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Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 12th English Solutions Prose Chapter 4 The Summit
The Summit 12th Prose Summary Warm up
(a) Adventures, expeditions and explorations are always exciting. Especially when they are real and if it is the first of its kind, it is even more thrilling. The only question that comes to ones mind is what makes one to take up such tasks that involve high risks. It is the spirit of formidable adventure and certain qualities which make them achieve such feats.
(b) Tick the qualities that are required to achieve such a feat.
|passion ✓||reward||determination ✓||physical fitness ✓|
|fame||faith ✓||courage ✓||money|
|drive ✓||vengeance||inspiration ✓||self-satisfaction|
|vision ✓||undying spirit ✓||inner-urge ✓||perseverance ✓|
Samacheer Kalvi 12th English The Summit Textual Questions
1. Based on your reading of the text, answer the following questions in one or two sentences each.
The Summit 12th Prose Paragraph Question (a)
What did Hillary do with his wet boots?
Hillary cooked his wet boots over the fierce flame of the Primus and managed to soften them.
The Summit Paragraph Question (b)
Name an equipment and a tool carried by the climbers during their expedition.
Oxygen gear is an equipment and ice-axe and ice hammer are some tools that climbers carry’ during their expedition.
The Summit Within Summary Question (c)
Why did Hillary become clumsy-fingered and slow-moving?
After reaching the peak, Hillary ran out of oxygen, he was becoming clumsy-fingered and slow-moving. So, he quickly replaced his oxygen set.
The Summit Question And Answer Question (d)
What did Hillary find in a tiny hollow?
Edmund Hillary and Tenzing reached a tiny hollow. They found two oxygen bottles left there by Evans and Bourdillon after a failed attempt.
The Summit 12th Prose Question (e)
When did Hillary feel a sense of freedom and well being?
Their first partly-full bottle of oxygen got exhausted. They had only one oxygen bottle to cany. With reduced load of 20 litre bottle, Hillary cut steps down off the South Summit. So, he felt a sense of freedom and well-being.
What did Hillary mean by saying “We had had enough to do the job, but by no means too much”?
It was providential will that Hillary found two oxygen bottles on the way up towards Everest. As they returned successfully after the conquer of Everest, just near their tent, their bottle ran out of oxygen. So, he says they had had enough oxygen to conquer Everest but by no means it was too much.
Based on your reading of the text, answer the following questions in one or two sentences each.
Why was Pemba unable to accompany Tenzing and Hillary?
Pemba was too ill to climb. So, he did not accompany Tenzing and Hillary.
Where did the three companions go back after climbing up to 27,900 feet?
The three companions went back to the south col after climbing 27,900 feet.
When did Hillary and Tenzing get ready for the arduous climb to Everest?
Hillary and Tenzing got ready to climb at 4 am on May 29, 1953.
How did Hillary and Tenzing energize themselves for the final lap of the ascent?
Both Hillary and Tenzing drank a lot of lemon juice and sugar. They followed it with their last tin of sardines and biscuits.
Why did Hillary ask Tenzing lead when they sit ready to more at 6.30 am?
Hillary was worried about his cold feet. So, he asked Tenzing to lead.
Why did Hillary feel relieved on discovering two oxygen bottles?
Hillary scraped the ice if the gauges and felt relieved as they still contained several hundred liters of oxygen to last till they return to south col.
Who had left behind the two bottles of oxygen at the tiny hollow?
Evans and Bourdillon had made an attempt to climb Everest. They failed in their mission. To reduce their load, they had left the two bottle of oxygen behind.
In which phase of the journey did Hillary and Tenzing find the snow dangerous?
In the phase of the last 400 feet to the southern summit the snow was dangerous.
Why did Hillary doubt the feasibility of continuing the climb at one crucial point?
As Hillary was inching his way up towards the Southern Summit, he slipped back there or four of his steps. Having a doubt about the feasibility of continuing the climb, he sought Tenzing’s advice.
When did Hillary and Tenzing Crampon on to the South Peak?
After climbing for two and a half hours, they cramponed on the south peak at 9 am.
2. Answer the following questions in two or three sentences each.
How did the mountaineers belay?
Belaying refers to a variety of techniques used by mountaineers to exert tension on a climbing rope so that a climber does not fall very far. A climbing partner typically applies tension at the other end of the rope whenever the climber is not climbing and removes the tension from the rope when the climber needs rope to continue to climb.
Why was the original zest fading away?
As Hillary tried to reach the peak, he had to negotiate giant cornices on the right and steep rock sloped on the left. They had no idea as they trudged forward where the peak was. As Hillary cut around the back of one hump, another higher one would swing into the view. So, their original zest was fading away.
What did Edmund Hillary do to escape the large overhanging ice cornices?
In a number of places, the overhanging ice cornices were very large. In order to escape them, Hillary cut a line of steps down to where the snow met the rocks on the west.
What did Tenzing and Edmund Hillary gift to the God of lofty Summit? How did they do it?
A hole was made in the ice where Tenzing placed reverentially a bar of chocolate, a packet of biscuits, and a handfull of lollies. As Hillary remembered that his team head Col. Hunt had requested to place a crucifix after reaching the peak. So, he also made a hole in the snow and placed the crucifix beside Tenzing’s gift to the Gods. Devout Buddhists believed that at least a small token of gift should be left with Gods who have their homes in that lofty Everest.
What did the photograph portray?
The photograph portrayed North Col and the old route which had been made famous by the struggles of those great climbers in 1920’s and 1930’s.
The soft snow was difficult and dangerous. Why?
The soft snow made a route on top of the ridge both dangerous and difficult. Sometimes it held Hillary’s weight. But often it gave way suddenly. Thus it was dangerous for the climbers. But both persisted and trudged ahead for 400 feet and reached the southern summit.
How did the firm snow at the higher regions fill them with hope?
They were a little perturbed by slippery soft snow. But as they reached firmer snow higher up, they felt better. As one bottle of oxygen got exhausted, their load was now less. As Hillary’s axe bit into the first steep slope of the ridge, his high hopes were realized. The snow was crystalline and firm. They were able to make comfortable belays to haul themselves up slowly.
Answer the following questions in two or three sentences each.
When did Hillary and Tenzing realize their high hopes?
As they trudged up, they came across crystalline and firm snow. As Hillary’s ice-axe bit into the first steep slop of the ridge, their high hopes were realized. They could make comfortable belays and move up with confidence.
What was thrilling to watch 8000 feet below them?
In a number of places, the overhanging ice cornices were very large. In order to escape them, Hillary cut a line of steps down to where the snow met the rocks on the west. It was a great thrill to look straight down that enormous rock face to see 8000 ft below them the tiny tents of Camp 4 in the Western Cwm,
What were the immediate feelings of Hillary on the conquest of Everest?
On the conquest of Everest Hillary ’s immediate feeling was that of relief that there were no move ridges to traverse. There were no more humps to tantalize them with hopes of success.
How did the achievers express their joy on the conquest?
They shook hands. Tenzing threw his arms around Hillary’s shoulders. They thumped each other on the back until they were almost breathless.
How were the achievers welcomed by fellow climbers?
Two figures came towards them a couple of hundred feet about their camp. They were George Lowe and Wilfrid Noyce, and it was thoughtful of them because Hillary ‘s oxygen ran out just then.
3. Based on the text, answer the following questions in a paragraph of about 100-150 words each.
1. We started up our cooker and
drank large quantities of lemon juice and
sugar, and followed this with our last tin of
sardines on biscuits. I dragged our oxygen
sets into the tent, cleaned the ice off them,
and then rechecked and tested them.
2. I had removed my boots, which
had become wet the day before, and they
were now frozen solid. So I cooked them
over the fierce flame of the Primus and
managed to soften them up. Over our
down clothing we donned our windproof
and on to our hands we pulled three pairs
of gloves – silk, woollen, and windproof.
3. At 6.30 a.m. we crawled out of that
tent into the snow, hoisted our 30 lb. of
oxygen gear on to our backs, connected
up our masks and turned on the valves to
bring life-giving oxygen into our lungs. A
few good deep breaths and we were ready
to go. Still a little worried about my cold
feet, I asked Tenzing to move off.
4. Tenzing kicked steps in a long
traverse back towards the ridge, and we
reached its crest where it forms a great
snow bump at about 28000 feet. From
here the ridge narrowed to a knife-edge
and, as my feet were now warm, I took
over the lead.
5. The soft snow made a route on top
of the ridge both difficult and dangerous,
which sometimes held my weight but often
gave way suddenly. After several hundred
feet, we came to a tiny hollow, and found
there the two oxygen bottles left on the
earlier attempt by Evans and Bourdillon.
I scraped the ice off the gauges and was
relieved to find that they still contained
several hundred litres of oxygen-enough
to get us down to the South Col if used sparingly
6. I continued making the trail on up
the ridge, leading up for the last 400 feet
to the southern summit. The snow on this
face was dangerous, but we persisted in
our efforts to beat a trail up it.
We made frequent changes of
lead. As I was stamping a trail in the deep
snow, a section around me gave way and
7. I slipped back through three or four of
my steps. I discussed with Tenzing the
advisability of going on, and he, although
admitting that he felt unhappy about the
snow conditions, and finished with his
familiar phrase “Just as you wish”.
8. I decided to go on; and we finally
reached firmer snow higher up, and then
chipped steps up the last steep slopes and
cramponed on to the South Peak. It was
now 9 a.m.
9. We cut a seat for ourselves just
below the South Summit and removed our
oxygen apparatus. As our first partly-full
bottle of oxygen was now exhausted, we
had only one full bottle left. Our apparatus
was now much lighter, weighing just over
20 lb., and as I cut steps down off the South
Summit I felt a sense of freedom and well- being.
10. As my ice-axe bit into the first
steep slope of the ridge, my high hopes
were realized. The snow was crystalline
and firm. Two or three blows of the ice axe
produced a step large enough even for
our over-sized High Altitude boots, and
a firm thrust of the ice-axe would sink it
half-way up the shaft, giving a solid and
11. We moved one at a time. I would
cut a forty foot line of steps, Tenzing
belaying me while I worked. Then in turn I
would sink my shaft and put a few loops of
the rope around it, and Tenzing, protected
against a breaking step, would move up to
me. Then once again as he belayed me I
would go on cutting
12. In a number of places the
overhanging ice cornices were very large
indeed, and in order to escape them I cut a
line of steps down to where the snow met
the rocks on the west. It was a great thrill
to look straight down this enormous rock
face and to see, 8000 feet below us, the
tiny tents of Camp 4 in the Western Cwm.
Scrambling on the rocks and cutting
handholds on the snow, we were able to
shuffle past these difficult portions.
13. On its east side was another great
cornice; and running up the full forty feet
of the step was a narrow crack between
the cornice and the rock. Leaving Tenzing
to belay me as best he could, I jammed my
way into this crack. Then, kicking
backwards, I sank the spikes of my
crampons deep into the frozen snow
behind me and levered myself off the
14. Taking advantage of every little
rock hold, and all the force of knee,
shoulder, and arms I could muster, I
literally cramponed backwards up the
crack, praying that the cornice would
remain attached to the rock. My progress
although slow was steady. As Tenzing paid
out the rope, I inched my way upwards
until I could reach over the top of the rock
and drag myself out of the crack on to a
15. For a few moments I lay regaining
my breath, and for the first time really
felt the fierce determination that nothing
now could stop us reaching the top. I took
a firm stance on the ledge and signalled
to Tenzing to come on up. As I heaved
hard on the rope, Tenzing wriggled his
way up the crack, and finally collapsed at
the top like a giant fish when it has just
been hauled from the sea after a terrible
16. The ridge continued as before:
giant cornices on the right; steep rock
sloped on the left. The ridge curved away
to the right and we have no idea where the
top was. As I cut around the back of one
hump, another higher one would swing
into view. Time was passing and the ridge
17. Our original zest had now quite
gone, and it was turning more into a grim
struggle. I then realized that the ridge
ahead, instead of rising, now dropped
sharply away. I looked upwards to see a
narrow snow ridge running up to a snowy
summit. A few more whacks of the ice-axe
in the firm snow and we stood on top.
18. My first feelings were of relief–
relief that there were no more steps to
cut, no more ridges to traverse, and no
more humps to tantalize us with hopes
of success. I looked at Tenzing. In spite of
the balaclava helmet, goggles, and oxygen
mask – all encrusted with long icicles–that
concealed his face, there was no disguising
his grin of delight as he looked all around
him. We shook hands, and then Tenzing
threw his arm around my shoulders and
we thumped each other on the back until
we were almost breathless. It was 11.30
a.m. The ridge had taken us two and a
half hours, but it seemed like a lifetime
To the east was our giant
19. neighbour Makalu, unexplored and
unclimbed. Far away across the clouds,
the great bulk of Kanchenjunga loomed
on the horizon. To the west, we could
see the great unexplored ranges of Nepal
stretching off into the distance.
20. The most important photograph,
I felt, was a shot down the North Ridge,
showing the North Col and the old route
which had been made famous by the
struggles of those great climbers of the
1920’s and 1930’s. After ten minutes,
I realized that I was becoming rather
clumsy-fingered and slow-moving. So I
quickly replaced my oxygen set
How did Hillary and Tenzing prepare themselves before they set off to the summit? (Para 1, 2 and 3)
They started up their cookers and drank lots of lemon juice and sugar. Then they took sardines and biscuits. Hillary cleaned the ice off the oxygen sets. He rechecked and tested them. He had removed his boots which had become wet the day before. They were now frozen solid. It would be very challenging to start climbing ice-cold Himalayas with such wet and chilling boots. So, he cooked them over the fierce flame of Primus and managed to soften them up. They were also conscious of the probabilitvof braving snow storms during the ascent. They . fortified their clothing with wind proof and also pulled three pairs of gloves silk, woollen, and windproof on to their hands. At 6.30 am they crawled out of their tent into the snow. They hoisted their 30 lb. of oxygen gear on their backs. Connecting their oxygen masks they turned on the valves to bring life-giving oxygen into their lungs. Taking a few deep breaths, fnev got ready to go.
Give an account of the journey to the South Col from 28,000 feet. (Para 4 to 8)
From the altitude of 28000 feet, the ridge narrowed to a knife-edge and as Hillary’s feet were now warm, he took over the land and Tenzing followed him. The soft snow was difficult and dangerous to tackle. Sometimes it supported Hillary’s weight and often it gave way suddenly. After trudging several hundred feet, they reached a tiny hollow where they found two oxygen bottles left by Evans and Bourdillon after a failed mission. Hillary7 scraped off the ice and found that both were full and could last till they returned from ascent if they used them sparingly. Despite risky slips, they persisted and made 400 feet climb to the southern summit. Hillary sought the advisability of continuing on such a lowly snow bed. But Tenzing remarked, “as your wish.” Hillary’ made up his mind to go on. His resolve paid off. They finally reached firmer snow higher up fuelling their hopes of success.
Describe the feelings of Edmund Hillary and Tenzing as they reached the top of the Summit. (Para 18)
Hillary’s first feelings were of relief on reaching Everest. There were no more ridges to traverse and no more humps to tease them off with hope of success. He looked at Tenzing. In spite of balaclava helmet, goggles and oxygen mask, all encrusted with long icicles, that concealed his face, his delight was visible. He looked around with a grin of delight. They shook hands. Tenzing hugged Hillary’ and thumped each other till they were breathless. It was 1 .30 am. The ridge had taken them two and a half hours but it seemed like a lifetime.
The ridge had taken us two and half hours, but it seemed like lifetime. Why? (Para 15 to 17)
Both Hillary and Tenzing reached a wide ledge. Hillary deeply felt the fierce determination that nothing could stop them from scaling the Himalayas. He took a stronghold on the ledge and signalled Tenzing to come up. With great difficulty Tenzing reached the way up the crack and collapsed like a giant fish hauled up from the ocean. There were giant cornices on the right and steep rock sloped on the left. The ridge curved away to the right. They had no idea’ where the peak was. As Hillary cut around the back of one hump, another would swing anew ‘ to his view’. Time seemed never ending. Their original zest started diminishing. The climb becoming a grim struggle. To their surprise, the ridge ahead now dropped sharply away. A few more whacks of the ice-axe in the firm snow’, they stood on top. It w’as 11.30, the ridge had taken two and a half hours. But it seemed like a lifetime as they had to negotiate numerous ridges on the way.
Describe the view from the top. What was the most important photograph? (Para 19 and ’ 20)
On reaching the peak, Tenzing and Hillary felt a great relief. To the east was their giant neighbour Makalu, unexplored and unclimbed. Far away across the clouds, the great bulk of Kanchenjunga loomed on the horizon. To the west they could see the unexplored ranges of Nepal stretching off into the distance. The most important photograph w as a shot down at the
north ridge showed the North Col and the old route. It had been made famous by the famous climbers of 1920’s and 1930’s. It w as breath-taking view of the snow’ clad peak all round.
‘There is no height, no depth that the spirit of man, guided by higher Spirit cannot attain’. Discuss the above statement in the context of the achievement of Edmund Hillarv and Tenzing.
Man is naturally endowed with an indomitable spirit. Guided by powers above man reach any height. The grit and persistence of both Hillary and Tenzing stand testimony to the above maxim. The conditions were really overwhelming. Hillary slipped many times. Once he even t sought the advisability of continuing the climb under such conditions. But Tenzing and Hillary. resolved to persist and conquer the peak. As a reward to 400 feet climb near the south summit,,they got two bottles of oxygen which in fact kept them alive almost up to their base camp.Both pick up the pieces of hopes only when they come into contact with firmer rock-like.ice as they moved up.
Though they had to inch their way up clearing snow with the ice-axe and making a path to haul themselves up ridge after ridge in the elusive terrain, they did not give up. As Hillary’s ice-axe bit into the first steep slop of the ridge, his hopes were realized. The snow was crystalline and firm. With just two or three blows, Hillary could make a step large enough for their oversized high altitude boots. They could create comfortable belays and trudge forward with confidence. As the humps were continuously seen, their original zest started declining. It was at this point Hillary saw a narrow ridge up to a snowy summit. With a few more whacks of the ice-axe in the form of snow, they reached the top.
(i) Given below are some idiomatic expressions with their meanings. Understand the meaning.
|(a) wait for the dust to settle||to wait for a situation to become clear or certain|
|(b) get/have all your ducks in a row||to have made all the preparations needed to do something / to be well organized|
|(c) fetch and carry (for somebody)||to do a lot of little jobs for somebody as if you were their servant|
|(d) do the math||to think carefully about something before doing it, so that you know all the relevant facts or figures|
|(e) round the corner||very near|
(ii) Fill in the blanks with the right idioms. Choose from the above given idioms.
- The Sherpas are cheerful, gallant men, who _____ tents, oxygen, food etc., for climbers during their ascent of the summit.
- The team _____ carefully so as to reach the summit successfully.
- When they had to climb through deep new snow the party sometimes had to _____
- Each member of the team had all their _____
- We could not believe that with a few more whacks of the ice axe in the firm snow we were _____ to the top.
- fetch and carry
- does the math
- wait for the dust to settle
- ducks in a row
- round the comer
(iii) Understand the meaning of the given idiomatic expression and choose the right one to complete the sentence.
the icing on the cake – something extra and not essential, but is added to make it even better
break the ice – to make people more relaxed, especially at the beginning of the meeting
(a) The conference room was silent though packed. The chairman introduced an interactive session to ________
(b) Our headmistress not only promised us to take us for an excursion, but also announced that on return we would get a holiday. It was like ________
(a) break the ice
(b) the icing on the cake
(b) Phrasal Verbs
Given below are the phrasal verbs with their meanings. Use the given phrasal verbs in sentences of your own.
|turn on||to open|
|took over||take lead|
|set off||start a journey|
- She turned on the induction stove to prepare the dinner.
- After Steven Paul Jobs took over the lead role, Apple started making a revolution in sales.
- The boy set off on foot to his uncle’s home in the city.
- Don’t put off important works as delay could be dangerous.
Given below are some Phrasal Verbs which are frequently used in connection with travelling. Guess the meaning and match.
|(a)||see off||(i)||start off / to begin a journey|
|(b)||stop over||(ii)||to go to station or airport to say good bye to someone|
|(c)||set off||(iii)||to stay at a place for a short period of time when travelling to another destination|
(a) (ii) to go to station or airport to say good bye to someone
(b) (iii) to stay at a place for a short period of time when travelling to another destination
(c) (i) start off / to begin a journey
|(a)||get in||(i)||leave a bus, train etc.,|
|(b)||get off||(ii)||to go away from home for a vacation|
|(c)||get on||(iii)||arrive inside train, bus etc.|
|(d)||get away||(iv)||enter a bus, train, plane.|
(a) (iii) arrive inside train, bus etc.
(b) (i) leave a bus, train etc.,
(c) (iv) enter a bus, train, plane.
(d) (ii) to go away from home for a vacation
|(a)||check in||(i)||pay the bill when leaving a hotel|
|(b)||check out||(ii)||arrive and register at airport or hotel|
(a) (ii) arrive and register at airport or hotel
(b) (i) pay the bill when leaving a hotel
(c) Compound Words
(i) Here are some compound words chosen from the text.
Let us learn a few more with their meaning.
|ice-berg||an extremely large mass of ice floating in the sea|
|ice-cap||a layer of ice permanently covering parts of the earth, especially around North and South Poles|
|ice-floe||large area of ice floating in the sea|
|ice-sheet||a layer of ice that covers a large area of land for a long period of time|
|ice-rink||specially prepared flat surface of ice, where you can ice-skate;|
(d) Semantic network
(i) Match the following with their right field, choosing appropriately from the box given.
First, read the following statements. Then, listen to the passage read aloud by your teacher or played on the recorder and complete the statements. You may listen to it again, if required.
What were the reasons for our success?
There are many answers to this question. Firstly, 1 would say that we owned much to the work of previous climbers on Everest: to the experience and know ledge they passed on, and to the fact that they had gone on trying and had never given up hope.
Next, I w ould place the careful and thorough planning done before the climb began. On the Everest, a large number of people have to do different things in different places at the same time. Unless every detail had been worked out in advance, things would quickly have gone wrong.
The third reason was the excellence of our equipment. In particular, our oxygen apparatus was very important, and it worked well. Without it. we could not have reached the summit.
Our own fitness played a big part in the climb, and this was due to our periods of training, in which we got used gradually to great heights: and to our food; and to the care and attention we received from our doctors.
Above all else, I should like to mention how well we worked together. That was the biggest single reason why we got to the top. In the four months we were together we lived and worked as a team. Not everyone could climb to the top. Some of the members had jobs to do on other parts of the mountain; jobs that were less exciting than climbing to the summit, but just as dangerous and uncomfortable. But everyone played his part to the full. That was the biggest thing of all.
In the same way, our Sherpas were magnificent. Without our tents, our oxygen, our food, our climbing gear, the summit could not have been reached. And without the Sherpas, we could
not have lifted all this equipment, which weighed 750 lb., up to 26,000 feet, ready for the assaults. No praise is too high for these cheerful and
Finally, there was the weather. For five weeks we had bad weather; then, after the middle of May, we were lucky. It no longer snowed, and even the wind sometimes dropped.
Complete the following.
(a) List any three aspects which contributed to the success of the ascent of the summit.
- Knowledge gained from other climbers
- Careful planning
- Excellence of equipments (oxygen apparatus)
(b) Without the help of _________ nothing would have been possible.
(c) The main idea of the passage is _________
(d) The biggest thing of all is _________
(e) _________ were cheerful and gallant men.
(b) team work
(c) factors contributing to successful conquest of Everest
(d) togetherness of mountaineers
(a) Group Activity
(i) Have you ever been on an adventurou trip? If so. share your success story with your friends.
He went on a tour to Ooty. My PET Master said that if we were lucky’, we might see some elephants while travelling in the small train. We saw monkeys on either side of the track. As the train w as going very slow, wc could see the beauty’ of the mountains and lush green trees. Suddenly, the toy train stopped. I wanted to get down and see what was happening. My English miss who was escorting us prevented us from getting down. Her concern was that we might get lost. But the train did not move for about 45 minutes, and everyone became restless. I begged the teacher to let us go out and see what was happening. As our coach was just two coaches behind the engine and our English Miss saw a huge gathering in front of the engine, she relented. At first, myself and Philomena got down.
We found that, in a short while, the rest of our classmates and our teacher came there to know what was happening. We found a baby elephant lying on the track doing some pranks. Someone gave one banana, the baby elephant ate it and continued to sit there. I snatched a bunch of banana which Philomena was keeping and showed it to the baby elephant. It stretched its trunk to take it. But I carefully walked out of the track show ing the banana. The baby elephant followed me twenty feet beyond the track. I gave him the bunch. My English miss asked me to come back, and before the baby elephant returned, the driver resumed the train. I can never forget this adventure in my life
(ii) How will you organize or plan for a trip or an event? Do you have the habit of preparing a check-list? Discuss.
If we want to organise a trip the following things are to be alone. If it is a school trip, we must plan well ahead and decide the place of visit and inform the parents and get the letters of consent and if needed, subsidised charges for entry tickets and journey expenses. Once the travel distance and duration are finalised, it can be decided if we are going to hire a bus or take train tickets in advance. If the distance is less than 150 Km, a bus would be fine.
If it exceeds that distance and if the duration of the trip is about two to three days we need to hook accommodation for students in the visiting spot and ensure safety of children. If advance permission is required to visit a factory or a research institute or a planetarium, we must write and get the proper permission from the competent authorities. One escort must be fixed for every ten students well ahead of the trip. A check list is necessary before the commencement of the journey. The same checklist will be required to bring back the materials which were taken from the school.
(b) Individual Activity
Given below are a few proverbs. Prepare a short speech of two minutes on one of the proverbs.
(i) Nothing is impossible:
Respected Principal, teachers and my dear friends, Good morning, I wish to say a few words on the topic “Nothing is Impossible”. Napoleon Bonaparte said, “Impossible is the word found only in a fool’s dictionary”. Conquering Everest was deemed impossible. In the 1920’s and 1930’s mountain climbers aborted their efforts. The brittle snow beyond the altitude of 28000 ft. made even Hillary doubtful for a while of the possibility of conquering Everest. But persisting on their daring adventure, Hillary and Tenzing scaled the Everest. When the whole world is appreciating many daring adventures of able-bodied men, a differently abled lady namely Arunima Sinha has created history by conquering Everest. She was a volleyball player who was pushed from a running train in an attempted robbery.
One of her legs had to be amputated below the knee. Using a prosthetic leg, under the Inspirational guidance of Bachendri Pal, the first Indian lady to conquer Everest, she climbed Everest on 21st May 2013. The most admirable thing about her is that she has climbed six difficult mountain peak of the world viz Everest in Asia, Kilimanjaro in Africa, Elbrus in Europe, Kosciuszko in Australia, Aconcagua in Argentina and Carstensz Pyramid in Indonesia. She completed her final summit of Mount Vinson in Antarctica on 4th January 2019. She is running a charitable foundation namely Arunima foundation. She wants to open a free sports academy for the poor and differently abled children. She wrote a book “Bom again on the mountain” which was launched by Hon’ble Prime Minister Narendra Modi in December 2014. She was awarded Padma Sri, the fourth highest award of India in 2015. Dear friends, we must never accept small defeats in life. We must leam lessons and believe that we can succeed and it is possible to achieve excellence against all the odds.
(ii) Where there is a will there is a way:
Respected Principal, teachers and my dear friends, Good morning, I wish to say a few words on the topic “Where there is a will there is a way”.
There are numerous examples to quote from where the will has made people create history. ‘ All of us know Mother Teresa won the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1999. But the beginnings of her work were met with many insults and humiliating experiences. She was moved by poverty, sickness, suffering in old age which she encountered amidst the poorest of the poor in the streets of Calcutta. Her heart went out for street children who could not go to school.She wanted to give them a home and food. The financial position of her organisation was not healthy enough. She willed to adopt orphaned children and provide them with food, shelter and education.
If she had only thought about financial disabilities and not taken the necessary steps, she wouldn’t be the person we know her to be today. Similarly, Thomas Alva Edison [. had only three months of formal schooling, and he was partially deaf too. But that never made his mother give up on him. She took the responsibility of teaching and training him. She persuaded and encouraged him even though she never knew what he would become in future. Hence, dear friends when times of trial come, or when you face mockery by people surrounding you, never give up hope. Always remember this,“Where There is a Will There is a Way”.
(iii) Together we can achieve more:
Respected Principal, teachers and my dear friends, Good morning, I wish to say a few words on the topic “Together we can achieve more”. There are so many social and environmental issues that have been curbed by the coming together of like-minded people. For example, The Students Sea Turtle Conservation Network, a voluntary group comprising students, have been working in the beaches of Chennai since 1987, trying to conserve Olive Ridley, and create awareness about the endangered sea turtles. The steps they had taken have given them pleasant rewards. Many hatchlings can be seen running towards the sea thanks to the efforts made ‘ by these volunteers.
There is Arun Krishnamurthy, who initiated the campaign of cleaning various lakes across India. Arun along with the organisation has been successful in cleaning at least 39 lakes in the country. As a result, Arun was presented with the prestigious Rolex Awards for enterprise in the year 2012 at Geneva. He was the youngest to win this award. He couldn’t have achieved it without the support of his organisation. These are only a few examples that show that “Together we can achieve more”.
Here are a few instructions given by a Health Inspector to a group of students, in order to prevent malaria and dengue. Complete the series adding some more important instructions.
- Do not allow water to stagnate in and around your house.
- Keep your surroundings clean.
- Wear long- sleeved shirts / blouses and long pants / skirts that cover your arms and legs.
- Always use a bed-net impregnated with insecticide.
- Use mosquito repellants, carry it wherever you go.
- Don’t allow rainwater to gather in discarded tyres and mud pots or coconut shells.
- Keep all water containers or tanks closed.
- Cover your well also.
Now, write a set of 8 to 10 instructions for the following situations:
1. A doctor instructing a patient regarding a healthy diet and proper care after a surgery.
- Don’t carry heavy weight for a few months.
- You must avoid infections.
- Cough and sneeze very’ carefully.
- Limit salt intake.
- Limit your sugar intake.
- Avoid cool drinks and fast foods.
- Eat a lot of fruits and vegetables,
- You can take eggs, fish, legumes and diary products.
- Go for w alking early in the mornings.
- Come for regular check-ups.
2. A traffic police personnel to the public, as to how to move around in safety, in crowded public places during festival seasons.
- Don’t allow’ your children to walk ahead of you.
- Make your children memorise your phone numbers or give them an id card with your phone numbers written in it.
- Ask your children not to speak or take anything from a stranger.
- Park your vehicles only in the open area marked as parking area behind the police stations.
- Use the entry path to the fair.
- Go out only through the exit route demarkated by the long rope.
- In case of any problem or suspicion, contact the nearest police booth and inform the officer there.
- Make shift toilets are kept separately for men and women at the right corner.
- Don’t run in a crowd.
- Walk with your family in a row’ of two members keeping track of children.
3. A mother to her children, on safety measures to be taken before leaving home on vacation.
- Switch off all the lights.
- See if the water containers have been closed piverly.
- If there is left-over food, dispose them in the dust bin.
- Ensure that there are no unwashed vessels in the kitchen sink.
- Make certain that all the pipes are properly closed.
- Check whether there are any w ashed clothes lying in the balcony, if so. bring them inside.
- Pack your bags with a check list of what you need during the vacation. Each one must bring her/his own tooth brush, soap, towels, etc.
- Check if the gas cylinder’s regulator is turned off.
- Don’t forget to bring your mobile phones. Stay connected.
- Carry at least one Identity card as a proof.
On the basis of your understanding of the given passage, make notes in any appropriate format.
The Sherpas were nomadic people who first migrated from Tibet approximately 600 years ago. through the Nangpa La pass and settled in the Solukhumbu District, Nepal. These nomadic people then gradually moved westward along salt trade routes. During 14th century, Sherpa ancestors migrated from Kham. The group of people from the Kham region, east of Tibet, was called “ShyarKhamba”. The inhabitants of ShyarKhumbu, were called Sherpa. Sherpa migrants travelled through U and Tsang, before crossing the Himalayas. According to Sherpa oral history, four groups migrated out of Solukhumbu at different times, giving rise to the four fundamental Sherpa clans: Minyagpa, Thimmi, Sertawa and Chawa. These four groups have since split into the more than 20 different clans that exist today.
Sherpas had little contact with the world beyond the mountains and they spoke their own language. AngDawa, a 76-year-old former mountaineer recalled “My first expedition was to Makalu [the world’s fifth highest mountain] with Sir Edmund Hillary”. We were not allowed to go to the top. We wore leather boots that got really heavy when wet, and we only got a little salary, but we danced the Sherpa dance, and we were able to buy firewood and make campfires, and we spent a lot of the time dancing and singing and drinking. Today Sherpas get good pay and good equipment, but they don’t have good entertainment. My one regret is that I never got to the top of Everest. I got to the South Summit, but I never got a chance to go for the top.
The transformation began when the Sherpa Tenzing Norgay and the New Zealander Edmund Hillary scaled Everest in 1953. Edmund Hillary took efforts to build schools and health clinics to raise the living standards of the Sherpas. Thus life in Khumbu improved due to the efforts taken by Edmund Hillary and hence he was known as ‘Sherpa King’.
Sherpas working on the Everest generally tend to perish one by one, casualties of crevasse falls, avalanches, and altitude sickness. Some have simply disappeared on the mountain, never-to be seen again. Apart from the bad seasons in 1922,1970 and 2014 they do not die en masse Sherpas carry the heaviest loads and pay the highest prices on the world’s tallest mountain.
In some ways, Sherpas have benefited from the commercialization of the Everest more than any group, earning income from thousands of climbers and trekkers drawn to the mountain. While ,interest in climbing Everest grew gradually over the decades after the first ascent, it wasn’t,until the 1990s that the economic motives of commercial guiding on Everest began. This leads to eclipse the amateur impetus of traditional mountaineering. Climbers looked after each , other for the love of adventure and “the brotherhood of the rope” now are tending to mountain businesses. Sherpas have taken up jobs as guides to look after clients for a salary. Commercial,guiding agencies promised any reasonably fit person a shot at Everest.
Origin and Development of Sherpas
The Sherpas-nomadic tribe-migrated 600 years ago-settled in Solukhumbu District, of Nepal-14th Century migration westward from Kham-ShyarKhamba-inhabitants Sherpa- 1 Oral history-four goups at different times-Minyagpa, Thimmi, Sertawa and Chawa-now 20′ groups.
Life in isolation:
Little contact beyond mountains-AngDawa-76-year old former mountaineer-first expedition to Makalu with Hillary-not allowed to top-poor salary no equipments-danced, bought firewood-drank made merry-Today situation bright-Sherpas-good pay-good equipment-no , entertainment.-One regret-never got to the top of Everest.
1953 ascent-Hillary and Tenzing Norgay-Hillary built schools, healthcare centres-Sherpas life in Khumbu better-Hillary-‘Sherpa king’.
Difficult life of Sherpas:
Many casualities-avalanches and altitude sickness-Sherpas die-died enmasse 1922-1970 and 2014 only-heavy loads-price death.
Commercialisation of Everest-a boon:
Regular income-thousands of climbers-1990 onwards economic motive-traditional mountaineering-love of rope-brotherhood gone-jobs as guides-good salary-healthy Sherpas take a shot at Everest now-Guiding agencies help.
Kinds Of Sentences
(a) Simple sentence
Pick out the finite verbs in the following sentences:
(a) You can solve this problem in different ways.
(b) The professor has been working on the last chapter of the book since March.
(c) Despite being a celebrity, Ravi mingles easily with everyone.
(d) You must speak clearly to make yourself understood.
(e) The chairman being away, the clerk is unable to approve the proposal.
(J) Getting down from the car, the Chief Guest walked towards the dais amidst applause.
(g) The old man struggled to walk without support.
(h) In case of emergency, please contact this number.
(0) The sun having set, the temperature fell rapidly.
(j) But for your help, I could not have completed the assignment.
(b) has been working
Read the following passage and identify the simple sentences.
Sunflowers turn according to the position of the sun. In other words, they ‘ chase the light’. Have you ever wondered what happens on cloudy, rainy days when the sun is completely covered by clouds? If you think the sunflower withers or turns its head towards the ground, you are completely mistaken. Do you know what happens? Sunflowers turn to each other to share their energy. Learning from Nature, we too should support and empower each other.
- Sunflowers turn according to the position of the sun.
- they ‘chase the light’
- Sunflowers turn to each other to share their energy.
(b) Complex sentence
Look at the following complex sentences. Circle the Main clauses and underline the Subordinate clauses.
(a) (Nobody knows) when the power supply will resume.
(b) (please tell me) what the time is.
(c) (The man) who directed the film was my schoolmate.
(d) (I believe) that all men are basically good.
(e) (No one knows) when he will return.
Pick out the complex sentences in the following passage.
A man saw a lion in the bush, as he was walking through the forest. He did not know what to do. He was helpless. He was too scared to turn around and run. He just knelt down as if he were getting ready to pray. He closed his eyes, thinking that the lion would pounce on him anytime. Out of the comer of his eye, he saw the lion on its knees too. Shocked, he asked the . lion what it was doing. The lion replied that he was praying before he started his meal.
- A man saw a lion in the bush, as he was walking through the forest.
- He did not know what to do.
- He just knelt down as if he were getting ready to pray.
- He closed his eyes, thinking that the lion would pounce on him anytime.
- He asked the lion what it was doing.
- The lion replied that he was praying before he started his meal.
(c) Compound sentence
Identify the two main clauses and conjunction in each of the following sentences.
(a) It started raining suddenly and people ran for shelter.
(b) Understand the concept well, otherwise you cannot solve the problem.
(c) Fifty candidates appeared for the interview, but only five were selected.
(d) Ramesh did not know Spanish, so he wanted a translator.
(e) He is a good actor, still he is not popular.
|(a)||(i) It started raining suddenly
(ii) people ran for shelter
|(b)||(i) Understand the concept well
(ii) you cannot solve the problem
|(c)||(i) Fifty candidates appeared for the interview
(ii) only five were selected
|(d)||(i) Ramesh did not know Spanish
(ii) he wanted a translator
|(e)||(i) He is a good actor
(ii) he is not popular
Pick out the compound sentences in the following passage.
The food we eat has to be digested and then thrown out of the body. The air we breathe in, has to be thrown out, to help us survive. But we hold negative emotions like insecurity, anger and jealousy within ourselves for years. If these negative emotions are not eliminated, the mind grows corrupt and diseased. Let us do away with hatred and lead a healthy life filled with peace and joy.
- The food we eat has to be digested and then thrown out of the body.
- Let us do away with hatred and lead a healthy life filled with peace and joy.
Complete the sentences choosing the right endings.
|We were thoroughly disappointed||to find out his address|
|Hardly had he stepped out||we could not go further|
|They wanted||since our team did not get a prize|
|Since we had run out of petrol||was his reckless driving|
|The cause of his injury||when it began to rain|
|We were thoroughly disappointed||since our team did not get a prize|
|Hardly had he stepped out||when it began to rain|
|They wanted||to find out his address|
|Since we had run out of petrol||we could not go further|
|The cause of his injury||was his reckless driving|
Read the following sentences and fill in the blanks.
(a) If I _____ (be) a spider, I _____ (weave) webs.
(b) If Raj _____ (be) a sculptor, he _____ (make) beautiful idols.
(c) If Mary had an umbrella, she _____ (lend) it to me.
(d) Rex would have played with me, if he _____ (has) time.
(e) If I were you, I _____ (accept) this offer.
(f) We _____ (select) story books for kids, if we allot time for storytelling.
(g) The Education Minister _____ (visit) our school tomorrow, if he goes by this way.
(h) You will be rewarded by the wise, if you (stand) for truth.
(i) If my mother (know) of my poor performance in the exam, she will not allow me to watch a movie.
(j) If I had won the lottery, I (donate) relief materials for the flood victims
(a) were, would weave
(b) were, would make
(c) would have lent
(e) would have accepted
(J) can select
(g) will visit
(j) would have donated
Rewrite the following sentences using ‘If’ without changing the meaning, e.g.
Unless you go for a walk regularly, you cannot reduce your weight. (Use ‘If) If you do not go for a walk regularly, you cannot reduce your weight.
Sindhu would not have won the world championship, unless she had had single minded devotion.
Sindhu would not have won the world championship, if she had no single minded devotion.
You will not reach your goal, unless you chase your dream.
You will not reach your goal, if you don’t chase your dream.
Unless we plant more trees, we cannot save our planet.
If we don’t plant more trees, we cannot save our planet.
The rescue team would not have saved the victims unless they had received the call in time.
The rescue team would not have saved the victims if they had not received the call in time.
The palace cannot be kept clean, unless we appoint more people.
The palace cannot be kept clean, if we don’t appoint more people.
The portraits would not have been so natural unless the artist had given his best.
The portraits would not have been so natural if the artist had not given his best.
The manager would not have selected Nithiksha unless she exhibited good accounting skill.
The manager would not have selected Nithiksha if she had not exhibited good accounting skill.
The policeman would not have arrested the man unless he had violated the rules.
The policeman would not have arrested the man if he had not violated the rules.
Mr Kunaal would not sponsor my higher education unless I studied well.
Mr Kunaal would not sponsor my higher education if I do not study well.
Kavin will not stop flying kites unless he understands the risk involved in it.
Kavin will not stop flying kites if he does not understand the risk involved in it.
Tanya would not know the answer unless she referred to the answer key.
Tanya would not know the answer if she had not referred to the answer key.
My village cannot achieve 100 % literacy rate, unless the elders of the village cooperate with the education department.
My village cannot achieve 100 % literacy rate, if the elders of the village do not cooperate with the education department.
Origin and development of Sherpas
The Sherpas are a nomadic race who migrated to Nepal 600 years ago. They got settled in Solukhumbu District of Nepal. In the 14th Century they migrated westward from Kham to ShyarKhamba. This is where the Sherpas inhabited in four goups viz., Minyagpa, Thimmi, Sertawa and Chawa.
Life in isolation:
Sherpas had little contact with the world beyond the mountains. Ang Dawa, 76-year old former Sherpa recounts his bitter memories. He could touch the summit Makalu along with Hillary. He was never allowed to go to Everest. Sherpas had meagre salaries. They danced Sherpa dance, drank and entertained guests. They could buy firewood with their earnings. Now the scenario has changed. They are well paid and given good equipments but left with no entertainment.
The attitude to Sherpas changed after Tenzing Norgay and Hillary reached Everest in 1953. Edmund Hillary is hailed as ‘Sherpa king’ for his initiative to build schools for their children and healthcare centres too.
Tough life of Sherpas:
Many Sherpas have died without a trace due to avalanches and altitude sickness. Enmasse death is now ended after the 1922-1970 and 2014 incidents. They carry heavy loads and pay with dearth for their survival.
After 1990, the commercialisation of mountaineering has started. Many mountain guiding firms now employ Sherpas with good salary. A steady flow of professional climbers and tourists ensure regular income. Now anyone with sound physique can take a shot at the Everest.
Reading a map
Nowadays though locations are traced easily using GPS, (Global Positioning System) one should know what to look for in the map to reach the destination. Here are a few general instructions to be followed while reading a map.
- Identify and understand the elements of the map correctly.
- Look out for the title to know what the map shows.
- Study the symbols / colours that are used on the map and find what they stand for.
- Look at the scale of the map. (whether to be scaled or not to be scaled)
- Look for the pointer to know the direction.
Let us together scale the summit. Here is a drawing of the Everest showing the way to the summit, and the position of the camps with their heights. Trace the trekking trail to reach the summit with the given details and write an interesting paragraph in about 100 words.
Tips on Elements of the Map:
Map Title: The title is a centre, a short summary of a map. It should determine the area covered and provide some communication of the map content, as “The Summit of Mount Everest”. Map Scale: A scale is the prime essential of a map. Map scale can be defined as part of a map that compares distance on a map to distance in the real world.
Direction: The direction is normally shown on a map by means of the geographical grid, Meridians (of longitudes) are supposed to extend north-south, and parallel (of longitudes) are east-west lines. A straight arrow pointing northward also marked that is called “north arrow”. The Map show’s the route marked in Red dotted lines having 9 camps at different levels (height).
The trek starts from the base camp which is located on Khumbu Glacier and ends at the south summit.
Phases of climbing Mount Everest:
Everest is our tallest mountain. Its altitude and the technicalities of the climb are not to be underestimated. Climbing Everest requires intensive training. You might be lucky, and the climb might go well even if you didn’t do your homework. But you will undoubtedly notice that Everest lives up to its fearful reputation should the conditions turn against you. By then though, it might simply be too late if not well prepared. Everest is also a gorgeous mountain. And just as we continue to
launch ourselves into space even though missions sometimes turn into tragedy, mountaineers will always try to climb Everest to experience the majesty, beauty, and adventure of our closest frontier to Universe.
Let’s start the trek at the Base camp Route no. 1 which is situated on the Khumbu Glacier at 17,900 feet. Distance from Route No. 1 & Route No. 2 is 1500 feet reaching at route no.2 at 19400 feet- Icefall. This place is similar to a massive horror-chamber at an amusement park. There are countless scary things that can happen here. An avalanche can bury the climbers alive. After climbing further 800 feet, it reaches at Route No.3 20,200 feet – Camp-1, Valley of silence. This is a vast, flat area of endless snow, deep crevasses and mountain walls frequently washed by avalanches. Here climbers set up camp 1. At night one listens to the deep, murmuring cracking sounds under the tents. It is the crevasses opening and closing deep down in the glacier beneath. It is here that for the first time, just a few steps around a comer, we gain first close sight of Everest.
After 1000 feet of an endless, slow march through the silent valley, the climbers reach at last a rocky patch, at the foot of the icy Lhotse wall. This marks route no.4 Camp-2 at 21,200 feet. This place is absolutely stunning. Clouds roll in from the lower ranges of the Himalayas, up the valley and into the camp. Further climbing 800 feet it takes us to Route No.5 which is at 22,000 feet, next comes Route No. 6 at 23,000 feet Camp-3, Lhotse Face/Wall.
Imagine sliding a fun, icy slope on a sunny winter’s day. Only this one is 1200 meter (4000 ft) high. The dangerous part is to hang on to the rope of dubious strength and to change carabiners between the ropes. Further, 1000 feet upwards the climbers can reach Route No.7 at 24,000 feet they are now almost beside South Col Lhotse.
From Route No.7 to Route No.8 the distance is around 2000 feet. The climbers are now, at Geneva Spur which is 26,000 feet above the sea level. It is camp-4, The Death Zone: Camp 4 sits on a plateau resembling a moonscape. The climbers are at the edge of the atmosphere, and the sky owns a strange, dark blue colour. It is surely the closest one can get to space on earth. Only a small climb above camp, you look down the Tibetan plateau with its vast brown plains, white glaciers and the other alpine giants – Kanchenjunga, Lhotse, Makalu -in the distance. It’s all magic and unreal.
The final destination is quite far from here. Further climbing 1700 feet climbers reach at Route No.9 which is at the height of 27,900 feet.
South Summit at 28,700 feet.
There, in the distance, the climbers can see a worm of light slowly moving up a dark wall. It’s climbers head torches flickering in the dark. It’s completely silent. Nobody talks. If you do, you whisper. It is terrifying, and you climb and climb, awaiting the first ray of dawn. It’s desperately cold. It’s steep and at parts very icy. The ice axe and the crampons barely cut into the ice. The mountain projects itself onto the morning fog. The shadow towers in front of the climbers like a giant mirage. Beneath lies, the world in all its glory, Everest glowing in the rising sun.
The Summit About the Author
Sir Edmund Percival Hillary (20 July 1919 – 11 January 2008) was a New Zealand . mountaineer, explorer, and philanthropist. He served in the Royal New Zealand Air Force as a navigator during World War H. He joined the team led by John Hunt and created history by climbing the Everest in 1953. He has recounted the ordeals, frustrations and moment of glory in “View from the Summit: The Remarkable Memoir by the First Person to Conquer Everest”. He founded the Himalayan Trust to help Sherpa people of Nepal who usually escort mountaineers. High Adventure, No Latitude for Error, Nothing Venture, Nothing Win, are some of his famous works.
The Summit Summary in English
Sir Edmund Percival Hillary joined the team led by John Hunt and created history by climbing the Everest with the support of Tenzing Norgay on 29th May 1953.
On 28th May 1953, Edmund Hillary and Tenzing had put up a little tent at an altitude of 27,900 feet.
They started up their cooker and drank large quantities of lemon juice in addition to sardines and biscuits. Hillary scraped the ice off the oxygen sets. As his boots were wet, he cooked them over the fierce fire of Primus and managed to soften them up. They fortified their clothing with wind proof and they pulled three pairs of gloves, silk, woollen, and wind proof on to their hands. At 6.30 am, they hauled their oxygen gear on their backs. Inhaling deep breaths of oxygen, they got ready to climb.
Gruelling climb to the South Col
From the altitude of 28,000 feet, the ridge narrowed to a knife ridge. Hillary’s feet were now warm. So, he took the lead. The snow’ was dangerously soft. The deep soft snow supported Hillary’s weight. Sometimes, it gave way pulling him down by three to four feet. The brittleness of the ice frightened Hillary a little. He asked the advice of Tenzing if they could continue the climb or abort. Tenzing said, “as you please.” Curiously, Hillary decided to continue. They trudged a few hundred feet and reached a tiny hollow. As if to reward their persistence, they found two oxygen bottles filled to their capacity. Hillary hoped that they would sustain them till they returned to their base camp. After the end of the tricky 400 feet climb, they came across firmer ice. This increased their hope of success. As one of the oxygen bottles had been exhausted, their load was reduced by half. Hillary felt a sense of freedom and w ell-being.
Reaching a wide ledge
As Hillary’s ice-axe bit into the first steep slope of the ridge, his high hopes were realized. The snow was crystalline and firm. Two to three blows of ice-axe could get them a step large enough for their high altitude boots. A firm thrust of ice-axe would sink it half-way up the shaft, giving a solid and comfortable belay egging the mountaineers to move on. Hillary would cut a forty-foot line of steps, Tenzing would belay Hillary while he worked. Hillary and Tenzing changed their roles supporting one another. Taking advantage of every little rock hold and all forces of knee, and arms Hillary could muster, Hillary cramponed backwards up the crack praying that the comice should not give way from the rock. With Tenzing’s support, Hillary reached the wide ledge. For the first time Hillary realized that nothing would prevent their chances of reaching Everest that day. Soon Tenzing wriggled his way up and collapsed like a giant fish hauled up from the sea.
The crucial last leg of the climb
Giant cornices loomed on the right. Steep rock sloped on the left. As Hillary cut around the back of a hump, another came into the view. Time was passing. Ridge seemed to have no end at all.
Their original zest in the conquest started diminishing. It was becoming a grim struggle. Then Hillary realized that the ridge ahead instead of rising now dropped sharply away. He looked upwards to see a narrow ridge running up to a snowy summit. A few more whacks of the ice-axe in the firm snow, they stood on top of the Everest.
The triumph and the reaction of the heroes
Both had a great sense of relief. There were no more steps to cut or ridges to traverse and no more humps to lure them with the hope of success. In spite of the balaclava helmet, goggles, and oxygen mask, all covered with icicles, he could not disguise his grin of delight. They shook hands. Tenzing threw his arms around Hillary. They thumped each other on their backs till they became breathless.
The view from the top
To the east of Everest, they saw their giant neighbour Makalu, unexplored and unciimbed. Far away across the clouds, the great bulk of Kanchenjunga loomed on the horizon. To the west, they could see the great unexplored ranges of Nepal stretching off into a distance.
The photography-the testimony of their conquest
The most important photo was shot down the north ridge. It showed the North Col and the old route which had been made famous by the struggles of those great climbers of 1920’s and 1930’s.
Small offering to the great Gods
Devout Buddhists believe that Gods have their home on this lofty summit. Hence, they wish to offer at least a token of gift. Tenzing dug a little hole in the snow and in it he placed a bar of chocolate, the packet of biscuits and a handful of lollies. Hillary had a small Crucifix from Colonel Hunt. He had asked Hillary to offer it to the Gods when they reached the top. Hillary also made a small hole in the snow and placed the small crucifix beside Tenzing’s gifts piously.
Not all adventures are exciting. Adventures are not to be found only upon the mountains. In everyday life, there are Everests to be climbed in every walk of life. Man can conquer any height or depth if he persists with his undaunted spirit guided by a higher spirit.
The Summit Summary in Tamil
29 மே மாதம் 1953 ஆம் ஆண்டு டென்சிங் உதவியுடன் ஜான் ஹண்ட் நடத்திய குழுவினருடன் சர். எட்மண்ட் பெர்சிவால் ஹிலாரி சேர்ந்து இமயமலை உச்சியை அடையும் வரலாற்றை ஏற்படுத்தினார்.
27,900 அடி உயரத்தில் 28 மே மாதம் 1953 ஆம் ஆண்டு எட்மண்ட் ஹிலாரி மற்றும் டென்சிங் ஒரு கூடாரத்தை அமைத்தனர். அடுப்பை பற்ற வைத்தார்கள். தாராளமாக எலுமிச்சை பரசம் பருகினார்கள். தவிர்த்து மீனும், பிஸ்கட்டுகளும் உண்டார்கள், ஹிலாரி ஆக்ஸிஜன் செட்டின் மேல் படிந்துள்ள ஐஸ்கட்டிகளை அப்புறப்படுத்தினார். காலணிகள் ஈரமாகிவிட்டதால் பிரிமஸ் என்ற பிரம்மாண்டமான அடுப்பில் காட்டி சூடேற்றி அதை மிருதுவாக்கினார். துணிக்கு மேல் அடைக்களமாக காற்று புகா உறையை அணிந்து கைகளுக்கு, சில்க், ரோமத்தினால் ஆன உறை மற்றும் காற்று புகா உறை என மூன்று ஜோடி உறைகளை அணிந்தனர். அதிகாலை 6.30 மணி அளவில் ஆக்ஸிஜன் இயந்திரத்தை முதுகில் இழுத்து மாட்டி ஆக்ஸிஜனை நுகர்ந்த வண்ணம் மலையேற ஆயத்தமானார்கள்.
தெற்கு கோலை நோக்கி கடினமான மலையேறும் படலம்:
28,000 அடி உயரத்தில் இருந்து மலையின் உச்சியை பார்க்கும் போது அது கத்தியின் கூர்மையான முனை போல் குறுகிக் காணப்பட்டது. ஹிலாரியின் பாதங்கள் வெதுவெதுப்பாக இருந்ததால் அவர் பயணத்தை முன்னின்று தொடங்கினார். பனிக்கட்டிகள் மிகவும் இலகிக் காணப்பட்டன. அடித்தளத்தில் காணப்பட்ட தளர்ந்த ஐஸ்கட்டிகள் ஹிலாரியின் பாரத்தை தாங்கியது. சில சமயம் ஐஸ் விலகி அவர் கீழ் நோக்கி மூன்று அல்லது நான்கு அடி இறங்க வேண்டியதாயிற்று. ஐஸ்கட்டியின் கூர் முனைகள் ஹிலாரியை சற்றே அச்சுறுத்தின. அவர் டென்சிங்கிடம் தாம் இந்த பயணத்தை மேற்கொள்ளலாமா
அல்லது விட்டுவிடலாமா என ஆலோசனைக் கேட்டார். வழக்கமாக டென்சிங் “உங்கள் விருப்பம்” என்றார். ஆச்சரியமாக ஹிலாரி பயணத்தை மேற்கொள்ள நினைத்தார். கஷ்டத்துடன் சில நூறு அடிகள் கடந்து ஒரு பொந்தை அடைந்தனர். அவர்கள் முயற்சியை பாராட்டும் விதமாக அங்கு இரண்டு ஆக்ஸிஜன் பாட்டில்கள் முழுமையாக காணப்பட்டன. அவை அவர்கள் தன் கூடாரம் செல்லும் வரை உதவும் என எண்ணினார். 400 அடி மிக சாதுர்யமான மலையேற்றத்திற்குப்பின்னர் கடினமானபனிக்கட்டியை அடைந்தனர். இது அவர்கள் முயற்சியை ஊக்குவித்தது. ஒரு ஆக்ஸிஜன் பாட்டில் தீர்ந்து விட்டமையால் அது அவர்கள் பாரத்தை பாதி குறைத்தது ஹிலாரிக்கு பெரிய விடுதலையாகவும், நிம்மதியாகவும் இருந்தது.
பரவலான விளிம்பை அடைந்தனர்:
ஹிலாரியின் பனிக் கோடரி பனிக்கட்டியின் விளிம்பை முதலில் வெட்டியதும் அவரின் ஊக்கம் வெளிப்பட்டது. பனிக்கட்டிகள் படிகங்களாகவும், கெட்டியாகவும் காணப்பட்டன. இரண்டு அல்லது மூன்று முறை பனிக் கோடரியால் கொத்தினால் உயரத்தில் அணிவதற்கு ஏதுவாக தயாரிக்கப்பட்ட பூட்ஸ் கொள்ளும் அளவுக்கு இடம் கிடைத்தது. திடமாக பனிக் கோடரியை ஊன்றுவதால் அது தண்டை தாங்குவதற்கு ஏதுவாக கீழிறங்கியும், இறுக்கிக் கட்டுவதால் அவர்கள் முன்னேறிச் செல்ல ஏதுவாகவும் மற்றும் சௌகரியமாகவும் அமைந்தது. நாற்பது அடி தாண்டும் வரை டென்சிங் பனிக் கோடரியை ஹிலாரி வேலை செய்யும் வரை இறுக்கிப் பிடித்துக் கொள்வார். ஹிலாரியும் மற்றும் டென்சிங்கும் மாறி, மாறி ஒருவருக்கு ஒருவர் உதவியாக வேலையை மாற்றிக் கொண்டனர்.
சிறு பாறைகளின் உதவியோடும் மற்றும் முட்டியையும், கைகளையும் பலம் கொண்ட மட்டும் ஊன்றி, ஹிலாரி பனி படலத்தின் ஊடே அமைந்த துவாரத்தில் பின்னோக்கி நகர்ந்தவண்ணம் இருக்க அந்த பனிப் படலம் உடைந்து விடக்கூடாது என வேண்டிக் கொண்டார். டென்சிங்கின் உதவியுடன் பனிப்படலத்தின் விளிம்பை அடைந்தார். முதன்முறையாக தான் இமயமலையின் உச்சியை அடைவதை எதுவும் தடுக்க முடியாது என்பதை உணர்ந்தார். விரைவில் டென்சிங் மேலெழும்பி வலையில் பிடிபட்ட பெரி மீன் விழுவது போல் விழுந்தார்.
கடினமான கடைசி முயற்சி:
அகன்ற பனிப்பாறைகள் வலப்புறமும், செங்குத்தான பாறைகள் இடப்புறமும் பயமுறுத்தின. ஹிலாரி ஒரு மேடை கடந்தால் மற்றொன்று தோன்றியது. காலம் கடந்து கொண்டிருந்தது. பனிப்பாறையின் விளிம்புகள் முடிவே இல்லாமல் சென்று கொண்டிருந்தன.
தொடக்கத்தில் இருந்த வேட்கை குறைந்தது. அது கடினமான போராட்டமாகிப் போனது. ஹிலாரி முன்னே படர்ந்த பனி விளிம்பு மேல் நோக்கி எழாமல் கீழே கூர்மையாக தாழ்ந்த வண்ணம் காணப்பட்டது. மேலே குறுகிய பனிப்படலத்தின் விளிம்பு பனிப்பாறையை நோக்கி படர்ந்து இருப்பதைக் கண்டார். ஓரிரு முறை பனிக் கோடரியை பலமாக பனிக்கட்டியில் ஊன்றி ஏறினால் மலை உச்சியை அடைவது நிச்சயம்.
வெற்றியும், வீரர்களின் குதூகலிப்பும்:
இருவருக்கும் பெருத்த நிம்மதி கிடைத்தது. இனி பாறைகளை உடைத்து முன்னேற வேண்டியதோ, ) கடக்கக்கூடிய முகடுகளோ ஆக்ஸிஜனைக் கட்டிக் கொண்டு வெற்றியை நோக்கி அலையவோ வேண்டிய தேவையில்லை.
(Balaclava helmet) பலாக்லாவா தலைக்கவசம், கண்ணாடி, ஆக்ஸிஜன் முகமூடி இவை அனைத்தையும் கூரிய பனிக்கட்டிகள் மறைத்திருக்க, இருப்பினும் பற்களைக் காட்டி சிரிக்கும் வெற்றியின் மகிழ்ச்சி தென்பட்டது. கை குலுக்கி கொண்டார்கள். டென்சிங், ஹிலாரியை கட்டி அணைத்துக் கொண்டார். மூச்சிறைக்க இருவரும் முதுகை தட்டிக் கொடுத்துக் கொண்டனர்.
உச்சியில் இருந்து கண்ட காட்சி:
இமயத்தின் கிழக்கு மார்கமாக, ஆராயப்படாத மற்றும் மலையேறாத வானளாவிய மக்காளு உச்சி தென்பட்டது. வெகு தூரத்தில் மேகங்களிடையே பிரம்மாண்டமாக கஞ்சன்ஜங்கா தொடுவானத்தை தொட்டது. மேற்கு திசையில் ஆராயப்படாத மறப்பான் மலைத் தொடர்கள் வெகு தூரத்திற்கு நீண்டு தொலைந்தன.
புகைப்படம் அவர்கள் வெற்றியின் அடையாளம்:
வடக்கு மலைத் தொடர்களில் மிக முக்கியத்துவம் வாய்ந்த புகைப்படங்கள் எடுக்கப்பட்டன. அது 1920/1930 ஆம் ஆண்டு மலை ஏறுபவர்களால் பிரசித்தப்படுத்தப்பட்ட வடக்கு கோல் மட்டும் பழைய மலை ஏறும் வழிகள் ஆகியவையே கொண்டிருந்தன.
புத்தரின் மேல் பக்தி கொண்டவர்கள். உயர்ந்த சிகரம் கடவுளின் இருப்பிடம் என நம்பினர். ஆதலால் கடவுளுக்காக ஒரு சிறிய பரிசை தர விரும்பினர். டென்சிங் பனிக்கட்டியில் துளையிட்டு அதில் சாக்லெட், பிஸ்கெட் மற்றும் மிட்டாய்களை வைத்தார். ஹிலாரி, கர்ணல் ஹண்ட் கொடுத்த சிலுவை ஒன்றை வைத்திருந்தார். அவர் ஹிலாரியிடம் மலை உச்சியை அடைந்ததும் அதை பொதித்து வைக்க சொன்னார். ஹிலாரி பனிக்கட்டியில் துளையிட்டு அந்த திண்பண்டங்களின் பக்கத்தில் சிலுவையையும் பக்தியுடன் நட்டு வைத்தார்
எல்லா சாகசங்களும் உற்சாகமூட்டுவதாக அமைவதில்லை. மலைச் சிகரங்களில் மட்டும் சாகசங்களை நாம் காண்பதில்லை. நடைமுறை வாழ்க்கையில் எல்லா தருணங்களிலும் நாம் எல்லையை தொட வேண்டிய சிகரங்கள் வந்த வண்ணமே உள்ளன. கடவுளின் அருளுடன் மனிதன் எப்பேர்ப்பட்ட உயரத்தையும் அல்லது ஆழத்தையும் சளைக்காத மனப்போக்குடன் தொடலாம் என்பதை அறிந்தோம்.
The Summit Glossary
The Summit Synonyms
Find out the synonym of the underlined word in each of the following sentences. Tenzing crawled into the tent.
Tenzing crawled into the tent.
I dragged our oxygen sets into the tent.
They were now frozen solid.
I cooked them over the fierce flames.
We hoisted our oxygen gear on to our backs.
(a) hauled up
(d) hooked up
(a) hauled up
Tenzing kicked steps in a long traverse.
(a) vertical movement
(b) horizontal crossing
(b) horizontal crossing
We came to a tiny hollow.
(c) empty space
(d) deep pit
(c) empty space
I scraped the ice off the gauges.
If used sparingly, the newly found cylinders could get us down to south.
We persisted in our efforts to beat a trail up.
We made frequent changes of the lead.
We reached a firmer snow higher up.
A section around me gave way.
(a) firmed up
We removed our oxygen apparatus.
Our first bottle of oxygen was now exhausted.
The space was large enough for our oversized high altitude boots,
We scrambled on the rocks.
We were able to shuffle past these portions.
(a) walk unsteadily
(b) run fast
(a) walk unsteadily
I took a firm stance.
(d) view point
(d) view point
It has just been hauled from the sea.
(c) pulled out
(d) put out
(c) pulled out
Our original zest had now gone.
There were no more humps to tantalize us.
These was not disguising his grin of delight.
To the east was our giant neighbour Makalu unexplored.
The great bulk of Kanchenjunga loomed on the horizon.
All devout Buddhists believe that at least a token gift must be given to Gods.
We cautiously scrambled over the rock.
We set ourselves to the task of safely descending the ridge of South Col.
(c) climbing down
(c) climbing down
The tents flapped and shook under the perpetual South Col gale.
(b) make shift
(c) never ending
(c) never ending
John Hunt led the expedition.
(b) purposeful journey
(b) purposeful journey
The Summit Antonyms
Find out the antonym of the underlined word in each of the following sentences.
They were now frozen solid.
I cooked them over the fierce flames.
My feet were now warm.
The bottle of oxygen was now exhausted.
They wear over-sized high altitude boots.
I felt a sense of freedom.
It was a great thrill to look down this enormous rock.
With effort could muster my arms and shoulder.
Makalu was unexplored.
Buddhists believe that God lives in lofty summits.
We scrambled cautiously.
We set about descending from the ridge.
We cramponed along our tracks spurred by the urgency of diminishing oxygen.
With a sigh of delight we collapsed into our sleeping bags.
Their happiness and pride showed.