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Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science History Solutions Chapter 5 The Classical World

The Classical World Textual Exercise

I. Choose the correct answer.

The Classical World 9th Class Question 1.
…………….. is the Greek city-state which resisted the Persians to the end.
(a) Acropolis
(b) Sparta
(c) Athens
(d) Rome
Answer:
(c) Athens

Attempt An Account Of Slavery In Rome Question 2.
The other name for Greeks was …………….
(a) Hellenists
(b) Hellenes
(c) Phoenicians
(d) Spartans
Answer:
(b) Hellenes

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Books Social Science Question 3.
The founder of Han dynasty was …………..
(a) Wu Ti
(b) Hung Chao
(c) Liu Pang
(d) Mangu Khan
Answer:
(c) Liu Pang

Question 4.
…………… was the Roman Governor responsible for the crucifixion of Jesus.
(a) Innocent I
(b) Hildebrand
(c) Leo I
(d) Pontius Pilate
Answer:
(d) Pontius Pilate

Question 5.
The Peloponnesian War was fought between ……………… and ……………
(a) Greeks and Persians
(b) Plebeians and Patricians
(c) Spartans and Athenians
(d) Greeks and Romans
Answer:
(c) Spartans and Athenians

II. Find out the correct statement.

Question 1.
(i) First Persian attack on Greece failed.
(ii) The downfall of Roman Empire is attributed to Julius Caesar.
(iii) The Barbarians who invaded Rome were considered to be culturally advanced.
(iv) Buddhism weakened the Roman Empire.
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (ii) is correct
(c) (ii) and (iii) are correct
(d) (iv) is correct
Answer:
(a) (i) is correct

Question 2.
(i) Euclid developed a model for the motion of planets and stars.
(ii) Romans established a republic after overthrowing Etruscans.
(iii) Acropolis became a famous slave market.
(iv) Rome and Carthage united to drive out the Greeks.
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (ii) is correct
(c) (ii) and (iv) are correct
(d) (iv) is correct
Answer:
(c) (ii) and (iv) are correct

Question 3.
(i) Silk road was closed during the Han dynasty.
(ii) Peasant uprisings posed threats to Athenian democracy.
(iii) Virgil’s Aeneid glorified Roman imperialism.
(iv) Spartacus killed Julius Caesar. f
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (ii) is correct
(c) (ii) and (iv) are correct
(d) (iii) is correct
Answer:
(d) (iii) is correct

Question 4.
(i) Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius was a tyrant.
(ii) Romulus Aurelius was the most admired ruler in Roman History.
(iii) Fabius was a famous Carthaginian General.
(iv) Tacitus is respected more than Livy as a historian.
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (ii) is correct
(c) (ii) and (iii) are correct
(d) (iv) is correct
Answer:
(d) (iv) is correct

Question 5.
(i) Buddhism went to China from Japan
(ii) After crucifixion of Jesus, St Thomas spread the Christian doctrine
(iii) St Sophia Cathedral was the most magnificent building in Europe
(iv) Trajan was one of the worst dictators Rome had.
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (ii) is correct
(c) (iii) is correct
(d) (iv) is correct
Answer:
(c) (iii) is correct

III. Match the following:

The Classical World 9th Class Samacheer Kalvi  Social Science History Solutions Chapter 5
Answer:
1. (e)
2. (c)
3. (a)
4. (b)
5. (d)

IV. Fill in the blanks.

1. Greeks defeated the Persians at ………………
2. …………… stood in favour of poor peasants in Roman republic.
3. Buddhism came to China from India during the reign of …………… dynasty.
4. The most magnificent building in Europe was ……………
5. ……….. and …………… were Magistrates in Rome.
Answers:
1. Marathon in 490 B.C.
2. Tiberius Gracchus and Garius do Gracchus
3. Han
4. St. Sophia Cathedral
5. Marius and Sulla

V. Answer all questions given under each heading.

Question 1.
Emergence of Rome as an empire
(a) Who were the Gracchus brothers?
Answer:
Tiberius Gracchus and Garius do Gracchus were Patricians. They voiced their opinion in favour of the poor peasants.

(b) What role did they play?
Answer:
They voiced their opinion in favour of the poor peasants.

(c) What was the outcome of their martyrdom?
Answer:
The Martyrdom of the Gracchus brothers played a decisive role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.

(d) Who was the first Roman Emperor?
Answer:
Marus Aureillus was the first Roman Emperor.

Question 2.
Han Dynasty
(a) Who was the founder of Han Empire?
Answer:
Han Dynasty was founded by Liu Pang.

(b) What was the capital of Han Empire?
Answer:
The capital of Han Empire was Chang-an.

(c) Where did they have their new capital?
Answer:
They had their new capital at Xuchang.

(d) Who was the powerful ruler of the Han dynasty?
Answer:
The most popular and powerful ruler was Wu Ti.

VI. Answer the following briefly.

Question 1.
Attempt an account of slavery in Rome.
Answer:

  • A major source of revenue to the Roman state was slave trade.
  • The island of Delos became a great slave market.
  • There were more slave revolts in Rome than in Greece.
  • The revolt of spartacus was the most famous.

Question 2.
Highlight the main contribution of Constantine.
Answer:
The main contribution of Constantine was, conversion to Christianity. He himself became a Christian and Christianity became the official religion of the Empire.

Question 3.
What do you know of the Carthaginian leader Hannibal?
Answer:

  • Hannibal was a Carthaginian General who defeated the Roman Army and made a great part of Italy a desert in the Punic War.
  • In the Second Punic War Hannibal was defeated in the Battle of Zama.
  • Pursued by the Roman army, Hannibal ended his life by poisoning himself.

Question 4.
What were the reasons for the prosperity of Han Empire?
Answer:

  1. The Han Empire threw open the silk road for trade.
  2. A large export trade mainly in silk reached as far as the Roman Empire.
  3. In the North artisans and herders of rival “barbarian” dynasties brought in new techniques like the methods harnessing horses, use of saddle and stirrup, techniques of building bridges and mountain roads and seafaring.
  4. Such innovations made Han Empire prosperous.

Question 5.
Write about St. Sophia Cathedral.
Answer:

  • St. Sophia Cathedral was built in mid-sixth century AD (CE) The most magnificent building in Europe at that time, it was known for its innovative architectural techniques.
  • This Cathedral was turned into a mosque by the Ottoman Turks when they captured Constantinople.

VII. Answer the following in detail:

Question 1.
Discuss the rise and growth of Athens, pointing out its glorious legacy.
Answer:
In Athens, the pressure from below resulted in the replacement of both oligarchy’and tyranny by “democracy”. The law-making power in Athens was vested in an assembly open to all freemen. Judges and lower officials were chosen by lots. This arrangement was resented by ‘ the upper classes who considered democracy to be the rule of the mob.

The Persian danger had united the Greeks. When this danger was removed, they started quarrelling again. The history of many Greek city-states was one of continual struggles by the rich landowners against “democracy”. The only exception was Athens, where “democracy’ survived for about 200 years.

Question 2.
Highlight the contributions of Rome to World Civilization.
Answer:
The Byzantine emperors, who ruled from the city of Constantinople for about 1,000 years,
called themselves Romans. But their language was Greek. The splendor of Constantinople with its luxurious royal palaces, its libraries, its scholars familiar with the writings of Greeks 1 and Romans and its fascinating St. Sophia Cathedral are the legacies they have left behind.

However, in terms of the development of science and technology, there was no progress during this I period. The economies of the Empire’s provinces were in the hands of large local landowners. The small peasants always lived on the edge of poverty. The fundamental weakness of
Byzantine Civilization stood exposed when the participants of Fourth Crusade pillaged it and I ruled it.

Student Activities

Question 1.
In an outline map of Europe, the students are to sketch the extent of Western and Eastern Roman Empire.
Answer:
Attempt An Account Of Slavery In Rome Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science History Solutions Chapter 5 The Classical World

The Classical World Additional Questions

I. Choose the correct answer.

Question 1.
………….. a fortified city of ancient Greeks on a hill in Athens is an illustrative example of their advancement.
(a) Acropolis
(b) Athens
(c) Sparta
(d) None of the above
Answer:
(a) Acropolis

Question 2.
The word …………….. literally means “rule of the people”.
(a) Autocracy
(b) Communism
(c) Socialism
(d) Democracy
Answer:
(d) Democracy

Question 3.
Aristotle was the disciple of ……………
(a) Socrates
(b) Plato
(c) Pericles
(d) Augustus
Answer:
(b) Plato

Question 4.
“Natural History” was completed by ………….
(a) Pliny the Elder
(b) Antoninus Pius
(c) Marcus Aurelius
(d) Tacitus
Answer:
(a) Pliny the Elder

Question 5.
……………. came to China from India during the reign of Han Dynasty.
(a) Jainism
(b) Sikhism
(c) Buddhism
(d) Christianity
Answer:
(c) Buddhism

Question 6.
……………. started spreading the Christian doctrine after the Crucifixion of Jesus.
(a) St. Paul
(b) St. Thomas
(c) St. Antony
(d) St. John
Answer:
(a) St. Paul

II. Find out the correct statement.

Question 1.
(i) Until 8th Century B.C. (BCE) Greece was different from the rest of the world.
(ii) Democracy literally means “rule of the people”.
(iii) The Greek city-states have an elaborate bureaucracy.
(iv) The entire period of Alexander’s reign was not spent on wars.
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (ii) is correct
(c) (ii) and (iii) are correct
(d) (iv) is correct
Answer:
(b) (ii) is correct

Question 2.
(i) Prisoners of war were enslaved in Rome.
(ii) Rome developed into a normal town.
(iii) In the beginning Rome was a society of Business men.
(iv) A major source of revenue to the Roman state was slave trade.
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (ii) is correct
(c) (i) and (iv) are correct
(d) (iii) is correct
Answer:
(c) (i) and (iv) are correct

Question 3.
(i) The revolt of spartacus was the most famous.
(ii) The Island of Delos became a great slave market.
(iii) Catalina’s victory led to mob violence.
(iv) Livy was a Poetist.
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (i) and (ii) are correct
(c) (iii) is correct
(d) (iv) is correct
Answer:
(b) (i) and (ii) are correct

Question 4.
(i) Han Empire once again threw open the silk road for trade.
(ii) Buddhism came to China from Indonesia.
(iii) With Buddhism came the influence of Indian art to Korea.
(iv) The period after Han rule witnessed political stability across the country.
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (i) and (iii) are correct
(c) (ii) is correct
(d) (iii) and (iv) are correct
Answer:
(a) (i) is correct

Question 5.
(i) Jewish had no faith on Jesus.
(ii) They hoped Messiah would not arrive.
(iii) Jesus was against the rich and the hypocrites.
(iv) Christianity did not spread in Europe.
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (ii) is correct
(c) (iii) is correct
(d) (iv) is correct
Answer:
(c) (iii) is correct

III. Match the following:

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Books Social Science History Solutions Chapter 5 The Classical World
Answer:
1. (f)
2. (g)
3. (a)
4. (b)
5. (c)
6. (d)
7. (e)

IV. Fill in the blanks.

1. Under ……….. the new rich exploited the smaller landholders.
2. The Persian danger had united the ……………..
3. Cultural development that took place rapidly after Alexander’s death. 323 BC is called ………….. civilization.
4. A major source of revenue to the Roman state was ……………
5. The most distinguished writers of the ……………… Age brought glory to the empire.
6. The most popular and powerful ruler of Han Dynasty was …………….
7. Some of the Buddhist art of the time show the impact of …………… styles.
8. One of the Roman emperors …………….. himself became a Christian.
9. Internal Crisis and invasion of Franks, Goths and Vandals ended the …………….
10. Christianity became a state religion of …………….. and began to spread in Europe.
Answers:
1. Oligarchy
2. Greeks
3. Hellenistic
4. Slave trade
5. Augustus
6. Wu Ti
7. Hellenistic
8. Constantine
9. Roman Empire
10. Byzantium

V. Answer all questions given under each heading.

Question 1.
Athenian Democracy.
(a) What replaced the oligarchy and tyranny in Athens?
Answer:
Democracy.

(b) With whom the law-making power was vested in Athens?
Answer:
The law making power in Athens was vested in an assembly open to all freemen.

(c) What united the Greeks?
Answer:
The Persian danger had united the Greeks.

(d) How many years were Democracy survived in Athens?
Answer:
Democracy survived in Athens for about 200 years.

Question 2.
Hellenistic Civilization.
(a) Who established the kingdom in Macedonia?
Answer:
Alexander the Great.

(b) How did this kingdom succeed?
Answer:
This kingdom succeeded in annexing two historic empires of Egypt and the Middle East.

(c) How did Alexander spend his life?
Answer:
The entire period of Alexander’s reign was spent on wars.

(d) When did the cultural development take place? What is it called?
Answer:
After the death of 323 B.C. and is called Hellenistic civilization.

VI. Answer the following briefly.

Question 1.
What do you know about the classical world?
Answer:

  1. Greece, Rome and China represented the classical world which ended with the fall of Western Roman Empire.
  2. Until the end of 5th Century AD (CE) Christianity was confined to the Roman Empire.

Question 2.
Why did the first Persian attack on Greece failed?
Answer:
The first Persian attack on Greece failed due to the fact that Persian army suffered from disease and lack of food during its March.

Question 3.
Comment on the ‘Age of Pericles’.
Answer:

  1. Athens, despite hostility and disturbance from sparta, became a noble city with magnificent buildings.
  2. There were great artists and great thinkers.
  3. Historians therefore call this the Age of Pericles.

Question 4.
What do you know about the Socrates?
Answer:

  1. Socrates was the greatest of the thinkers of the Pericles Era.
  2. As a philosopher he discussed difficult problems with his friends to bring out the truth out of discussions.

Question 5.
Who were the capable rulers in Rome after the death of Augustus?
Answer:
Trajan (98-117), Antoninus Pius (138-161) and Marcus Aurelius (161-180) were the capable enlightened rulers.

Question 6.
Who were Barbarians?
Answer:
A group of people from a very different country (or) culture that is considered to be less culturally advanced and more violent than their own were Barbarians.

Question 7.
What is known as Silk Road (or) Silk Route?
Answer:
The trade route from China to Asia Minor and India, known as the Silk Road or Silk Route, linked China with the West. Goods and ideas between the two great civilizations of Rome and China were exchanged through this route. Silk went westward, and wools, gold, and silver went east. China received Buddhism from India via the Silk Road.

Question 8.
Who spreaded Christianity after Jesus’s crucifixion?
Answer:

  1. St. Paul started spreading the Christian doctrine.
  2. Paul succeeded in his effort and Christianity gradually spread.

VII. Answer the following in detail.

Question 1.
Explain the “Rise of Christianity”.
Answer:
(i) After a brief period of glory in the days of David and Solomon, the Jewish people had a great fall and experienced extreme hardship.

(ii) While spreading out all over the Roman Empire and elsewhere, they hoped that a Messiah would arrive to restore their pristine glory.

(iii) Initially they laid much hopes on Jesus. Jesus was against the rich and the hypocrites, and condemned certain observances and ceremonials.

(iv) This was not to the liking of the priests, who turned against Jesus and handed him over to the Roman Governor Pontius Pilate. Looked upon as a political rebel by the Roman authorities, Jesus was tried and crucified.

(v) After Jesus’s crucifixion, St Paul started spreading the Christian doctrine. Paul succeeded in his effort and Christianity gradually spread.

(vi) Romans were prepared to tolerate Christianity. But the refusal of the Christians to pay respect to the Emperor’s image was viewed as political treason.

(vii) It led to the persecution of Christians. Their property was confiscated and they were thrown to the lions.

(viii) Yet the Roman Empire did not succeed in suppressing Christianity. One of the Roman emperors Constantine himself became a Christian. Christianity thus became the official religion of the Empire.

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