhar,sun hemp, Chilli, Colchicine, Onion,Moong, Pea, Tobacco, Lupin …………… . [AIPMT Mains – 2012]
(a) Four
(b) Five
(c) Six
(d) Three
Answer:
(c) Six

Question 19.
The Eyes of the potato tuber are …………… . [AIPMT Prelims – 2011]
(a) Axillary buds
(b) Root buds
(c) Flower buds
(d) Shoot buds
Answer:
(a) Axillary buds

Question 20.
Which one of the following statements is correct? [AIPMT Prelims – 2011]
(a) Flower of tulip is a modified shoot
(b) In tomato, fruit is a capsule
(c) Seeds of orchids have oil – rich endosperm
(d) Placentation in primrose is basal
Answer:
(d) Placentation in primrose is basal

Question 21.
A drup develops in …………… . [AIPMT Prelims-2011]
(a) Tomato
(b) Mango
(c) Wheat
(d) Pea
Answer:
(b) Mango

Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Taxonomy and Systematic Botany Additional Questions and Answers

I. Multiple Choice Questions
Choose the correct answer:
Question 1.
Who is called as the father of Botany?
(a) Linnaeus
(b) Theophrastus
(c) Darwin
(d) Thales
Answer:
(b) Theophrastus

Question 2.
…………… is the lowest level of classification.
(a) Kingdom
(b) Class
(c) Order
(d) Species
Answer:
(d) Species

Question 3.
Who proposed the concept of “idos” or species?
(a) Theophrastus
(b) Stebbians
(c) Darwin
(d) Plato
Answer:
(d) Plato

Question 4.
Which type of species develop by the process of evolution?
(a) Taxonomic species
(b) Morphological species
(c) Biological species
(d) Phylogenetic species
Answer:
(c) Biological species

Question 5.
Who first proposed the early elementary rule of naming plants?
(a) A.P.de Candolle
(b) Linnaeus
(c) Alphonse de Candolle
(d) Simpson
Answer:
(b) Linnaeus

Question 6.
Isolation species can also be called as …………… Species.
(a) Biological
(b) Taxonomical
(c) Phylogenetic
(d) Morphological
Answer:
(a) Biological

Question 7.
18th International Botanical congress was held at …………… .
(a) Sydney
(b) Leningard
(c) Melbourne
(d) London
Answer:
(c) Melbourne

Question 8.
In 2017, …………… International Botanical congress was held at Shenzhen.
(a) 17th
(b) 18th
(c) 19th
(d) 20th
Answer:
(c) 19th

Question 9.
The vernacular name of Albizia amara in South Tamilnadu is …………… .
(a) Thurinji
(b) Kurinji
(c) Nithyakalyani
(d) Usilai
Answer:
(d) Usilai

Question 10.
…………… is a descriptive phrase of a plant.
(a) Vernacular name
(b) Binomial
(c) Polynomial
(d) Botanical name
Answer:
(c) Polynomial

Question 11.
…………… introduced the concept of Binomial nomenclature.
(a) Linnaeus
(b) Gaspard Bauhin
(c) Darwin
(d) Wallace
Answer:
(b) Gaspard Bauhin

Question 12.
Duplicate specimen of holotype is …………… .
(a) Lectotype
(b) Isotype
(c) Neotype
(d) Syntype
Answer:
(b) Isotype

Question 13.
…………… are the tools for identifying unfamiliar plants.
(a) Flora
(b) Keys
(c) Monograph
(d) Catalogues
Answer:
(b) Keys

Question 14.
…………… is a complete global account of a taxon of any rank.
(a) Flora
(b) Keys
(c) Monograph
(d) Catalogues
Answer:
(c) Monograph

Question 15.
The first botanical garden was established and maintained by …………… .
(a) Linnaeus
(b) Babylonians
(c) Theophrastus
(d) Stebbins
Answer:
(c) Theophrastus

Question 16.
First modern botanical garden was established by …………… .
(a) Theophrastus
(b) Linnaeus
(c) Luca Ghini
(d) Stebbins
Answer:
(c) Luca Ghini

Question 17.
…………… is the largest botanical garden in world.
(a) Royal Botanical garden
(b) Madras Presidency College
(c) Indian Botanical Garden
(d) New York Botanical garden
Answer:
(a) Royal Botanical garden

Question 18.
Who is called as father of taxonomy?
(a) Engler & Prantl
(b) Linnaeus
(c) Theophrastus
(d) Darwin
Answer:
(b) Linnaeus

Question 19.
Number of stamen(s) in monandria is …………… .
(a) 4
(b) 3
(c) 2
(d) 1
Answer:
(d) 1

Question 20.
Sexual system of classification is also called as …………… .
(a) Natural system
(b) Artificial system
(c) Phylogenetic
(d) APG system
Answer:
(b) Artificial system

Question 21.
Number of series under Polypetalae.
(a) 1
(b) 2
(c) 3
(d) 4
Answer:
(c) 3

Question 22.
Which series includes epigynous flowers with inferior ovary?
(a) Heteromerae
(b) Disaflorea
(c) Inferae
(d) Thalanifloreae
Answer:
(c) Inferae

Question 23.
Undistinguished sepal and petal is called as …………… .
(a) Petaloid
(b) Staminode
(c) Perianth
(d) Sepaloid
Answer:
(c) Perianth

Question 24.
Which is not a family of gymnospermae?
(a) Gnetaceae
(b) Equistae
(c) Coniferae
(d) Cycadaceae
Answer:
(b) Equistae

Question 25.
Which is not a monocotyledon character?
(a) One cotyledon
(b) Parallel venation
(c) Pentamerous
d) Fibrous root
Answer:
(c) Pentamerous

Question 26.
Number of divisions in Engler and Prantl classification?
(a) 10
(b) 11
(c) 12
(d) 13
Answer:
(d) 13

Question 27.
“The evolution and classification of flowering plants” – book was written by …………… .
(a) Engler & Prantl
(b) Bentham & Hooker
(c) Cronquist
(d) Theophrasthus
Answer:
(c) Cronquist

Question 28.
Which of the following is not a clade of APG – classification?
(a) Early angiosperm
(b) Early gymnosperm
(c) Monocots
(d) Eudicots
Answer:
(b) Early gymnosperm

Question 29.
The term biosystematics was introduced by …………… .
(a) Bauhin
(b) Camp & Gilly
(c) Cronquist
(d) Smith
Answer:
(b) Camp & Gilly

Question 30.
Taxonomy based on chromosomal number & characteristics is called …………… .
(a) Serotaxonomy
(b) Cytotaxonomy
(c) Chemotaxonomy
(d) Molecular taxonomy
Answer:
(b) Cytotaxonomy

Question 31.
Classification based on protein content is called …………… .
(a) Serotaxonomy
(b) Cytotaxonomy
(c) Chemotaxonomy
(d) Molecular taxonomy
Answer:
(a) Serotaxonomy

Question 32.
DNA bar coding was introduced by …………… .
(a) Stebbins
(b) Hebert
(c) Camp & Gilly
(d) Darwin
Answer:
(b) Hebert

Question 33.
Biosystematics is also called as …………… .
(a) α – taxonomy
(b) S – taxonomy
(c) Ω – taxonomy
(d) β – taxonomy
Answer:
(c) Ω – taxonomy

Question 34.
Outcome of cladistics analysis is …………… .
(a) Monogram
(b) Monograph
(c) Cladogram
(d) Cladograph
Answer:
(c) Cladogram

Question 35.
Taxa comprising all the descendents of a common ancestor.
(a) Monophyletic group
(b) Diphyletic group
(c) Paraphyletic group
(d) Polyphyletic group
Answer:
(a) Monophyletic group

Question 36.
Papilionaceous corolla is seen in …………… family.
(a) Apocyanaceae
(b) Fabaceae
(c) Solanaceae
(d) Liliaceae
Answer:
(b) Fabaceae

Question 37.
Stipitate ovary is seen in …………… .
(a) Solanaceae
(b) Liliaceae
(c) Fabaceae
(d) Apocyanaceae
Answer:
(a) Solanaceae

Question 38.
Number of genus in fabaceae is …………… .
(a) about 131
(b) about 741
(c) about 751
(d) about 761
Answer:
(b) About 741

Question 39.
The characteristic fruit of fabaceae is …………… .
(a) Regima
(b) Legume
(c) Hespiridium
(d) Berry
Answer:
(b) Legume

Question 40.
In Arachis hypogea, the fruit development is …………… .
(a) Syncarpic
(b) Apocarpic
(c) Geocarpic
(d) Photocarpic
Answer:
(c) Geocarpic

Question 41.
Which of the following plants root is a Immunomodulator?
(a) Glycirrhiza glabra
(b) Dalbergia latifolia
(c) Mucum pruriens
(d) Crotolaria jurcea
Answer:
(a) Glycirrhiza glabra

Question 42.
Indigo dye is obtained from plant.
(a) Lupin
(b) Avuri
(c) Sesban
(d) Agathi
Answer:
(b) Avuri

Question 43.
Which plant is commonly called as the “Flame of the forest”?
(a) Clitoritematea
(b) Butea frondosa
(c) Lupinus hirsutus
(d) Butea monosperma
Answer:
(b) Butea frondosa

Question 44.
Which year is declared as the “International year of the pulses”.
(a) 2017
(b) 2018
(c) 2015
(d) 2016
Answer:
(d) 2016

Question 45.
Which is called as “Night Shade family”?
(a) Solanaceae
(b) Fabaceae
(c) Apocyanaceae
(d) Liliaceae
Answer:
(a) Solanaceae

Question 46.
Rhiphidium inflorescence is seen in …………… .
(a) Solanum nigrum
(b) Solanum tuberosum
(c) Datura
(d) Withania somnifera
Answer:
(a) Solatium nigrum

Question 47.
The fruit of Datura metal is …………… .
(a) Spinescent Capsule
(b) Regma
(c) Legume
(d) Capsule
Answer:
(a) Spinescent capsule

Question 48.
Plicate inflorescence is seen in …………… .
(a) Solanum nigrum
(b) Datura metal
(c) Petunia hybrida
(d) Solanum tuberosum
Answer:
(b) Datura metal

Question 49.
…………… drug is used to treat asthma & whooping cough.
(a) Atropine
(b) Stramonium
(c) Anabasine
(d) Normicotine
Answer:
(b) Stramonium

Question 50.
Inflorescence in Aloe is …………… .
(a) Compound Spadix
(b) Spike
(c) Paricle
(d) Solitary
Answer:
(b) Spike

Question 51.
Carpels are obliquely placed in …………… .
(a) Fabaceae
(b) Solanaceae
(c) Liliaceae
(d) Apocyanaeae
Answer:
(b) Solanaceae

Question 52.
Septal glands are present in the gynoeciums of …………… .
(a) Solanaceae
(b) Liliaceae
(c) Fabaceae
(d) Apocyanaeae
Answer:
(b) Liliaceae

Question 53.
…………… is an alkaloid that induces polyploidy.
(a) Nictonine
(b) Stramonium
(c) Atropine
(d) Colchicine
Answer:
(d) Colchicine

Question 54.
The leaves of …………… is used in hemorrhoidal salves & shampoos.
(a) Aloe barbadense
(b) Aloevera
(c) Allium sativum
(d) Allium cepa
Answer:
(b) Aloevera

Question 55.
Botanical survey of India has …………… regional centres in India.
(a) 10
(b) 11
(c) 12
(d) 13
Answer:
(b) 11

Question 56.
Synstamenous condition is seen in …………… .
(a) Haemodorum
(b) Ruscus
(c) Paris quadrfolia
(d) Maianthenum
Answer:
(b) Ruscus

Question 57.
Scapigerous inflorescence is seen in …………… .
(a) Allium sativum
(b) Allium cepa
(c) Aloevera
(d) Maenodorum
Answer:
(b) Allium cepa

Question 58.
Number of stamens in Schizanthus is …………… .
(a) 2
(b) 3
(c) 4
(d) 5
Answer:
(a) 2

Question 59.
Extra axillary scorpiod cyme is called …………… .
(a) Spike
(b) Monochasical cyme
(c) Helicoid cyme
(d) Rhiphidium
Answer:
(d) Rhiphidium

II. Very Short Answer Type Questions (2 Marks)

Question 1.
Define Taxonomy.
Answer:
Taxonomy is “the science dealing with the study of classification including the bases, principles, rules and procedures”.

Question 2.
List out the various rank or taxa of taxonomic hierarchy.
Answer:
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species

Question 3.
Which is the lowest taxon in classification? Define.
Answer:
Species is the lowest taxon in classification. It is defined as the group of individuals which are closely resembling each other and interbreed among themselves producing fertile offspring.

Question 4.
Define Nomenclature.
Answer:
Assigning name for a plant is known as Nomenclature.

Question 5.
What are vernacular names? Give an example.
Answer:
Vernacular names are known as common names. Example: Albizia amara L. is called as Usilai in South Tamil Nadu and Thurinji in North Tamil Nadu.

Question 6.
What is Author citation?
Answer:
Author citation refers to valid name of the taxa accompanied by the author’s name who published the name validly. Example: Solanum nigrum L.

Question 7.
Define e – Flora.
Answer:
Electronic Floras (e – floras) is the digitized form of a flora published online.
Example: e – Flora China. This provides the information and also functions as an identification tool.

Question 8.
When a neotype specimen is selected?
Answer:
Neotype Specimen is derived from non – original collection selected as the type, when original specimen is missing or destroyed.

Question 9.
What do you mean by taxonomical aids?
Answer:
Tools, techniques, procedures and stored information that are useful in identification and classification of organisms are called taxonomical aids.

Question 10.
Differentiate Regional Flora from continental flora.
Answer:
Regional Flora from continental flora.

  1. Regional Flora: Flora covering a large geographical area or a botanical region Ex: flora of Madras Presidency.
  2. Continental Flora: Flora covering the entire continent. Ex: flora of Europaea.

Question 11.
What is Herbarium specimen?
Answer:
Herbarium Specimen is defined as a pressed and dried plant sample that is permanently glued or strapped to a sheet of paper along with a documentation label.

Question 12.
Name the major classes of Bentham & Hooker Classification.
Answer:
The major classes of Bentham & Hooker Classification:

  • Class 1 – Dicotyledonae
  • Class 2 – Gymnospermae
  • Class 3 – Monocotyledonae

Question 13.
How Cronquist classified the angiosperms?
Answer:
Cronquist classified the angiosperms into two main classes Magnoliopsida and Liliopsida.

Question 14.
Cronquist classification is a failure. Justify.
Answer:
Cronquist classification system is not very useful for identification and cannot be adopted in herbaria due to its high phylogenetic nature.

Question 15.
Which is the most recent classification of flowering plants? How many versions it had been published so far?
Answer:
Angiosperm phylogeny group classification (APG) is the recent classification of flowering plants. APG I, APG II, APG III, APG IV are the four versions.

Question 16.
Name any 4 sub classes of Liliopsida.
Answer:
4 sub classes of Liliopsid:

  1. Alismatidae
  2. Arecidae
  3. Commelinidae
  4. Zingiberidae

Question 17.
Why the classification undergoes changes very often?
Answer:
Classification reflects the state of our knowledge at a given point of time. It will continue to change as we acquire new information.

Question 18.
Point out the aims of chemotaxonomy.
Answer:
The aims of chemotaxonomy:

  1. To develop taxonomic characters which may improve existing system of plant classification.
  2. To improve present day knowledge of phylogeny of plants.

Question 19.
Define Biosystematics.
Answer:
Biosystematics is an “Experimental, ecological and cytotaxonomy” through which life forms are studied and their relationships are defined.

Question 20.
Name few molecular markers used in molecular taxonomy.
Answer:
Allozymes, mitochondrial DNA, micro satellites, RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism), RAPD (Random amplified polymorphic DNA), AFLPs (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism), Single nucleotide Polymorphism – SNP, microchips or arrays.

Question 21.
List out the significance of DNA bar coding?
Answer:
The significance of DNA bar coding:

  1. DNA bar coding greatly helps in identification and classification of organism.
  2. It aids in mapping the extent of biodiversity.

Question 22.
State the demerits of RAPD analysis.
Answer:
RAPD analysis has the major disadvantage that results are difficult to replicate and in the homology of similar bands in different taxa may be nuclear.

Question 23.
Define Cladistics.
Answer:
The method of classifying organisms into monophyletic group of a common ancestor based on shared apomorphic characters is called Cladistics.

Question 24.
Define Cladogram.
Answer:
The outcome of a cladistic analysis is a cladogram, a tree – shaped diagram that represent the best hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships.

Question 25.
The genetic sequence used to identify a plant is known as “DNA tags” or “DNA barcodes”.
Answer:
The system of naming the organism with two names, generic name and specific (species)
name is known as binomial system of nomenclature, e.g. Pavo cistatus – Indian pea fowl.

Question 26.
Compare the Gynoecium of Pisum sativum and Datura metal.
Answer:
Gynoecium of Pisum sativum:

  1. Mono Carpellary
  2. Unilocular
  3. Ovules on marginal placentation
  4. Feathery stigma

Gynoecium of Datura metal:

  1. Bicarpellary
  2. Tetralocular
  3. Ovules on axile placentation
  4. Bilobed stigma

Question 27.
Write the floral formula of Pisum sativum.
Answer:
Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Solutions Chapter 5 Taxonomy and Systematic Botany 16

Question 28.
Name binomial name of any two oil plants of Fabaceae.
Answer:
Two oil plants of Fabaceae:

  1. Arachis hypogea (Ground nut) and
  2. Pongamia pinnata (Pungam).

Question 29.
Explain the classical taxonomical tools.
Answer:
Extra axillary scorpiod cyme is called rhiphidium.

Question 30.
Name the type of fruit seen in Capsicum and Datura.
Answer:
The type of fruit seen in Capsicum and Datura:

  1. Capsicum – Berry
  2. Datura – Capsule

Question 31.
What is atropine?
Answer:
Atropine is a powerful alkaloid obtained from Atropa belladonna root is used in belladonna plasters, tinctures etc, for relieving pain and also for dilating pupils of eyes for eye – testing.

Question 32.
What is Stramonium?
Answer:
Stramonium is a drug obtained from the leaves and roots of Datura stramonium and used to treat asthma and whooping cough.

Question 33.
Which stimulated Engler and Prantl to prepare phylogenic classification?
Answer:
The publication of the Origin of Species (1859) by Charles Darwin has given stimulus for the emergence of phylogenetic system of classification.

III. Short Answer Type Questions (3 Marks)

Question 1.
How dichotomous key helps in identification of plants?
Answer:
Dichotomous key consists of a sequence of two contrasting statements. A pair of contrasting statements is known as couplet. Each statement is known as lead. The plant is correctly identified with keys by narrowing down the characters found in plant.

Question 2.
Differentiate between Taxonomy & Systematics.
Answer:
Taxonomy:

  1. Discipline of classifying organisms into taxa
  2. Governs the practices of naming, describing, identifying and specimen preservation.
  3. Classification + Nomenclature = Taxonomy

Systematics:

  1. Broad field of biology that studies the diversification of species
  2. Governs the evolutionary history and phylogenetic relationship in addition to taxonomy
  3. Taxonomy + Phylogeny = Systematics

Question 3.
Write a note on Binomial nomenclature.
Answer:
binomial nomenclature, the first one is called genus name and second one is specific epithet. Example: Mangifera indica, Mangifera is a genus name and indica is specific epithet.

Question 4.
Enumerate the steps involved in herbarium preparation.
Answer:
Preparation of herbarium specimen includes the following steps.

  1. Plant Collection
  2. Documentation of field site data
  3. Preparation of plant specimen
  4. Mounting herbarium specimen
  5. Herbarium labels
  6. Protection of herbarium sheets against mold and insects

Question 5.
Why do we need the classification of organisms?
Answer:
The classification of organisms:

  1. Understanding the classification of organisms can gives an insight into other fields and has significant practical value.
  2. Classification helps us to know about different taxa, their phylogenetic relationship and exact position.
  3. It helps to train the students of plant sciences with regard to the diversity of organisms and their relationship with other biological branches.

Question 6.
Classification is a essential part of biology – Justify.
Answer:
Classification is essential to biology because there is a vast diversity of organisms to sort out and compare. Unless they are organized into manageable categories it will be difficult for identification.

Question 7.
Linnaeus classification is also called sexual system of classification. Why?
Answer:
Linnaeus classification is mostly based on sexual characters like number, union, length and distribution of stamens and also on carpel characters. Hence it is called sexual system of classification.

Question 8.
Write a note on Monochlamydeae.
Answer:
Plants with incomplete flowers either apetalous or with undifferentiated calyx and corolla are placed under Monochlamydeae. The sepals and petals are not distinguished and they are called perianth. Sometimes both the whorls are absent. Monochlamydeae includes 8 series and 36 families.

Question 9.
In chemotaxonomy, how the chemicals are categorised?
Answer:
The chemical characters can be divided into three main categories:

  1. Easily visible characters like starch grains, silica etc.
  2. Characters detected by chemical tests like phenolics, oil, fats, waxes etc.
  3. Proteins

Question 10.
Define Serotaxonomy.
Answer:
The classification of very similar plants by means of differences in the proteins they contain, to solve taxonomic problems is called serotaxonomy.

Question 11.
What is Molecular taxonomy?
Answer:
Molecular Taxonomy is the branch of phylogeny that analyses hereditary molecular differences, mainly in DNA sequences, to gain information and to establish genetic relationship between the members of different taxonomic categories.

Question 12.
Point out the uses of molecular taxonomy.
Answer:
The uses of molecular taxonomy:

  1. Molecular taxonomy helps in establishing the relationship of different plant groups at DNA level.
  2. It unlocks the treasure chest of information on evolutionary history of organisms.

Question 13.
How RFLP helps in taxonomical studies?
Answer:
RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism): RFLP’s is a molecular method of genetic analysis that allows identification of taxa based on unique patterns of restriction sites in specific regions of DNA. It refers to differences between taxa in restriction sites and therefore the lengths of fragments of DNA following cleavage with restriction enzymes.

Question 14.
Define DNA barcoding.
Answer:
DNA barcoding is a taxonomic method that uses a very short genetic sequence from a standard part of a genome. The genetic sequence used to identify a plant is known as “DNA tags” or “DNA barcodes”. Paul Hebert in 2003 proposed “DNA barcoding” and he is considered as ‘Father of barcoding’.

Question 15.
In which organelle of plant cell does the barcode genes are located? Name the genes.
Answer:
Chloroplast, the genes are matK and rbcL.

Question 16.
Differentiate between Monophyletic group and paraphyletic group.
Answer:
1. Monophyletic Group: Taxa comprising all the descendants of a common ancestor
Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Solutions Chapter 5 Taxonomy and Systematic Botany 1

2. Paraphyletic Group: Taxon that includes an ancestor but not all of the descendants of that ancestor.
Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Solutions Chapter 5 Taxonomy and Systematic Botany 2

Question 17.
Why do we need Cladistics?
Answer:
Cladistics:

  1. Cladistics is now the most commonly used and accepted method for creating phylogenetic system of classifications.
  2. Cladistics produces a hypothesis about the relationship of organism to predict the morphological characteristics of organism.
  3. Cladistics helps to elucidate mechanism of evolution.

Question 18.
Write a note on the petals of papilionaceous Corolla.
Answer:
The outer most petal is large called standard petal or vexillum. Lateral 2 petals are lanceolate and curved. They are called wing petals or alae. Anterior two petals are partly fused and are called keel petals or carina which encloses the stamens and pistil.

Question 19.
Draw the floral diagram of Pisum sativum.
Answer:
Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Solutions Chapter 5 Taxonomy and Systematic Botany 3

Question 20.
Write systematic position of Solanaceae based on APG classification.
Answer:

Kingdom

Plantae

1. Clade 1. Angiosperms
2. Clade 2. Eudicot
3. Clade 3. Asterids
4. Clade 4. Solanales
5. Family 5. Solanaceae

Question 21.
Mention the diagnostic features of Liliaceae member.
Answer:
The diagnostic features of Liliaceae member:

  1. Perennial herbs often with bulbous stem / rhizomes
  2. Radical leaves
  3. Perianth showy
  4. Stamens six
  5. Ovary superior

Question 22.
Write systematic position of liliaceae based of Bentham and Hooker Classification?
Answer:
Systematic Position:

Kingdom

Plantae

1. Class 1. Monocotyledons
2. Series 2. Coronarieae
3. Order 3. Liliales
4. Family 4. Liliaceae

IV. Long Answer Type Questions (5 Marks)

Question 1.
List out the principles of ICN.
Answer:
International Code of Nomenclature is based on the following six principles.

  1. Botanical nomenclature is independent of zoological and bacteriological nomenclature.
  2. Application of names of taxonomic group is determined by means of nomenclatural types.
  3. Nomenclature of a taxonomic group is based on priority of publication.
  4. Each taxonomic group with a particular circumscription, position and rank can bear only one correct name, the earliest that is in accordance with the rules except in specified cases.
  5. Scientific names of taxonomic groups are treated as Latin regardless of their derivation.
  6. The rules of nomenclature are retroactive unless expressly limited.

Question 2.
Explain the role of Botanical garden in taxonomy.
Answer:
Botanical gardens play the following important roles.

  1. Gardens with aesthetic value which attract a large number of visitors. For example, the Great Banyan Tree (Ficus benghalensis) in the Indian Botanical Garden at Kolkata.
  2. Gardens have a wide range of species and supply taxonomic material for botanical research.
  3. Garden is used for self-instruction or demonstration purposes.
  4. It can integrate information of diverse fields like Anatomy, Embryology, Phytochemistry, Cytology, Physiology and Ecology.
  5. Act as a conservation centre for diversity, rare and endangered species.
  6. It offers annual list of available species and a free exchange of seeds.
  7. Botanical garden gives information about method of propagation, sale of plant material to the general public.

Question 3.
Enumerate the uses of Herbarium.
Answer:
The uses of Herbarium:

  1. Herbarium provides resource material for systematic research and studies.
  2. It is a place for orderly arrangement of voucher specimens.
  3. Voucher specimen serves as a reference for comparing doubtful newly collected fresh specimens.
  4. Voucher specimens play a role in studies like floristic diversity, environmental assessment, ecological mechanisms and survey of unexplored areas.
  5. Herbarium provides opportunity for documenting biodiversity and studies related to the field of ecology and conservation biology.

Question 4.
Point out the characters of Early angiosperm according to APG Classification.
Answer:
The characters of Early angiosperm according to APG Classification:

  1. Seeds always with two cotyledons.
  2. Presence of ethereal oils.
  3. Leaves are always simple net – veined
  4. Each floral whorls with many parts
  5. Perianth usually spirally arranged or parts in threes
  6. Stamens with broad filaments
  7. Anthers tetrasporangiate
  8. Pollen monosulcate
  9. Nectaries are rare
  10. Carpels usually free and
  11. Embryo very small

Question 5.
Draw a flow chart depicting the Bentham and Hooker Classification.
Answer:
Bentham and Hooker system of classification
Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Solutions Chapter 5 Taxonomy and Systematic Botany 18

Question 6.
Draw an outline of Engler & Prantl Classification.
Answer:
Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Solutions Chapter 5 Taxonomy and Systematic Botany 4

Question 7.
Define biosystematics & list out the aim of biosystematics.
Answer:
1. Biosystematics: Biosystematics is an “Experimental, ecological and cytotaxonomy” through which life forms are studied and their relationships are defined.
2. Aims of Biosystematics: The aims of biosystematics are as follows:

  • To delimit the naturally occurring biotic community of plant species.
  • To establish the evolution of a group of taxa by understanding the evolutionary and phylogenetic trends.
  • To involve any type of data gathering based on modem concepts and not only on morphology and anatomy.
  • To recognize the various groups as separate biosystematics categories such as ecotypes, ecospecies, cenospecies and comparium.

Question 8.
Distinguish between classical taxonomy & modern taxonomy.
Answer:
Classical Taxonomy:

  1. It is called old systematics or Alpha (α) – taxonomy or Taxonomy
  2. It is pre – Darwinean
  3. Species is considered as basic unit and is static
  4. Classification is mainly based on morphological characters
  5. This system is based on the observation of a few samples / individuals

Modern Taxonomy:

  1. It is called Neosystematics or Biosystematics or Omega (Ω) taxonomy
  2. It is post – Darwinean
  3. Species is considered as dynamic entity and ever changing
  4. Classification is based on morphological, reproductive characters and phylogenetic (evolutionary) relationship of the organism
  5. This system is based on the observation of large number of samples / individuals

Question 9.
List out the significance of Molecular Taxonomy.
Answer:
The significance of Molecular Taxonomy:

  1. It helps to identify a very large number of species of plants and animals by the use of conserved molecular sequences.
  2. Using DNA data evolutionary patterns of biodiversity are now investigated.
  3. DNA taxonomy plays a vital role in phytogeography, which ultimately helps in genome mapping and biodiversity conservation.
  4. DNA – based molecular markers used for designing DNA based molecular probes, have also been developed under the branch of molecular systematics.

Question 10.
Explain Clitoria ternatea in botanical terms. Draw floral diagram.
Answer:
Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Solutions Chapter 5 Taxonomy and Systematic Botany 3

  1. Habit: Twining climber
  2. Root: Branched tap root system having nodules.
  3. Stem: Aerial, weak stem and a twiner.
  4. Leaf: Imparipinnately compound, alternate, stipulate showing reticulate venation. Leaflets are stipellate.
    Petiolate and stipels are pulvinated.
  5. Inflorescence: Solitary and axillary
  6. Flower: Bracteate, bracteolate, bracteoles usually large, pedicellate, heterochlamydeous, complete, bisexual, pentamerous, zygomorphic and hypogynous.
  7. Calyx: Sepals 5, synsepalous, green showing valvate aestivation. Odd repel is anterior in position.
  8. Corolla: Petals 5, white or blue apopetalous, irregular papilionaceous corolla showing, descendingly imbricate aestivation.
  9. Androecium: Stamens 10, diadelphous (9) + 1 nine stamens fused to form a bundle and the tenth stamen is free. Anthers are dithecous, basifixed, introse and dechising by longitudinal slits.
  10. Gynoecium: Monocarpellary, uni – locular, with many ovules on marginal placentation, ovary superior, style simple and incurved with feathery stigma.
  11. Fruit: Legume
  12. Seed: Non – endospermous, reniform.
  13. Floral Formula:
    Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Solutions Chapter 5 Taxonomy and Systematic Botany 9

Question 11.
Explain Datura metal in botanical terms. Draw floral diagram.
Answer:
Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Solutions Chapter 5 Taxonomy and Systematic Botany 5

  1. Habit: Large, erect and stout herb.
  2. Root: Branched tap root system.
  3. Stem: Stem is hollow, green and herbaceous with strong odour.
  4. Leaf: Simple, alternate, petiolate, entire or deeply lobed, glabrous exstipulate showing unicostate reticulate venation.
  5. Inflorescence: Solitary and axillary cyme.
  6. Flower: Flowers are large, greenish white, bracteate, ebracteolate, pedicellate, complete, heterochlamydeous, pentamerous, regular, actinomorphic, bisexual and hypogynous.
  7. Calyx: Sepals 5, green synsepalous showing valvate aestivation. Calyx is mostly persistant, odd sepal is posterior in position.
  8. Corolla: Petals 5, greenish white, sympetalous, plicate (folded like a fan) showing twisted aestivation, funnel shaped with wide mouth and 10 lobed.
  9. Androecium: Stamens 5, free from one another, epipetalous, altemipetalous and are inserted in the middle of the corolla tube. Anthers are basifixed, dithecous, with long filament, introse and longitudinally dehiscent.
  10. Gynoecium: Ovary bicarpellary, syncarpous superior ovary, basically bilocular but tetralocular due to the formation of false septum. Carpels are obliquely placed and ovules on swollen axile placentation. Style simple long and filiform, stigma two lobed.
  11. Fruit: Spinescent capsule opening by four special valves with persistent calyx.
  12. Seed: Endospermous
  13. Floral Formula:
    Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Solutions Chapter 5 Taxonomy and Systematic Botany 10

Question 12.
Explain Allium cepa in botanical terms. Draw floral diagram.
Answer:
Botanical description of Allium cepa:

  1. Habit: Perennial herb with bulb.
  2. Root: Fibrous adventitious root system
  3. Stem: Underground bulb
  4. Leaf: A cluster of radical leaves emerges from the underground bulb, cylindrical and fleshy having sheathy leaf bases with parallel venation.
  5. Inflorescence: Scapigerous i.e. the inflorescence axis (peduncle) arising from the ground bearing a cluster of flowers at its apex. Pedicels are of equal length, arising from the apex of the peduncle which brings all flowers at the same level.
  6. Flower: Small, white, bracteate, bracteolate, pedicellate, complete, trimerous, actinomorphic and hypogynous. Flowers are protandrous.
  7. Perianth: Tepals 6, white, arranged in two whorls of three each, syntepalous showing valvate aestivation.
  8. Androecium: Stamens 6, arranged in two whorls of three each, epitepalous, apostamenous / free and opposite to tepals. Anthers dithecous. basifixed, introse and dehiscing longitudinally.
  9. Gynoecium: Tricarpellary and syncarpous. Ovary superior, trilocular with two ovules in each locule on axile placentation. Style simple, slender with simple stigma.
  10. Fruit: A loculicidal capsule.
  11. Seed: Endospermous
  12. Floral Formula:
    Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Solutions Chapter 5 Taxonomy and Systematic Botany 8
    Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Solutions Chapter 5 Taxonomy and Systematic Botany 7

Question 13.
List out the economic importance of plants & their uses of Fabaceae.
Answer:
Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Solutions Chapter 5 Taxonomy and Systematic Botany 11

Question 14.
List out the economic importance of plants & their uses of Solanaceae.
Answer:
Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Solutions Chapter 5 Taxonomy and Systematic Botany 13

Question 15.
List out the economic importance of plants & their uses of Liliaceae.
Answer:
Economic Importance of the Family Liliaceae:
Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Solutions Chapter 5 Taxonomy and Systematic Botany 15

V. Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTs)

Question 1.
Neem is highly valued tree in Indian medicine. It is called by the name veppu in Malayalam, Arishta in Sanskrit, Vembu in Tamil, Nimbo in Portuguese. Suggest a solution for this varied naming problem considering as a taxonomist.
Answer:
As a taxonomist, this can be solved by using Binomial nomenclature. According to ICBN, every plant is given a scientific name which can be used in common all throughout the world. Thus neem is named as Azadirachta indica.

Question 2.
According to Binomial nomenclature, Human beings are named as Homosapiens. Following this, write the binomials for Brinjal and Rosewood.
Answer:
The binomials for Brinjal and Rosewood:

  1. Brinjal – Solatium melongena
  2. Rosewood – Dalbergia latifolia

Question 3.
Officially, every state in the Republic of India has its own flower, fruit etc. If Andhra Pradesh has Lotus as its state flower, what is the state flower of Tamil Nadu? Mention its family.
Answer:
State flower of Tamilnadu is Gloriosa superba belonging to Liliaceae family.

Question 4.
Peanut is a geocarpic fruit – Comment on the statement.
Answer:
In peanut (Arachis hypogea), after fertilisation, the stipe of ovary grows down into the soil, later develops & matures into fruit. Such a underground developed fruit is called geocarpic fruit.

Question 5.
You are given an entire plantlet of Clitoria ternatea. Give possible reasons to say that it is a dicot plantlet.
Answer:
Clitoria ternatea belongs to Dicots because:

  1. The root is a tap root
  2. Leaves show reticulate venation

Question 6.
Give possible terms explaining the gynoecium of a flower whose C.S. of ovary is given below.
Answer:
Samacheer Kalvi 11th Bio Botany Solutions Chapter 5 Taxonomy and Systematic Botany 17
Tricarpellary, Trilocular, Syncarpous, 2 ovules in 1. Each ovule has axile placentation.

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