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Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 7th Social Science History Solutions Term 3 Chapter 2 Art and Architecture of Tamil Nadu

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Social Science Art and Architecture of Tamil Nadu Textual Evaluation

I. Choose the correct answer.

Question 1.
Which is the oldest structural temple in south India?
(a) Shore Temple
(b) Mandagapattu
(c) Kailasanatha Temple
(d) Vaikuntha Perumal Temple
Answer:
(a) Shore Temple

Question 2.
In which year were the Mamallapuram monuments and temples notified as a UNESCO world Heritage site?
(a) 1964
(b) 1994
(c) 1974
(d) 1984
Answer:
(d) 1984

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Social Science History Solutions Term 3 Chapter 2 Art and Architecture of Tamil Nadu

Question 3.
What was the special feature of the architecture of early Chola period?
(a) bas-reliefs
(b) vimanas
(c) corridors
(d) gopurams
Answer:
(b) vimanas

Question 4.
Where is the Azhakiya Nambi Temple situated?
(a) Tirukkurungudi
(b) Madurai
(c) Tirunelveli
(d) Srivilliputhur
Answer:
(a) Tirukkurungudi

Question 5.
Who built the Vaikuntha Perumal Temple?
(a) Mahendravarman
(b) Narasimhavarman
(c) Rajasimha
(d) Rajarajall
Answer:
(b) Narasimhavarman

II. Fill in the Blanks.

  1. _______ was the first rock-cut cave temple built by the Pallava king Mahendravarman.
  2. The early Chola architecture followed the style of _______
  3. The most celebrated mandapam in Madurai Meenakshiamman temple is the _______
  4. Later Chola period was known for beautiful _______
  5. Vijayanagar periods unique feature is the _______

Answer:

  1. Mandagapattu temple
  2. Sembian Mahadevi
  3. Pudumandapam
  4. gopurams
  5. mandapam

III. Match the following.

Seven Pagodas Madurai
Rathi mandapam Darasuram
Iravatheswara temple Tirukkurungudi
Adinatha Temple Shore temple
Pudumandapam Azhwar Tirunagari

Answer:

Seven Pagodas Shore temple
Rathi mandapam Tirukkurungudi
Iravatheswara temple Darasuram
Adinatha Temple Azhwar Tirunagari
Pudumandapam Madurai

IV. Find out the wrong pair/pairs.

Question 1.
1. Krishnapuram Temple – Tirunelveli
2. Kudalazhagar Temple – Azhwar Tirunagari
3. Sethupathis – Feudatories of Madurai Nayaks
4. Jalagandeshwara temple – Vellore
Answer:
2. Kudalazhagar Temple – Azhwar Tirunagari

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Social Science History Solutions Term 3 Chapter 2 Art and Architecture of Tamil Nadu

Question 2.
Assertion (A): The predominance of corridors of Rameswaram Temple is striking.
Reason (R):The Temple has the largest set of corridors in the world.
(a) R is not the correct explanation of A
(b) R is the correct explanation of A
(c) A is correct but R is wrong
(d) Both A and R are wrong
Answer:
(b) R is the correct explanation of A

Question 3.
Find out the odd one out:
Srivilliputhur, Azhaharkoil, Srirangam, Kanchipuram, Tiruvannamalai.
Answer:
Kanchipuram

Question 4.
Name the epoch of the following:
(a) A.D. 600 to 850 – The Pallava Epoch
(b) A.D. 850 to 1100 – Early Chola Epoch
(c) A.D. 1100 to 1350 – Later Chola Epoch
(d) A.D. 1350 to 1600 – Vijayanagara / Nayak Epoch

Question 5.
Find out the correct statement/s:
1) The Arjunas Penance is carved out of a granite boulder.
2) Meenakshi Amman temple in Madurai represents Pallava’s architectural style.
3) The cave temple at Pillayarpatti is a contribution of Later Pandyas.
4) The Sethupathis as feudatories of Madurai Nayaks contributed to Madurai Meenakshiamman Temple.
Answer:
(1) The Arjuna’s Penance is carved out of a granite boulder
(3) The cave temple at Pillayarpatti is a contribution of Later Pandyas

V. State true or false:

  1. Rajasimha built the Kanchi Kailasanatha temple.
  2. Early Pandyas were the contemporaries of Later Cholas.
  3. Rock-cut and structural temples are significant parts of the Pandya architecture.
  4. Brihadeeshwara temple was built by Rajendra Chola.
  5. Vijayanagar and Nayak paintings are seen at temple at Dadapuram.

Answer:

  1. True
  2. False
  3. True
  4. True
  5. False

VI. Give short answers.

Question 1.
Write a note on Pancha Pandava Rathas.
Answer:

  1. The Tamil Dravida tradition is exemplified by rock-cut monuments such as Pancha Pandava Rathas, namely Draupadi ratha, Dharmaraja ratha, Bheema ratha, Arjuna ratha and Nagula- Sahadeva ratha.
  2. The outer walls of the rathas, especially of Arjuna, Bhima and Dharmaraja, are decorated with niches and motifs.
  3. The niches have the sculptures of gods, goddesses, monarchs and scenes from mythology.

Question 2.
Throw light on the paintings of Sittanavasal.
Answer:

  1. Caves at Sittanavasal, have outstanding early Pandya paintings.
  2. Sittanavasal was a residential cave of the Jain monks. They painted the walls with fresco painting.
  3. The lotus pond is notable for its excellent execution of colours and exposition of the scene.
  4. The image of lotus flowers, leaves spread all over the pond, animals, elephants, buffalos, swans and a man who plucks the flowers look brilliant.

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Social Science History Solutions Term 3 Chapter 2 Art and Architecture of Tamil Nadu

Question 3.
Point out the special features of Thanjavur Big temple.
Answer:

  1. At the time the Big Temple of Thanjavur was constructed, it was a huge temple complex.
  2. The 216 feet vimana (structure over the garbhagriha) is notable as it is one among the tallest man-made shikaras of the world.
  3. Due to its massive height, the shikara is called the Dakshina Meru.
  4. The huge bull statue (Nandi) measures about 16 feet long and 13 feet height and is carved out of a single rock.

Question 4.
Highlight the striking features of Rameswaram Temple.

  1. In the temple of Rameswaram, the predominance of corridors is striking.
  2. This temple has the longest set of corridors in the world. The temple has three sets of corridors.
  3. The outer set of the temples corridors has a height of almost 7 metres and stretches for about 120 metres in both the eastern and western directions.
  4. The outer corridor is also remarkable for the number of pillars that support it, which is over 1200 in number.
  5. Moreover, many of these pillars are decorated by ornate carvings.

VII. Answer the following in detail.

Question 1
The Pallava epoch witnessed a transition from rock-cut to free-standing temples – Explain.
Answer:
Pallava Epoch:

  1. The Pallava epoch witnessed a transition from rock-cut to free-standing temples.
  2. Rock-cut temples were initially built by carving a rock to the required design and then rocks were cut to build temples.
  3. The Pallava king Mahendravarman was a pioneer in rock-cut architecture. Mandagapattu temple was the first rock-cut temple built by him.
  4. The rock-cut cave structure has two pillars in the front that hold it.
  5. This cave architecture reached its decadent phase after A.D.700 and gave way to the large structural temples probably because the structural temples provided a wider scope to the sculptor to use his skill.
  6. The Shore Temple at Mahabalipuram, also called the Seven Pagodas, was built by the Pallava king Narasimhavarman II.
  7. The structural temples were built using blocks of rock instead of a whole block as earlier.
  8. Mahabalipuram (Mamallapuram) is built of cut stones rather than carved out of caves.

Question 2.
Discuss how the architecture of Vijayanagara and Nayak period was different from the one of Pallavas and Later Cholas.
Answer:

S.No. Vijayanagara and Nayak Period of architecture Pallavas and Later cholas period of architecture
1. The main features of Vijayanagar and Nayak architecture are decorated mandapas, ornamental pillars, life- size images, gopuras, prakaras, music pillars, floral works and stone windows during the 15th to 17th centuries. The Pallava epoch withnessed a transition from rock-cut to free standing temples. The Shore temple at Mahabalipuram was built by the Pallava king Narasimhavarman II.
2. Tanks are attached to the temples. Gateways to temple are constructed from four directions with massive Gopurams. The maturity attained by later chola architecture is reflected in the two magnificent temples of Thanjavur and Gangaikonda Cholapuram. Dharasuram is a later Chola period temple rich in architectural splendour, dedicated to Iravatheswara.

VIII. HOTS.

Question 1.
Dravidian architecture is of indigenous origin – Explain.
Answer:

  1. Dravidian architecture is of indigenous origin. It advanced over time by a process of evolution. The earliest examples of the Tamil Dravidian architectural tradition were the 7th century rock-cut shrines at Mahabalipuram.
  2. The absence of monuments in south India prior to the 7th century is attributed by scholar to temples ought to have been built in wood, which were eventually destroyed by forces of nature.
  3. It consists primarily of Hindu temples where the main feature is the high gopura, large temples etc.
  4. Mentioned as one of the three styles of temple building in the book. Vastu Shastra the majority of the structures are located in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Telungana, Kerala, Tamil Nadu & Karnatada.
  5. The Cholas, Cheras, Pandyas, Pallavas Kakatiyas, Kadambas, Chalukyas and the vijayanagar kings contributed to this architecture.

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Social Science History Solutions Term 3 Chapter 2 Art and Architecture of Tamil Nadu

Question 2.
Temple art was at its best during the Nayak Period – Elucidate.
Answer:

  1. The practice of fitting the niches with sculptures continued during the Nayak period,
  2. There was an increased use of major sculpted figures (relief sculpture) as found at the Alakiya Nambi temple at Tirukkurungudi (Tirunelveli district) and the Gopalakrishna temple in the Ranganatha temple complex at Srirangam.
  3. The southern festival mandapam of Adinatha temple at Azhwar Tirunagari and the porch of the Nellaiyappar temple at Tirunelveli are other notable examples.

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Social Science Art and Architecture of Tamil Nadu Additional Questions

I. Choose the correct answer:

Question 1.
Narasimhavarman II, built the ______ temple at Kanchipuram.
(a) Vaikuntha Perumal
(b) Kailasanatha
(c) Meenakshi amman
(d) Nellaiappar
Answer:
(b) Kailasanatha

Question 2.
Early Pandyas were the contemporaries of the ______
(a) Cholas
(b) Pallavas
(c) Cheras
(d) Nayaks
Answer:
(b) Pallavas

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Social Science History Solutions Term 3 Chapter 2 Art and Architecture of Tamil Nadu

Question 3.
Tirumalai Nayakkar museum is located at ______
(a) Madurai
(b) Chennai
(c) Salem
(d) Tirunelveli
Answer:
(a) Madurai

Question 4.
______ from where we get early Pandya paintings, are in a damaged condition.
(a) Tirunelveli
(b) Madurai
(c) Tirumalaipuram
(d) Anaimalai
Answer:
(c) Tirumalaipuram

Question 5.
For the Early Chola epoch, the temple at ______ near Tindivanam in TamilNadu, is worth mentioning.
(a) Thanjavur
(b) Darasuram
(c) Gangaikonda Cholapuram
(d) Dadapuram
Answer:
(d) Dadapuram

Question 6.
Thanjavur Big temple was built by ______ chola.
(a) Rajaraja
(b) Vijayalaya
(c) Rajendra
(d) Karikala
Answer:
(a) Rajaraja

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Social Science History Solutions Term 3 Chapter 2 Art and Architecture of Tamil Nadu

Question 7.
______ near kumbakonam is a temple dedicated to Iravatheswara.
(a) Thanjavur
(b) Darasuram
(c) Dadapuram
(d) Tiruparankundram
Answer:
(b) Darasuram

Question 8.
The Sethupathis, as the feudatories of Madurai Nayaks, ruled ______
(a) Tirunelveli
(b) Madurai
(c) Kanchipuram
(d) Ramanathapuram
Answer:
(d) Ramanathapuram

Question 9.
_______ temple has the longest set of corridors in the world.
(a) Meenakshiamman
(b) Nellaiappar
(c) Ramanathaswamy
(d) Jalagandeshwarat
Answer:
(c) Ramanathaswamy

Question 10.
______ Pillars were the peculiar feature of the Vijayanagara and Nayak period.
(a) Cave
(b) Coin
(c) Musical
(d) Elephant
Answer:
(c) Musical

II. Fill in the blanks:

  1. Narasimhavarman II was also known as ______
  2. In the siva temple of Pandyas, the ______ is carved out of the mother rock.
  3. The ______ , is a monolithic temple at Kazhugumalai.
  4. The ______ paintings have similarities with the Ajantha paintings.
  5. The Cholas came to limelight in A.D. 850 under ______
  6. Temples with the increased number of ______ figures belong to the Sembiyan style.
  7. ______ is an illustrious example of early temple that was re-fashioned in the days of Sembiyan Mahadevi.
  8. ______ served as the Chola capital for about 250 years.
  9. ______ constructed the Iravatheswara temple at Darasuram.
  10. In the temple of Rameswaram. the ______ set of corridors is the oldest of the three.

Answer:

  1. Rajasimha
  2. linga
  3. Vettuvankoil
  4. Sittanavasal
  5. Vijaylaya Chola
  6. devakoshta
  7. Tiruppurambiyam
  8. Gangaikonda Cholapuram
  9. Rajaraja II
  10. innermost

III. Match the following:

Varadaraia Perumal temple (a) Vellore
Talagandeshwar temple (b) Tirunelveli
Vanamamalai temple (c) Rameswaran
Nellaiappar temple (d) Kanchipuran
Ramanathaswamv temple (e) Nansuneri

Answer:

  1. d
  2. a
  3. e
  4. b
  5. c

IV.
Asseration (A): The Pallava King Mahendravarman was a Pioneer in rock-cut architecture.
Reason (R): Mandagapattu temple was the first rock-cut temple built by him.
(a) R is the correct explanation of A.
(b) R is not the correct explanation of A
(c) A is correct but R is wrong
(d) Both A and R are wrong
Answer:
(a) R is the correct explanation of A

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Social Science History Solutions Term 3 Chapter 2 Art and Architecture of Tamil Nadu

Question 2.
Find the odd one out.
Vijayalaya, Rajasimha, Rajaraja, Rajendra.
Answer:
Rajasimha

Question 3.
Find out the correct statement/s.
1) The illustrious example for rock-cut style is unfinished Kazhugumalai Vettuvankoil temple.
2) The lotus pond is notable for its execution of colours is found in Ajantha paintings.
3) Pillayarpatti is located near Vellore.
4) Monolithic gigantic yazhi pillars are found in temples of Vijayanagara Period.
Answer:
(1) The illustrious example for rock-cut style is unfinished Kazhugumalai Vettuvankoil temple.
(4) Monolithic gigantic yazhi pillars are found in temples of Vijayanagara Period.

V. State true or false:

  1. Dwarapalas mean Gatekeepers in temples.
  2. Sittanavasal is famous for the tallest Vimanas in the world.
  3. The Brihadeeshwara temple of Thanjavur has 55 metre high Vimana The
  4. Pallava period featured sculptural rocks.

Answer:

  1. True
  2. False
  3. False
  4. True

VI. Give short answers.

Question 1.
Which are the most important Pandya cave temples found?
Answer:
The most important cave temples are found in Malaiyadikurichi, Anaimalai, Tiruparankundram and Trichirappali.

Question 2.
Write a short note on the Kazhugumalai Vettuvankoil temples.
Answer:

  1. The illustrious example for rock-cut style is Kazhugumalai Vettuvankoil temple.
  2. The Vettuvankoil, a monolithic temple at Kazhugumalai, is hewn out of a huge boulder on four sides.
  3. At the top of the temple, sculptures of Uma Maheswarar, Dakshinamoorthy, Vishnu and Brahma are found.

Question 3.
Give a brief account of the Dharasuram temple.
Answer:

  1. Dharasuram, near Kumbakonam, is a Later Chola period temple, rich in architectural
    splendour, dedicated to Iravatheswara (Siva as god of lord Indiras elephant).
  2. The Mahamandapam is an elaborate structure. The entire structure looks like a ratha because it has four wheels at the Mahamandapam. The sanctum and pillars have many sculptures, of various mythological figures.
  3. A compound wall runs round the temple with a gopuram.

Question 4.
What is the significance of the figure of Ganesha at Pillayarpatti?
Answer:

  1. At Pillayarpatti a beautiful Ganesha is carved facing the entrance.
  2. The importance of the figure, referred to Desivinayaga in the cave inscription, is that there are two arms with the trunk turning to the right.

Question 5.
What is the new form of construction that emerged during the Vijayanagara epoch?
Answer:
Give examples.

  1. During the Vijayanagara epoch, a new form of construction emerged. It is the mandapam (pavilion) to where the gods are carried every year.
  2. Pillared outdoor mandapams are meant for public rituals with the ones in the east serving as the waiting room for devotees, which adorn the large temples.
  3. The kalyana mandapam at Kanchipuram (Varadaraja Perumal temple) and at Vellore (Jalagandeshwar temple) are notable examples.

Question 6.
What are the main features of the Vijayanagara and Nayak architecture?
Answer:

  1. The main features of the Vijayanagar and Nayak architecture are decorated mandapas, ornamental pillars, life-size images, gopuras, prakaras, music pillars, floral works and stone windows.
  2. Tanks are attached to the temples. Gateways to temple are constructed from four directions with massive gopurams.

Question 7.
Describe the pillars of the Vijayanagar and Nayak period.
Answer:

  1. The pillars of this period are more decorative than the previous period.
  2. Monolithic gigantic yazhi pillars, horse pillars with life-size portraits of mythological and royal family members, common folk, animals and floral works were made.
  3. Musical pillars were the peculiar feature of this time.

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Social Science History Solutions Term 3 Chapter 2 Art and Architecture of Tamil Nadu

Question 8.
In which temples are Vijayanagara and Nayak paintings seen?
Answer:
Vijayanagar and Nayak paintings are seen at Varadharaja Perumal temple at Kanchipuram, Kudalazhagar Temple at Madurai and the temples of Srivilliputhur, Tiruvellarai, Azhaharkoil, Tiruvannamalai and Srirangam.

Question 9.
What do the paintings in temples of the Vijayanagar and Nayak period depict?
Answer:
The paintings mostly have the stories from Ramayana, palace scenes and mythological stories.

Question 10.
Who contributed to the Ramanathaswamy temple architecture?
Answer:
The Sethupathis, as the feudatories of Madurai Nayaks, ruled Ramanathapuram and contributed to the Ramanathaswamy temple architecture.

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Social Science History Solutions Term 3 Chapter 2 Art and Architecture of Tamil Nadu

VII. Answer in Detail :

Question 1.
Write a note on Gangaikonda Cholapuram.
Answer:

  1. Gangaikonda Cholapuram served as the Chola capital for about 250 years.
  2. The Brihadeeshwara temple of Gangaikonda Cholapuram, built by Rajendra Chola,’ is undoubtedly as worthy a successor to the Brihadeeshwara temple of Thanjavur.
  3. The height of the temple is 55 metres.
  4. The sanctum has two storeys as in the big temple at Thanjavur.
  5. The outer wall has many projections with niches and recesses on three sides. In the niches there are the images of Siva, Vishnu and other gods.
  6. This temple complex has the shrines of Chandeeswarar, Ganesa and Mahishasura Mardhini.

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