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Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science History Solutions Chapter 4 Intellectual Awakening and Socio-Political Changes

Intellectual Awakening and Socio-Political Changes Textual Exercise

I. Choose the correct answer.

Intellectual Awakening And Socio Political Changes Question 1.
Identify the founder of a new sect who exemplified simplicity and self-denial.
(a) Buddha
(b) Lao-tze
(c) Confucius
(d) Zoroaster
Answer:
(a) Buddha

Samacheer Kalvi Guru 9th Social Science Question 2.
The Magadha king influenced by the teachings of Mahavira.
(a) Dhananandha
(b) Chandragupta
(c) Bimbisara
(d) Shishunaga
Answer:
(b) Chandragupta

Intellectual Awakening Meaning In Tamil Question 3.
The northern India extended from the Kabul Valley in the north to the Godavari in the south witnessed the rise of Sixteen States.
(a) Mahajanapadas
(b) Gana-sanghas
(c) Dravida
(d) Dakshinapatha
Answer:
(a) Mahajanapadas

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Question 4.
Tri-ratnas are the three priniciples taught by ……………..
(a) Buddha
(b) Mahavira
(c) Lao-tze
(d) Confucius
Answer:
(b) Mahavira

Samacheer Guru 9th Social Question 5.
The account which throws light on Mauryan polity and society …………..
(a) Marco Polo
(b) Fahien
(c) Megasthanes
(d) Seleucus
Answer:
(c) Megasthanes

Samacheer Kalvi 9th History Book Question 6.
(i) Under the Magadha king the mahamatriyas functioned as secretaries to the ministers.
(ii) Accounts of Megasthanes titled Indica is a useful record about Mauryan polity and society.
(iii) Nanda’s attempt to build an imperial structure was cut short by Ashoka who founded the Mauryan kingdom.
(iv) According to tradition, towards the end of his life Chandragupta became an ardent follower of Buddhism.
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (ii) is correct
(c) (i) and (ii) is correct
(d) (iii) and (iv) is correct
Answer:
(i), (ii), (iii) and (iv) are correct

II. Fill in the blanks.

1. ………….. is a collection of sacred literature of different epochs, containing prayers, confessions and myths.
2. In the Gangetic plain …………… agriculture required the use of bullocks.
3. Jains believe that …………….. came in a long line of Tirthankaras and he was the twenty – fourth and the last.
4. The place where Buddha attained enlightenment has been built into the Mahabodhi temple that still exists in ……………..
5. The rock edicts form the reliable source to know about the Mauryan empire in particular the Dharmic rule of ……………….
Answer:
1. ZendAvesta
2. Iron plough
3. Mahavira
4. Bodh Gaya
5. Ashoka

III. Find out the correct statement.

9th Social Science Samacheer Kalvi Question 1.
(a) The introduction of Bronze tools made easy the removal of dense forest cover from the banks of the Ganges.
(b) Ajivikas had a small presence in western India.
(c) The clusters where particular clansmen were dominant came to be known were Pre-Maury an states.
(d) Of the kingdoms mentioned in the literature .of the period Kashi, Kosala and Magadha are considered to be powerful.
Answer:
(a) incorrect
(b) incorrect
(c) incorrect
(d) correct

Samacheer Kalvi Guru 9th Social Question 2.
(a) Ajatashatru was the first important king of Magadha.
(b) Bimbisara succeeded in establishing a comprehensive structure of administration.
(c) The Mauryas were the first of non-Kshatriya dynasties to rule in northern India.
(d) Nanda’s attempt to build an imperial structure was cut short by Ashoka.
Answer:
(a) incorrect
(b) correct
(c) incorrect
(d) incorrect

IV. Match the following.

Intellectual Awakening And Socio Political Changes Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science History Solutions Chapter 4
Answer:
1. (e)
2. (a)
3. (b)
4. (c)
5. (d)

V. Answer the following briefly.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Question 1.
The invention of smelting of Iron transformed both production and warfare. Justify.
Answer:

  1. The invention of smelting of iron transformed both production and warfare.
  2. Before iron, copper and its alloy, bronze which were expensive were employed in production.
  3. The weapons (or) ploughs made of copper (of) bronze edges became blunt quickly.
    1. Iron ore in contrast was available in abundance.
  4. The “weapons made of iron was in usage.
  5. The iron axe enabled cultivators to clear the jungles and the iron plough was used to’ break the hardest soil.

Question 2.
Elaborate the term “Tri-ratnas”.
Answer:
The three principles of Jainism also known as Tri-ratnas are the following.

  1. Right faith: Belief in the teachings and wisdom of Mahavira.
  2. Right knowledge: Acceptance of the theory that there is no God and that the world existed without a creator.
  3. Right Action: It refers to the Mahavira’s observance of the five great vows.
    (a) ahimsa (b) honesty (c) kindness (d) truthfulness and (e) not coveting (or) desiring things belonging to others.

Question 3.
What do you know of Ajatasatru?
Answer:

  • Ajatashatru, the son of Bimbisara is said to have murdered his father and ascended the throne in 493 BCE.
  • He continued his father’s policy of expansion through military conquests.
  • He strengthened the Rajagriha fort and also built another fort at Pataligrama on the Ganges. It served as the exchange centre for the local produce and late became Mauryan capital of Pataliputra.
  • Ajatasatru died in 461 BCE.

Question 4.
What does the Edict of Kalinga convey?
Answer:

  • In one of his Kalinga edicts, he tells his horror and sorrow over the deaths which the war and conquest caused.
  • In yet another edict, he makes it known that Ashoka would not tolerate any longer the death (or) captivity of even hundredth (or) thousandth part of the number killed and captive in Kalinga.

Question 5.
Highlight the steps taken by Ashoka to spread Buddhism.
Answer:
Steps taken by Ashoka to spread Buddhism:

  1. Ashoka became an ardent Buddhist after meeting the Buddhist monk Upagupta and propounded his Dharma.
  2. He issued edicts, which were carved out in the rock.
  3. He protected the animals.
  4. Hospitals were constructed for them and animal sacrifice was forbidden.
  5. Ashoka sent his son Mahendra and his daughter Sanghamitra to Ceylon to spread his message of Dharma there. Ashoka died after ruling for 38 years.

VI. Answer all the questions given under each caption.

Question 1.
Zoroastrianism
(a) Who was the founder?
Answer:
Zoroaster of Persia is the founder of Zoroastrianism.

(b) Name the God he proclaimed.
Answer:
Ahura Mazda (the Lord of lights)

(c) What did Zoroaster teach?
Answer:
Zoroaster taught that the great object of religion state or society is the cultivation of morality.

(d) What was the highest form of worship?
Answer:
Fire was worshipped as a symbol of the deity and considered the highest form of worship.

Question 2.
Gautama Buddha
(a) What was the original name of Buddha?
Answer:
The original name of Buddha was Siddhartha.

(b) Name the birth place of Buddha.
Answer:
The birth place of Buddha is Lumbini Garden near Kapilavasthu in 567 BCE.

(c) Where did he get enlightenment?
Answer:
He got enlightenment in the Mahabodhi temple, still exists in Bodh Gaya (Bihar).

(d) Mention the place of his first sermon.
Answer:
The place of his first sermon was Samath.

VII. Answer the following in detail.

Question 1.
Discuss the five cardinal principles of Confucius.
Answer:
Five Cardinal Principles of Confucius’ Ethics
1. Humaneness
2. Righteousness
3. Propriety;
4. Wisdom
5. Trustworthiness
(i) Confucius said that wisdom grows from the family, and that the foundation of society is the disciplined individual in an orderly family.

(ii) The superior man, according to him, is not merely intelligent or scholarly, but his character should be exemplary.

(iii) The superior man of Confucius possesses three virtues: intelligence, courage and goodwill

(iv) Though Confucius insisted on children obeying parents and wife her husband, he also clearly proposed that “when the command is wrong a son should resist his father and a minister should resist the prince.’’

(v) When asked about government, he said that there are three requisites for it: “That there should be sufficiency of food, sufficiency of military equipment and confidence of the people in their ruler.”

(vi) The philosophy of Confucius gave the Chinese people an awareness about their political rights. ‘

(vii) It also clearly listed the government’s duty towards the people. Confucius felt that the government should work with an ideal.

(viii) In matters of national life, Confucius felt that the people in the nation are the actual and proper source of political sovereignty. He advised that the ruler must appoint persons of character in the government to govern the people impartially.

(ix) Confucianism is often characterized as a system of social and ethical philosophy rather than as a religion.

Question 2.
Compare and contrast the principles of Jainism and Buddhism.
Answer:

  1. The founders of Jainism and Buddhism did not prescribe killing as a religious rite.
  2. They secured their livelihood mostly by alms. Celibacy and abstinence from holding property made the new teachers much more acceptable than the Brahman priests.
  3. The people’s resentment about the expensive and elaborate Vedic rituals, animal sacrifice and the desire for wealth eventually took them towards Jainism and Buddhism.
  4. Mahavira and Buddha lived a life of purity and exemplified simplicity and self-denial. They lived in the times of Bimbisara and Ajatashatru, the famous kings of Magadha.
  5. The commercial development of the northern cities like Kaushambi, Kushinagar, Benaras, Vaishali and Rajgir added importance to the Vaishyas who turned to Buddhism and Jainism in their eagerness to improve their social status.

Student Activities

Question 1.
Prepare a case study of Asoka’s Edicts.
Answer:
“There are 33 edicts, including 14 Major Rock edicts, 7 Pillar edicts and 2 Kalinga edicts apart from Minor Rock edicts and Minor Pillar inscriptions”.
(i) The students can be divided into three groups in the class. Each group will be assigned a particular work, such as Major Rock Edicts, Pillar Edicts and Kalinga Edicts.
(ii) They can refer History Books, from the library (or) download from the Internet.
(iii) The teacher will be there to motivate the students.

Question 2.
Enact a drama about the life and teachings of Buddha.
Answer:
(i) You can prepare the script with the assistance of your teacher.
(ii) The drama can be enacted as a recreational activity in the class.

Assignment with teacher’s guidance

(i) List out the countries where Buddhism exists in the world and mark on the world map. Some of the Buddhist countries are: Cambodia, Thailand, Myanmar, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Laos, Mongolia, Japan, Taiwan, Singapore, South Korea, Malaysia, China and Vietnam. The students can mark these places on the world map.
(ii) Prepare a clay model of Sjanchi Stupa, Darmachakra.
You can do this activity in groups with the help of your teacher.

Intellectual Awakening and Socio-Political Changes Additional Questions

I. Choose the correct answer.

Question 1.
The discovery of ………….. marked the beginning of the second phase in the history of civilisations.
(a) Iron
(b) Gold
(c) Copper
(d) Bronze
Answer:
(a) Iron

Question 2.
…………… said that wisdom grows from the family.
(a) Lao-Tse
(b) Zoroaster
(c) Confucius
(d) Buddha
Answer:
(c) Confucius

Question 3.
The doctrines and rituals of the Zoroastrians have much similarity to those of the ……………
(a) Buddhism
(b) Vedas
(c) Jainism
(d) Taoism
Answer:
(b) Vedas

Question 4.
Buddhism was preached in people’s language ……………….
(a) Pali
(b) Sanskrit
(c) Hindi
(d) Chinese
Answer:
(a) Pali

Question 5.
Chandragupta’s son was ……………
(a) Bimbisara
(b) Bindusara
(c) Ajatasatru
(d) None of the above
Answer:
(b) Bindusara

Question 6.
(i) Monastries and temples served the purpose imparting education.
(ii) Nalanda was a great monastry built by the Magadha empire.
(iii) Nalanda became the most renowned seat of learning.
(iv) Fees were charged to the students.
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (ii) is correct
(c) (iii) is correct
(d) (i), (ii), (iii) are correct (iv) is incorrect
Answer:
(d) (i), (ii), (iii) are correct (iv) is incorrect

II. Fill in the blanks.

1. The philosophy of confucius gave the Chinese people an awareness about their ……………..
2. ………….. was pained to find his people worshipping primitive deities.
3. Mahavira and Buddha lived a life of purity and exemplified …………… and …………….
4. The statue of Bahubali at …………… in Karnataka is the tallest jain statue ever carved out in India.
5. Buddha belonged to the Sakya class he was also known as ……………….
6. Buddhism was split into two as ………….. and ……………
7. …………… succeeded in establishing a comprehensive structure of administration.
8. Alexander’s death, however, cleared the way for the founding of a great empire …………….. empire in India.
9. The envoy of Seleucus’s was …………….
10. Chandragupta’s minister Chanakya is credited with a book titled …………..
Answer:
1. Political rights
2. Zoroaster
3. Simplicity, Self-denial
4. Shravanabelgola
5. Sakya Muni
6. Hinayana & Mahayana
7. Bimbisara
8. Mauryan
9. Megasthenes
10. Arthasastra

III. Match the following.

Samacheer Kalvi Guru 9th Social Science History Solutions Chapter 4 Intellectual Awakening And Socio-Political Changes
Answer:
(a)
1. (d)
2. (a)
3. (e)
4. (b)
5. (c)

IV. Answer the following questions briefly.

Question 1.
Who were the two great thinkers in the sixth century BCE?
Answer:
Confucius and Lao-Tse were the two great thinkers in the sixth century BCE.

Question 2.
Mention the five important works of Confucius.
Answer:

  1. The Book of Records
  2. The Book of odes
  3. The Book of changes
  4. The spring and Autumn Annals
  5. The Book of History.

Question 3.
Name the seven qualities of Ahura Mazda.
Answer:

  1. light
  2. good mind
  3. right
  4. dominion
  5. piety
  6. well-being
  7. immortality.

Question 4.
What kind of life Mahavira and Buddha live?
Answer:
Mahavira and Buddha lived a life of purity and exemplified simplicity and self-denial.

Question 5.
Write a short note on “split in Jainism”.
Answer:

  • In course of time, Jainism split into two branches namely the Digambaras (Sky-clad) and the Svetambaras (White-clad)
  • The Digambaras were the Orthodox followers of Mahavira. They rejected clothes altogether. The Svetambaras wore a white dress from head to toe.

Question 6.
What did Buddha do to establish Buddhism?
Answer:

  • Buddha in order to carry his message to different parts of India, established the Buddhist Sangha (or) the Holy order of Monks.
  • The bikshus (monks) and the bikshunis (nuns) were enlisted for spreading the faith and they were required to lead a life of purity and poverty.

Question 7.
What do you know about Nanda dynasty?
Answer:

  1. Mahapadma Nanda founded the Nanda dynasty.
  2. The Nandas were the first of non-Kshatriya dynasties to rule in North India.
  3. Nandas gave importance to irrigation with the canals, they built touching even the Kalinga kingdom.

Question 8.
Mention the Educational centres of Mauryan Administration.
Answer:

  1. Monastries and temples served the purpose of imparting education.
  2. Nalanda was a great monastry built by the Magadha Empire.
  3. Educational centres offered Buddhist and Vedic literature, logic, grammar, medicine, philosophy and astronomy.
  4. Even the science of war was taught.
  5. Nalanda became the most renowned seat of learning in course of time.

V. Answer all the questions given under each caption.

Question 1.
Confucius.
(a) When was confucius born?
Answer:
Confucius was bom in the Shantung province of China in 551 BCE.

(b) Mention the five important works of Confucius.
Answer:

  1. The Book of Records
  2. The Book of odes
  3. The Book of changes
  4. The spring and Autumn Annals
  5. The Book of History.

(c) What are the five cardinal principles of “Confucius” Ethics?
Answer:

  1. Humaneness
  2. Righteousness
  3. Propriety
  4. Wisdom
  5. Trustworthiness.

(d) Mention the three virtues to be possessed by a superior man.
Answer:
Intelligence, courage and good will.

Question 2.
Jainism.
(a) When was Mahavira born?
Answer:
Vardhamana Mahavira was bom in 599 BCE at Kundagrama near Vaishali.

(b) Mention the three principles of Jainism.
Answer:

  1. Right faith
  2. Right knowledge
  3. Right Action.

(c) Name the rulers who patronised Jainism.
Answer:
Dhana Nanda, Chandra Gupta Maurya and Kharavela.

(d) What are the two branches of Jainism?
Answer:
The two branches are Digambaras and Svetambaras.

VI. Answer the following in detail.

Question 1.
Explain the teachings of Lao-Tse (Taoism).
Answer:

  1. The cause of human unhappiness in the world is human selfishness. Selfishness creates unlimited human desires, which can never be satisfied.
  2. In nature, all the things act in a natural way. The law of human conduct must correspond . with nature.
  3. Humans live a life under the regulation of someone. This is because they have acquired knowledge and have not remained innocent. On the basis of their acquired knowledge, they have built up an urban civilisation and have made themselves unhappy.

Question 2.
Give reasons for the decline of Buddhism.
Answer:
Buddhism declined in India due to the following reasons:

  1. Buddhism was popular in the beginning because it was preached in people’s language (Pali). The later texts were written in Sanskrit, which was difficult for the common people to understand.
  2. The split in Buddhism into Hinayana and Mahayana was another vital reason. Image worship in Mahayana made no difference between Hinduism and Buddhism.
  3. Buddhism lost its royal patronage during the reign of Guptas.
  4. Further, the invasions of Huns and Turks almost wiped out Buddhism.

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