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Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 11th English Solutions Prose Chapter 1 The Portrait of a Lady
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Nuclear Family or Joint Family
Based on the visuals given above, give five words/phrases each to describe these two family
|Nuclear family||Joint family|
|Nuclear family||Joint family|
|happy||rich||compete for needs||sharing more|
|more space||kind||peer learning||more fun|
|caring||loving||less riches||more joy|
|joyful||more love||wait for turn||no immediate gratification|
|good education||needs met||mutual care||bondage great|
Samacheer Kalvi 11th English The Portrait of a Lady Textual Questions
(1) Answer the following questions in one or two sentences based on your understanding of the story:
11th English 1st Lesson Questions And Answers Question (а)
Describe the grandfather as seen in the portrait.
The author’s grandfather looked as if he were hundred years old with lots of grandchildren. He had loose fitting garments. He looked too old to have had a wife and children.
11th English Guide Pdf Download Question (b)
Why was the author left with his grandmother in the village?
The author’s parents went to the city to make a living. The young author was left with his grandma till his parent’s settled well in the city.
11th English Unit 1 Prose Paragraph Question (c)
Where did the author study in his childhood?
The author studied in the veranda of a village temple. He learnt letters of the alphabet from the priest.
11th English Unit 1 Prose Question Answer Question (d)
Why did the grandmother accompany the author to school?
Grandma was a pious lady. The school was attached to the temple. So, the grandmother accompanied the author to his school. While he learnt letters of alphabets, she spent her time inside the temple reciting prayers and telling the beads of her rosary.
The Portrait Of A Lady Book Back Answers Question (e)
What made the dogs follow the grandmother after school hours?
Grandmother brought a bundle of stale chapattis with her to the temple. The village dogs followed her. On return, she went on throwing the chapattis to the dogs who growled and fought with each other to have a piece of chapatti.
11th English Prose Paragraph Question (f)
Why didn’t the grandmother feel sentimental when the author went abroad for higher education?
Grandmother got alienated from her grandson the time he went to the English medium school in the city. The reduction of focus in spiritual education and value education and increase in the importance of science perturbed grandma a great deal. She knew that she can’t help the changes. So, she did not show any sentimentality when the grandson went abroad.
11th English 1st Lesson Paragraph Question (g)
What was the happiest time of the day for grandmother?
Half an hour in the afternoon, grandma devoted her time for feeding sparrows. That half- an-hour was the happiest time of the day for grandmother.
2 . Answer the following questions in three or four sentences each:
11th English Guide Pdf Free Download Question (a)
Describe the author’s grandmother.
Grandma was bent with age. She was deeply religious. She did not approve of modem science, music and entertainment. However she had the wisdom to accept changes ‘ gracefully and retain her values till her death.
11 English Guide Question (b)
What was the daily routine of the grandmother at home?
Grandma started the mornings with a sing-song prayer. She woke up the author bathed and dressed him up and wanted him to learn the prayers by heart. Both would march to the school which was attached to a temple. She would stay inside chanting prayers and telling beads. In the evening, she would throw the stale chapattis to village dogs as they returned home.
11th English Book Back Answers Question (c)
How is school education in the village different from that in the city?
Village school is easily accessible on foot. Values and letters of the alphabet are given utmost importance. Children carried wooden slate and ink-pot. These was no subject specialization in the village school. One teacher taught all. City school has huge buildings. Subject-wise teachers are there. School is remote. Children have to travel to long distance to reach school.
Samacheer Kalvi 11th English Guide Question (d)
The grandmother appreciated the value of education. Give instances in support of your answer.
Grandma did have respect for education and that is why she personally monitored the village education of the author. She insisted on good manners and love for all living things. She demonstrated this by feeding village dogs and sparrows. She didn’t object to ; the author going abroad.
Samacheer Kalvi 11th English Guide Pdf Question (e)
The grandmother was strong-minded. Justify.
Grandmother had strong values and had zest for life. She lived the life the way she wanted it. She spun the wheel, told her beads, fed the dog in the village and sparrows in the city unmindful of changes around her. She played the drum with joy when she realized her impending death. She died a peaceful death after predicting it to all her family members. She is really a strong lady.
11th English The Portrait Of A Lady Paragraph Question (f)
How did the grandmother spend the last few hours of her life?
She suspended her prayer for a while. She called the women from neighbourhood, sang and played the drum along with them. The next morning she had fever. She told the family that she was about to die! She died in bed telling her beads and lisping her last prayer.
11th English Chapter 1 Question Answers Question 1.
What was hard to believe? Why?
People said that grandma was once pretty and she even had a husband. This was hard to believe as the author had seen her old right from his boyhood days.
11th Std English Guide Question 2.
How long had the author known his old grandma?
The author had seen his old grandma for twenty long years. She had the same wrinkles and hunchback.
Samacheer Kalvi 11th English Chapter 1 Question 3.
What appeared to be fables of the prophets?
Grandma often told the author and his friends about various games she had played as a young girl. This appeared absurd and hence the author and his friends treated her games as fables of prophet.
11 Std English Guide Question 4.
What was odd about the author’s acceptance of grandma’s beauty and not her pretty looks?
Young girls are pretty like the buds of a flower. The author had never seen his grandma young. The author thought she could never have been pretty but full bloomed flower like beauty.
11th Standard English Guide Question 5.
Which thought was revolting to the author?
The sheer thought of grandma having been pretty once was really revolting to the author.
11th English 1st Lesson Question Answer Question 6.
How did grandma move about the house?
Grandma hobbled about the house in spotless white saree. She had one hand resting on her waist to balance her stoop and the other telling the beads of her rosary.
English Guide For Class 11 Question 7.
How was grandma beautiful?
She was beautiful like the winter landscape in the mountains, an expanse of pure white serenity breathing peace and contentment. Her lips constantly moved in inaudible prayer.
How did grandma perform her morning prayer? (or) What was grandma’s purpose in singing her morning prayer in a sing-song voice?
Grandma said her morning prayer in a sing-song voice while she bathed and dressed the boy author. She wanted her grandson to learn the prayers by heart.
How did grandma help the boy author to get ready to school?
She would fetch his wooden slate already plastered with yellow chalk, a tiny earthen, ink -pot and a red pen. She would bundle them all and hand it to the boy author.
What was the turning point in the relationship between the boy author and his grandma?
The boy author’s parents got settled in the city. They sent for them. That was a turning point in their friendship.
Why could grandma not accompany the author to his school?
The boy author went to school in a motor car. So, she could not accompany him to school.
Why did grandma change her habit of feeding dogs?
In the city, there were no dogs. So grandma started feeding the sparrows.
What made grandma unhappy? (or) What was grandma’s reaction to narrator’s education in English school?
The boy author’s learning material included new English words, principles of science such as Archimedes Principle and law of gravity and the round shape of the earth. Shifting of gear from traditional and value-based education to modem English and science education made grandma unhappy.
Why didn’t grandma walk straight?
Grandma was bent with age. So, she could not walk straight. She could only hobble about the house.
What distanced grandma from the author?
As years rolled by, the author grew up. He had a room of his own. English education did not cover scriptures and God. These distanced her from her grandson.
Why did grandma disapprove of ‘music lessons’ in school?
Grandma belonged to an older generation in which moral values, scriptures and literacy dominated education. Even music was meant to only accompany hymns and devotional songs. Professional musicians and dancers were treated with contempt. So, grandma disapproved of “music lessons” at school.
Which incident almost snapped the friendship of the author with grandma?
As the narrator moved on to university, he was given a separate room at home. This almost snapped the friendship between grandma and the author.
How did grandma spend her time when the author went to university?
Grandma accepted her seclusion gracefully. She spun and recited prayers the whole day. She took half an hour break to feed the sparrows happily.
What occasion did the author believe, unwisely to be the ‘last sign’ of physical contact with grandma?
The author was going abroad for a five years study. Grandma kissed Khushwant Singh on his forehead. He mistook it to be the last sign of physical contact with grandma.
How did grandma disprove the author’s judgement about her longevity?
The author thought his grandma was getting very old. He believed that before he returned from foreign study, she may have kicked her bucket. But she came to receive him in a cool headed way on his return from abroad.
How did grandma celebrate the joy of grandson’s return? (or) What turned out to be grandma’s “swan song”? (or) Why did grandma suspend her prayers for a few hours?
It appeared that grandma was holding on to see her grandson back home. She sensed her impending death and shocked her family members with the prediction. She drummed and sang along with neighbours with great zest as if she were celebrating her grandson’s return. In reality, she was enjoying the last moments of her life with absolute abandon even suspending her prayers for a while
3. Answer the following in a paragraph of 100 – 150 words each.
The grandmother played a vital role in the author’s formative years. Give your own example of how elders have a positive influence on the younger generation. Include examples from the story also.
Elders who have deep love for young ones do leave a life time impression in the minds of children. I had seen my grandpa when I was very young. He was not rich. But he had deep- seated love for me. He used to walk three kilometers to just spend a few hours with me. He would not use the money my dad gave him for bus. He would walk back and save the money to buy either toys or books for me. The first book he presented me while I was in Std. VII hooked me on to the joy of reading. The book had short stories of endearing value.
For the first time, I realized, that printed book can transport one to a world of fantasy and indefinable joy. The thrill of identifying myself with warriors, pilgrims, fishermen and great souls of the past kindled a spark in me. Now, I go to the book fair every year and buy books. I have started reading for specific purposes. I owe my reading habit to my grandpa. In the life of Mahatma Gandhi also, his mom’s influence was great. She told him many moral stories.
Dr. Ambedkar who shared a small room with his dad, learnt to lead a simple life all through his life. Unnikrishnan’s daughter Uthra Unnikrishnan has got influenced by her father and taken to singing even for films at a very young age. Her singing of “Kaiveesum Katrai” in the movie ‘Straberry’ and Azhage in “Saivam” Tamil movies has got her national level reputation. In this story also grandma’s influence on Khushwant Singh was so great that he made her immortal in his biographical story “The Portrait of a Lady”. Her love for simple life, street dogs and sparrows made an indelible mark in Khushwant Singh’s boyhood memories.
“Grandmothers create memories that the heart holds forever. ”
As young Khushwant Singh, write a letter to your parents describing your daily routine along with your thoughts and feelings about staying in the village.
15 Jan 20XX
As young Khushwant Singh, write a letter to your parents describing your daily routine
along with your thoughts and feelings about staying in the village.
15 Jan 20XX
Dear Mom and Dad,
l am fine. Grandma is also fine. She wakes me up every day and prepares me for school. She sings her morning prayers in a sing-song voice to my great delight. But she wants me to leam; and repeat them. She washes my slate clean and bundles up ink pot, pen and slate and gives it to me.
We walk together to the temple. While the village priest is teaching us letters of the alphabet and some religious songs in the verandah of the temple, grandma stays inside the temple and joins group of devotees in singing or telling beads. I am touched by her extreme interest in my academics. She feeds me with butter-smeared chapattis with great love. She is quite’ thoughtful of village dogs which wait at the temple gate till my school is over. When we walk back home, the village dogs follow us growling and barking as grandma throws chapattis to those dogs.
Everyday, she enquires what I leam. Though her hunch back and wrinkles show her old age, the serenity, contentment in her face and the winter landscape of her hair make me believe that she is the most beautiful lady. Dad, I am unable to believe she was ever young or pretty because as far as my memory goes, I have always seen her old and wrinkled. Though grandma’s love is immense, I must admit I miss you both. Why don’t you take us both to the ; city? I want to see the city and study in a city school as the education I get in the village school has no variety. Everyday I have to leam only songs and letters of alphabet. Don’t you know,” ‘variety is the spice of life? I also want to leam different subjects, wear fashionable clothes. and go in a motor car to an English school. Dad and Mom don’t you miss me as I miss you?
Your loving son,
Animals are capable of empathy. Substantiate this statement with examples from the story as well as your own experiences.
A middle-aged lady in Australia had a heart attack. She was in great pain. Her pet pig saw i mistress in distress. It ran to the street and pulled the shirt sleeve of a man and brought him
home. He called an ambulance. The lady was saved. We had a pet dog. It was extremely fond of grandpa. He used to take him for long walks. One day grandpa died. The dog refused to eat any food. It went to the burial yard. It starved for a few days and died in front of grandpa’s grave. Even in this story, the sparrows in thousands sat in silence. Mom thought they were hungry. She broke the bread into pieces and threw them. But not a single sparrow touched them. Once grandma’s dead body was taken to the graveyard, the birds flew away. These instances prove beyond doubt that animals are capable of empathy.
The author’s grandmother was a religious person. What are the different ways in which we come to know this?
The author’s grandmother was a very religious lady. We come to know this through the different habitual actions. She visited the temple every morning and read scriptures. At home she always mumbled inaudible prayers and kept telling the beads of rosary. She would repeat prayer songs in a sing-song manner while getting the writer ready for school. She hoped that he would learn them by heart. She didn’t like English school as there was no teaching of God and scriptures. Even while spinning at her spinning wheel she would recite prayers.
Perhaps it was only once that she suspended her prayers. It was on the evening prior to her death when she felt over excited while celebrating the arrival of her grandson with songs and drumming. She continued praying and telling beads of her rosary till her last breath. The family members realized that her antic behaviour was a celebration of her contented life.
“Grandma s prayers are the reason a lot of us are still here. ”
Would you agree that the author’s grandmother was a person strong in character? If yes, give instances that show this.
Yes, I agree that the author’s grandmother was a person strong in character. She was a strong woman with strong beliefs. Although she was not formally educated, she was serious about. the author’s education. She could not adjust herself to the western way of life, Science and English education. She hated music and disapproved of its teaching in school. She was a deeply religious lady. Her lips were always saying a silent prayer. She was always telling the beads of her rosary. She went to the temple daily and read the scriptures. She was distressed to know that there was no teaching about God and holy books at Khushwant’s new English school. She was a kind lady.
She used to feed dogs in the village. In the city, she took to feeding the sparrows. Although old in years and weak in body, she had great strength of mind. Knowing her impending death, she played a drum and sang with full-throated ease along with her neighbours. Just before her death, she refused to talk to the members of the family as she did not want to waste her time. She wanted to make up for the time lost when she had not prayed to God. She lay peacefully in bed saying prayers and telling the beads of her rosary till she breathed her last.
“She made broken look beautiful; strong look invincible. She walked with the universe on her shoulders as an inspiration. ”
Describe the friendship between Khushwant Singh and grandmother.
Khushwant Singh’s grandmother was closely involved in bringing him up when the author lived with her in the village during his early life. She used to wake him up early in the morning.
While bathing and dressing him, she sang her prayers. She hoped that the young boy would learn it by heart. She then gave him breakfast – a stale chapatti with butter and sugar. Then they would go together to the temple school. While the author learnt his lessons, the grandmother would read holy books. They returned home together. A turning point came in their friendship when his parents called them to the city. Although they shared a room, she could not help him much. She hated music, Science and Western education. The common link of their friendship was gradually snapped. ,
“The greatest gift of life is friendship and one should cherish it. ”
Write a character sketch of the author’s grandmother.
Khushwant Singh’s grandmother was a very old lady. She was short, fat and slightly bent. Her face was wrinkled. She had white hair. She was very affectionate. She was closely involved in bringing up the author. The two lived in the village. She was a caring grandmother. She ‘ would wake him early in the morning and get him ready for school. She served him breakfast and took him to school. She waited for him in the temple. She prayed while he studied. She returned with him.
She was kind and benevolent. She used to feed dogs in the village. In the city, she took to feeding the sparrows. She was a deeply religious lady. Her lips were always moving in a silent prayer. She was always telling the beads of her rosary. She went to the temple and read the scriptures.
She was a strong woman with strong beliefs. Although she was not formally educated, she was,serious about the author’s education. She could not adjust herself to the western way of life,Science and English education. She hated music. She was distressed to know that there was no teaching about God and holy books at Khushwant Singh’s new English school. On the whole she was a nice, affectionate, kindhearted and religious lady.
“Who can find a virtuous woman? For her price is far above Rubies.” .
The grandmother herself was not formally educated but was serious about the author’s education. How does the text support this?
The grandmother Was quite serious about the author’s education. She woke him up in the morning and got him ready for school. She washed his wooden slate. She plastered it with yellow chalk. She tied his earthen ink-pot and red pen into a bundle. She took him to school, i He studied in school. She waited for him in the temple reading scriptures. In the city, the author went to an English school in a motor bus. When he came back, she would ask him what the teacher had taught him. She could not help him with his lessons. She did not believe in the things taught at the English school. She was distressed to learn that her grandson was being taught music. She considered it unfit for gentle folks.
“Education is the passport to the future. ”
(a) Read the following words and choose the correct antonyms from the options given
1. (b) arid
2. (a) serious
3. (d) included
4. (c) accept
5. (b) anxiety
6. (c) gathered
7. (a) interesting
(b) Fill in the blanks choosing the appropriate compound words from those given in the box:
Reeta hurried along the road, dressed in her (1) ______ new dress towards the bus stop. Before (2) ______ , she had to reach the house of her (3) ______ But the first (4) ______ of her travel was slow due to traffic jam. Her (5) ______ would be regarded with joy. She was (6) ______ herself to reach the place. When she finally stepped into the (7) ______ , she was received with a big hug by her kind aunt. She was in time to join the (8) ______ at the village, for a (9) ______
- gentle folk
(c) Match the words in Column A with their pairs in Column B to form compound words and write them in Column C:
|Column A||Column B||Column C|
1. (e) piece (mantelpiece)
2. (a) lashes (eyelashes)
3. (f) proof (waterproof)
4. (g) hive (beehive)
5. (c) gate (tailgate)
6. (d) knob (doorknob)
7. (b) wheel (spinning wheel)
(d) Frame meaningful sentences of your own using the following expressions from the story. Use a dictionary if required.
the thought was almost revolting
The thought that a 27-year-old man could murder a college girl in daylight was revolting.
an expanse of pure white serenity
Nammalvar had a long white beard like an expanse of pure white serenity.
a turning point
Gandhiji’s encounter with an ill-clad poor woman in Madurai was a turning point in his political life.
accepted her seclusion with resignation
Grandma accepted her seclusion with resignation.
My mom bathed my younger brother with frivolous rebukes.
Prefixes And Suffixes
(e) Form two derivatives from each of the following words: e.g. honest – dishonest, honesty
- manage – manager, management
- differ – different, difference
- beauty – beautiful, beautious
- peace – peaceful, placemaker
- arrange – arranged, arrangement
- collect – collector, collective
- approve – approval, disapprove
- narrate – narration, narrator
- class – classic, classify
(f) Fill in the blanks with suitable homophones:
(a) We have a short _______ between the sessions.
(b) The car skidded to a halt when I applied the _______
(a) Shivani wears a belt around her _______
(b) We should never misuse or _______ natural resources.
(a) Oxygen is the _______ element present in earth’s crust.
(b) Both these machines work on the same _______
(a) Turtles should be _______ in a healthy environment.
(b) I like to have toasted _______ for breakfast.
(a) This medicine will _______ your pain.
(b) Finally, the manager learnt a _______ the hard way.
(a) The child looks very sick and _______
(b) I need a _______ of water to wash these cups.
(a) Ravi picked the banana peel and _______ it in the dustbin. ,
(b) The soldiers had to pass _______ a dark tunnel.
(a) The _______ was covered with a shroud.
(b) A five-day annual training camp for the senior cadets of the National Cadet _______ been organised.
(i) (a) break (b) brake
(ii) (a) waist (b) waste
(iii) (a) principal (b) principle
(iv) (a) bred (b) bread
(v) (a) lessen (b) lesson
(vi) (a) pale (b) pail
(vii) (a) threw (b) through
(viii) (a) corpse (b) corps
Read the following statements and the given options. Now, listen to your teacher read aloud a passage or play it on a recorder. You may listen to it again if required, to help you choose the right options.
(For listening to the passage refer to our website www.fullcircleeducation.in) The hand that rocks the cradle rules the world. It is the mother who rocks the cradle. It is she who exercises her influence over the mind of her children. She moulds the character of her children with her noble qualities. Napoleon said, “Give me good mothers, I will give you a good nation”. Mothers play an important role in building nations. The love of our mother is usually the first and deepest love that we come across. For many people their mother’s love becomes the pattern of love in later life.
A mother’s love is unconditional. No matter what you do, you know that your mother will always love you. The phrase ‘mother’s love’ derives from the love traditionally shown by a biological mother to her child. But indeed any love that is deeply caring and unconditional can be described as a motherly love, Adoptive mothers show this type of love to the children they adopt. It is important in life to be cherished and loved for who you are and to be supported in all you do! Love is the most important thing in the world. Why not exhibit love to creatures and all those around you?
According to Napoleon ‘Good mothers make good _______
Mothers exhibit _______ love.
_______ mothers care much for their children.
_______ is the most important thing in the world.
Love should be extended to _______ too.
(a) Work in pairs and arrive at five points that bring out the benefits and challenges of living in either a nuclear family or a joint family. Share your views with your class.
In a nuclear family:
- A child gets a lot of attention.
- Child need not wait for anything he wants.
- Both the parents shower love and protect him/her from any harm.
- There is no scope for disappointments as parents are anxious to fulfill the needs of children.
- Child wants parent to solve all his/her problems and never learns self-reliance.
In a joint family:
- Child has to wait for what he wants to get.
- There will be many to play with.
- There is plenty of scope for caring and sharing.
- Learn to cope with disappointments and failures in a healthy way.
- Learn to adjust with others and tend to be empathetic.
(b) Build a conversation of eight to ten sets of exchanges, with your grandmother discussing the incidents that happened in your school that day.
Myself : Grandma, I am back home.
Grandma : Please go and wash your face, hands and legs.
Myself : Why should I, grandma?
Grandma : I have prepared some sweets and pakora for you.
Myself : That’s really lovely grandma.
Grandma : What did you lean today?
Myself : I learnt about bees.
Grandma : How do bees communicate among themselves?
Myself : Grandma, when a bee discovers honey, he performs a kind of dance which conveys the availability of honey, type of flower and distance from the bee hive to the farm.
Grandma : That’s excellent. I never knew it.
Myself : Give me sweets and pakora.
Grandma : Stay here, I will bring them for you.
(c) Every member contributes to forming a happy family. Share your views for a minute or two with your class.
Father works hard and brings money home. Mom does all domestic chores. She cooks food, washes clothes and cleans the floor. Brother takes me to school in his scooter. My grandma combs my hair. She has all the time in the world to tell me tales and listen to all my experiences and stories. On Sunday we all join hands and clean the house. Then we all dine together and share what happened to each of us. I do agree that everyone contributes to a happy family.
Now, read the following passage on“Laughter Therapy” and answer the questions that follow.
1. Laughing is an excellent way to reduce stress in our lives; it can help you to cope with and survive a ’ stressful life. Laughter provides full-scale support for your muscles and unleashes a rush of stress busting endorphins. Since our body cannot distinguish between real and fake laughter, anything that makes you giggle will have a positive impact.
2. Laughter Therapy aims to get people laughing, in groups and individual sessions and can help reduce stress, make people and employees happier and more committed, as well as improve their interpersonal skills. This laughter, comes from the body and not the mind.
3. Laughter Yoga (Hasya yoga) is a practice involving prolonged voluntary laughter. It aims to get people laughing in groups. It is practised in the early mornings in open-parks. It has been made popular as an exercise routine developed by Indian physician Madan Kataria, who writes about the practice in his 2002 book ‘Laugh for no reason’. Laughter Yoga is based on the belief that voluntary laughter provides the same physiological as well as psychological benefits as spontaneous laughter.
4. Laughter yoga session may start with gentle warm up techniques which include stretching, chanting, clapping, eye contact and body movements to help break down inhibitions and encourage a sense of playfulness. Moreover, laughter is the best medicine. Breathing exercises are used to prepare the lungs for laughter followed by a series of laughter exercises that combine a method of acting and visualization techniques. Twenty minutes of laughter is sufficient to augment physiological development.
5. A handM of small scale scientific studies have indicated that laughter yoga has some medically beneficial effects, including cardiovascular health and mood. This therapy has proved to be good for depressed patients. This laughter therapy also plays a crucial role in social bonding.
Answer the following:
How does laughter help one to cope with stress?
Laughter provides full scale support for one’s muscles and unleashes a rush of stress busting endorphins. Thus it helps one to cope with stress.
Which word in the text (para 2) means the same as ‘dedicated’?
‘Committed’ means dedicated.
Why do you think voluntary laughter provides the same physiological as well as psychological benefits as spontaneous laughter?
Human body cannot distinguish between real and fake laughter. Anything that makes a person giggle has a positive impact on one’s health. That is why I think voluntary laughter provides the same psychological and physiological benefits as spontaneous laughter.
‘Laughter is the best medicine’. Explain.
Twenty minutes of laughter is sufficient to augment physiological development. Laughter has some medical benefits such as cardiovascular health and mood. Hence, “Laughter is the best medicine”.
Given below is a set of activities. Which of these are followed in the ‘Laughter Yoga’ technique?
- Body movements
- Breathing exercises
- Stretching of arms and legs
- Bending backwards
‘Laughter therapy also plays a crucial role in social bonding’. How?
Man is a social animal. Laughing breaks the ice and enables friendly conversations. A person endowed with spontaneous laughter naturally attracts large number of friends. In his company, even distressed relatives feel relieved and happy. Thus, laughter plays a crucial role in social bonding.
Articles and Determiners
Determiners are words placed in front of a noun to clarify what the noun refers to.
Look at this sentence.
‘This laughter therapy also plays a crucial role in social bonding.’
Here the word ‘this’ refers to a particular noun – ‘laughter therapy’.
Types of Determiners
|– some, any
third, last next
(a) Read the paragraph below and fill in the blanks using ‘a, an’, or ‘the’.
It is said that (1) _____ computer is (2) _____ electronic extension of the human brain. Therefore, in principle, (3) _____ computer can do all those activities which (4) _____ human brain can do. Today computers are found to be (5) _____ most useful devices as knowledge providers. Another important field of application of computers is (6) _____ development of robots. (7) _____ internet has brought (8) _____ drastic change in communication systems.
(b) In the following paragraph, insert ‘a, an’,or ‘the’ wherever necessary and rewrite the sentences.
In our family, we have planned to take children to zoo next Sunday. Van has been arranged and we are sure to have comfortable journey. Zoo is interesting place for children who enjoy watching animals and want to know more about them. Even youngsters love to visit zoo.
In our family, we have planned to take children to the zoo next Sunday. A Van has been arranged and we are sure to have a comfortable journey. The Zoo is interesting place for children who enjoy watching the animals and want to know more about them. Even the youngsters love to visit the zoo.
(c) Fill in the blanks with appropriate determiners. (Articles have been included)
Once the emperor gave a bag of seeds to his council of ministers and said that he would give them six months time to grow the seeds. Whoever does a good job will be made the (1) _____ emperor of that empire. (2) _____ the ministers took their task seriously. After six months (3) _____ ministers had small plants in their pots. A (4) _____ had very large plants. (5) _____ had medium sized plants. The emperor entered the hall. He was (6) _____ amused to see (7) _____ plants. He called the (8) _____ minister and asked him what he did with the seed. (9) _____ minister explained the process he adopted to make (10) _____ plant grow. (11) _____ the emperor called the other ministers to explain what they did. Only (12) _____ minister had come with an empty pot.They laughed loudly at the foolishness of this minister. But the Emperor applauded him and made him the (13) _____ Emperor. Do you know why? He had given them boiled seeds which will not grow. Only (14) _____ minister was honest.
- very much
(d) Fill in the blanks with appropriate determiners.
- They came early but there was (little/ a little) work to do.
- Anand invited (few/a few) friends for the birthday party.
- The teacher gave (all /every) student a separate topic for the assignment.
- (Most of/Many) the water overflowed from the tank.
- Each one of my (friend/fiiends) wished me on my birthday.
- Vijay had (no/ any) idea about the problem.
- Adhi had taken (much /many) photos during the programme,
- (Some/Few) girls who attended the class informed the others about the test.
- a few
- Most of
(a) Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verbs in brackets and read the completed passage aloud.
The people of India, as a whole, (1) _______ (be) warm-hearted and hospitable. Any calamity in any part of the world immediately (2) _______ (arise) their charity and generosity and a. committee (3). _______ (be) promptly (4) _______ (set ) up to collect funds to help the distressed. The most endearing quality in them (5) _______ (be) the respect they show for the work done in any capacity. They (6) _______ (believe) in what we (7) _______ (call) the dignity of labour.
(b) Now, use the verbs given in brackets in the following sentences in their correct forms.
I (like) to spend time with my friend,whenever I (be) free.
I like to spend time with my friend, whenever I am free.
He (is) likely to miss the train. He (run) to the station.
He is likely to miss the train. He is running to the station.
At the moment, they (wait) at the bus-stop. But I (not know) their plans for the journey.
At the moment, they are waiting at the bus-stop. But I do not know their plans for the journey.
They firmly (believe) in the existence of God.
They firmly believe in the existence of God.
We (hear) a lot of noise because the new buildings (transmit) sound waves.
We hear a lot of noise because the new buildings are transmitting sound waves.
She always (make) excuses for coming late.
She always makes excuses for coming late.
The Prime Minister (leave) for America to meet the delegates tomorrow.
The Prime Minister leaves for America to meet the delegates tomorrow.
(c) You are a commentator for a 5000 metre running race. Use simple present and present continuous tenses and complete the commentary from the beginning to the end of the race. Read the completed passage aloud.
The 5000 metre race is about to begin. Lined up at the starting point, from left to right, are John of Great Britain, Peter of Nigeria and Jeeva of India. The runners are warming up for the great event. Now they. (1) _______ (take) their positions on the track. They (2) _______ (be) all ready for the start. There (3) _______ (go) the starter’s gun! Yes, the race has begun. John (4) _______ . (lead) with Jeeva (5) _______ (close) behind him.
- are taking
- is leading
(d) Read the extract from Kayal’s diary entry regarding her Nepal Trek, and fill in the blanks with the correct tense form of the verbs given in brackets.
DAY 1: We (1) _______ (leave) Anna International Airport in Chennai two days ago catching a direct flight to Kathmandu in Nepal. We (2) _______ (spend) a day sightseeing. Kathmandu is full of people, rickshaws and the smell of sandalwood. I’ve never (3) _______ (be) on a trip like this before. So I’m really excited.
DAY 2: It (1) _______ (rain) when we reached Pokhara, Nepal’s second largest city, and saw the snowy peaks of the Himalayas for the first time. We. (2) _______ (reach) Pokhara after a hair-raising six-hour bus journey along very narrow roads with a lot of hairpin bends. The bus (3) _______ (be) so full that one person had to share the driver’s seat.
DAY 3: We (1) _______ (begin) our trek at last. We are at about 900 metres and the weather is warm and humid. For lunch we had chips and yak cheese sandwiches. I didn’t like them very much. I’m thrilled that we (2) _______ (pitch) tents for our camps in the dense forests.
DAY 4: Yesterday a landslide (1) _______ (block) our path and we had to use ropes to get over it. This morning we walked along the river Kali Gandaki through dense forests of oak trees and we pitched our camp at Tukuche below the Annapurna mountain range. The main danger in addition to landslides, is ‘yak attack’. Yaks (3) _______ (be) not dangerous but you have to be careful if you meet a herd of them because they can push you off the sides of the mountain.
DAY 5: We met a lot of children on our trek through the villages. They (1) _______ (play) in the pool of muddy rain water as we left the place. We have already climbed 2,400 metres. Up here, it never (2) _______ (rain) and there are no trees. It (3) _______ (be) windy and dusty and I am always thirsty.
DAY 6: Yesterday we (1) _______ (go) up to the mountainside of the township of Mukthinath, at 3,600 metres. The thin air with less oxygen there (2) _______ (leave) us breathless. We (3) _______ (feel) that we couldn’t go any further. We (4) _______ (drink) a lot of extra fluids to prevent altitude sickness.
DAY 7: We turned around today and started to descend to Jomosom. As we went down, the oxygen filled our blood again and we seemed to (1) _______ (fly) instead of walking.
DAY 8: We went back to Pokhara in a small plane yesterday. It (1) _______ (excite) when we flew between the mountain peaks. We arrived in Kathmandu this afternoon and we
(2) (spend) our last few hours in shopping. We leave for Chennai tomorrow. We’ve had a trip of a lifetime.
1. was raining
1. were playing
1. be flying
1. was exciting
(e) In the following passage, circle the verbs in simple present tense and underline the verbs in simple past. The first one has been done for you.
(i) Unless one upright there (is) no use in being a charming fellow. Sometimes it (Is) better to be honest than attractive. These are the great truths of modem life which Shyam never realised. He never said an ill-natured word in his life. He was always polite and spoke softly to everybody.
(ii) That night he strolled into the Palette Club about eleven o’clock, and found Trevor sitting by himself in the long room. “Well, Alan, did you get the picture finished all right? “he said, as he lit his cigarette. “Finished and framed, my boy!’’ answered Trevor, “and by- the-bye, you have made a conquest. That old model you saw (is) quite devoted to you. I had to(tell) him all about you – who you (are) where you (fivt), what your income(is) what prospects youljiave).”
(iii) “And now (tell) me how Laura (is) The old model was quite interested in her.” “You (jlorYt) mean to say you talked to him about her?” said Hughie. “Certainly I did. He ((mows) all about the relentless colonel, the lovely Laura, and the £10,000.” “You told that old beggar all my private affairs?” cried Hughie. looking very red and angry. “My dear Alan,” cried Hughie, “I shall probably find him waiting for me when I(go) home.”
(f) Fill in the blanks using Past tense forms of the verbs:
- I never (see) _______ such a beautiful sunrise before I came here.
- We were not able to stay overnight as we _______ not (reserve) the tickets in advance.
- Nirmala _______ (be) to the concert several times.
- Mariappan knew Pudukottai so well because he _______ (live) there for five years.
- Yusuf understood the problem because he _______ (experience) the situation earlier.
- Catherine did not have any cash because he _______ (lose) her purse.
- My father _______ (be) to Mumbai once before.
- The cat _______ (chase) the bird before it flew out of the yard.
- Edith _______ (visit) several doctors before she found out what the problem was with her knee.
- If we _______ (call) the manager ahead,we would not have needed to wait so long for a table.
- had never seen
- did not reserve
- had been
- had lived
- had experienced
- had lost
- had been
- had chased
- had called
(g) Read the following news report and underline the past perfect tense form of the verb and circle the simple past tense form of the verb.
India Beat Pakistan To Win Blind Cricket World Cup:
Chasing a huge target of 308 runs, India (romped) home in the penufrimateover of the match to defeat Pakistan and win the Blind Cricket World Cup. India (started off) their chase in a cracking manner, but had lost two quick wickets. Sunil RameslKrbsepto the occasion as he (jflayetf) a great knock to help India beat Pakistan and had scored 93 runs. Earlier India (won) the toss and had decided to bowl first. Pakistan (amassed)a huge score of 307 for eight in 40 overs. Their openers had given them a brisk start which the later batsmen (capitalize) on.
(h) Read the following extract and fill in the spaces with the right form of verbs and complete the passage. The first one is done for you.
The poet stops to hear the maiden singing while she (1) _____ (cut) and (2) _____ (bind) the grain. The song of the lady (3) _____ (fascinate) the poet, who (4) _____ (stand) there to listen to the song. The girl (5) _____ (sing) a sad song.
During the monsoon, a tender slightly warm breeze (1) _____ (blow) on a cloudless afternoon. A sort of fragrance (2) _____ (rise) from the wet grass and trees in the sunlight. It (3) _____ (seem) as if the warm breath of the exhausted earth (4) _____ (fall) against one’s skin. A sweet voiced bird somewhere (5) _____ (chirp) repeatedly.
(i) Read the news item that appeared in a daily and fill in the blanks with suitable forms of the verbs given in brackets.
Ever since social networking sites entered our lives, they (1) _____ (serve) as platform.s where users could use the virtual space offered by these social media. However, recent incidents (2) _____ (cause) many to question the freedom to express views on various issues and in some cases, it (3) _____ (become) a dangerous platform. Social Contact (4) _____ (transform) people. They (5) _____ (develop) an addiction to it.
- have been serving
- have caused
- has become
- has transformed
- have developed
(j) Read the following passage and correct the errors you come across.
Rajan slowly settle down in his retired life. His pension plus what his wife bring from the household work she does, helped them to meet their requirements. Life is easy until one Sunday. His granddaughter Madhu come crying. The clay doll in her hand had broken into two. Rajan pacify her and promise to mend it. This small repair work become the founding stone of a very prosperous venture into making clay dolls which earn him great respect.
Rajan slowly settled down in his retired life. His pension plus what his wife brought from the household work she did, helped them to meet their requirements. Life was easy until one Sunday his granddaughter Madhu came crying. The clay doll in her hand had broken into two. Rajan pacified her and promised to mend it. This small repair work became the founding stone of a very prosperous venture into making clay dolls which earned him great respect.
Games and sports helps in recreation. Soccer, cricket, lawn tennis or wrestling is eagerly watched by millions of fans all over a world. It helps one got a temporary relief from the tensions of a day. The dedication displayed by all player in the field indicates the mental and spiritual development of the player.
Games and sports help in recreation. Soccer, cricket, lawn tennis or wrestling are eagerly watched by millions of fans all over the world. It helps one get a temporary relief from the tensions of a day. The dedication displayed by all players in the field indicates the mental and spiritual development of the players.
(i) Prepare a notice to be displayed on the notice-board of your school for the students of Class 11, informing them about the educational tour that has been arranged for them the next month.
(ii) Write a notice about the inauguration of a laughter club in your school.
You are the Sports Captain of your school. Write a message to the Physical Director, requesting him to be present during the football team selection scheduled for tomorrow.
(c) Do you exercise regularly? If you do, which of these following activities do you prefer? Discuss and share with your partner a few lines about your preference.
(B) Working out in a gym
A : I prefer walking. It is a wholesome exercise. Regular walk helps blood circulation very well. A brisk walk for an hour a day keeps one perfectly fit.
B : I love swimming. I admire Michael Phelps for his achievement in swimming. When schools disowned him, his mom found out his interest in swimming. He turned out to be an Olympian of all times with 28 medals. One day I will win gold in swimming for India.
C : Well, after seeing Dipa Karmakar perform ‘pordunova’ vault at the summer Olympics in 2016,1 wish to become an expert in gymnastics
D : Well, I love cycling because it is pollution free. I feel it gives a complete exercise.
You are Mani/Megalai of Class XI, President of the English Club of your school. Draft a speech on the topic ‘Reading Maketh a Complete Man’ to be delivered in the school assembly.
Reading Maketh a Complete Man:
Respected Headmaster, teachers and my dear friends. I am Kaman / Kamala of class XI. I am before you to share my ideas on the topic “Reading Maketh a Complete Man”. Francis Bacon said, “Reading maketh a full man, conference a ready man and writing an exact man.” But the question concerns only reading here.
Extensive and intensive reading builds the mind with valuable ideas and information. A full mind is better than ill-informed or uninformed mind. Reading nourishes the intellect and nurtures one’s imagination. Researches prove that reading good books, can reduce stress levels by half. These is nothing more relaxing and soothing than reading a good book. Without travelling, a sensitive and sensible reader travels around the world. The reader is exposed to new culture and innovative ideas. Reading is a gift. It can be cultivated. It is sad that many students squander their time in playing games in mobile phone or watching useless film music or comic scenes when they must be spending their purple hours of life in reading books. They also waste their time in social websites like Facebook, Twitter and WhatsApp. This addiction in digital technology and browsing harmful websites distracts the young ones.
To dissuade young ones from social media and mass media and help them read books is equal to climbing Everest under hostile weather. So, teachers and parents should share their own joy of reading good books by sharing the best of what they read with student community. Reading makes a man complete. To lead holistic and meaningful lives, I request all my friends to develop a love for reading great classics under the guidance of dedicated teachers and with the help of libraries. –
The more you read, the more you will know.
The more you learn, the more places you’ll go.
So Read and Grow!
The Portrait of a Lady About the Author
Khushwant Singh was an Indian novelist and a lawyer. He joined IKS in 1947. He had a calling to be a writer. He served as the editor of many literary and news magazines. As a writer, he is best known for his secularism, sarcasm and love lor poetry. The Mark of Vishnu, A History of Sikhs, The Train to Pakislan. Success Mantra. We Indians, and Death at My Doorstep are some of his masterpieces. I le was awarded Padma Bhushan in 1974 and Padrna Vibhushan by the Government of India. He also received the most coveted Sahitya Academy fellowship. The present story, “The Portrait of a Lady” seems to have been inspired by the novel, “The Portrait of a Lady” by Henry James. It. revolves around the author’s grandmother whose milk of human kindness sustained birds, animals and children. Her unconditional love for all gives her a beauty beyond her age.
The Portrait of a Lady Summary
The author’s grandma was old and wrinkled for about twenty years. The author was told that his grandma was once young and pretty. She had a husband. But the author could not bring himself to believe it as he had seen her old right from his childhood. The picture of author’s grandpa was hung in the drawing room above the mantelpiece. He wore a big turban and loose-fitting garment. His long beard ran down to his chest. He appeared at least 100 years old. He did not look like a family man who could have had a wife and children. He only appeared like an pld man with many grand children.
Grandma was bent with age and had been so for a long time. Her entire body was wrinkled crisscross. She hobbled about the house with one hand on her waist to balance and another hand telling the beads of her rosary. She was always found whispering some inaudible prayer. Her silver locks were scattered on her face untidily. She was beautiful like the winter landscape in the mountains. She was an expansion of pure white serenity breathing peace and contentment.
The author and his grandma were great friends. As his parents had left him under her care and went to live in the city, he spent most of his time with her. She used to wake up the author early in the morning and helped him to get ready for school. She would sing morning prayers in a sing-song voice to enable the young author to remember the prayer by hearing. She would feed him with a stale chapatti smeared with a little butter and sugar. She would fetch his wooden slate and she accompanied him to school everyday. She would bring a lot of stale chapattis for the village dogs back home. She loved temple which was a place of worship and learning.
While the priest taught the children letters of the alphabet, grandma sat inside the temple reading scriptures. When her reading of scriptures and the author’s learning of letters got over for the day both would return home. While returning home grandma would feed the dogs with stale chapattis. The animals would fight among themselves as each chapatti was thrown.
In the village the author spent a lot of time with grandma. But after moving over to the city, he went to an English medium school in a bus. There were no dogs. She started feeding the sparrows. Grandma and the author were in the same room but the time they spent together got reduced considerably.
The author was happy to share the new English words he learn and Science theories like Archimedes’ principles, law of gravity and the shape of the earth. This upset her. She could no more help him with his lessons. The new school did not teach about God or scriptures. The day the author said that he was taking music lessons in school, she became uncomfortably silent.
When the author left for university, grandma was resigned to the fate or a secluded life. She continued her spinning work and chanting. The spinning wheel and prayer kept her busy all day. She rarely spoke to humans nowadays. She relaxed for half an hour in the afternoon.
This was the happiest time of her day as she broke the bread into small bits to feed the sparrows. It was literally a bedlam of chirruppings. Some would perch on her legs and some on her head. She never shooed them away. Instead, there was an angelic smile on her face, She relished those moments.
The author had the opportunity to go abroad. Grandma came to the railway station to farewell. She did not show any emotion or sentiment. Her moist lip imprint on his forehead, j made him wonder if it was her last physical contact with him.
I After five years, when the author returned, she met him at the railway station. She did not j appear to be older. She just hugged the author but continued telling the rosary. She did not i try to show interest in knowing what happened abroad in his life. Instead, she continued to evince keen interest in feeding the sparrows. She fed them longer.
One evening grandma did not pray. Instead, she got an old drum and started singing. She sang of the home-coming of warriors. Everyone got anxious that grandma might strain her nerves. Perhaps it was her swan song.
Grandma ran a temperature. Doctor said that it was a mild fever. But grandma predicted that i her end was near. She didn’t want to waste her time talking to the family members. Grandma lay in bed telling the rosary. Before sunset, her lips stopped chanting and the rosary i fell from her hands. The peaceful pallor on her face conveyed her soul’s departure from the ! body.
She was lifted from bed. She was covered with a red shroud. After a few hours, the body was | left alone to make funeral arrangements. They brought a crude stretcher to take her to the cremation ground.
The sun was setting. Grandma’s room was lit with a blaze of golden light. The room where ! the body was kept, thousands of sparrows sat scattered on the floor. There was no chirruping, i The family was sorry for the birds. Mom broke the bread into crumbs, the way grandma used I to do, and threw it to them. But not a single sparrow took notice. When grandma’s corpse was carried off, they flew away quietly.
Khushwant Singh’s The Portrait of a Lady, in short, gives a splendid pen-picture of his own j grandmother who had steadfast graceful values and philosophy of life. She lived and died gracefully.
The Portrait of a Lady Glossary
absurd – inconsistent/ illogical bedlam – noisy confusion dilapidated -damaged expanse -widespread
fables -tales/stories hobbled – walked unsteadily mantelpiece – shelf projecting from the wall above a fireplace
monotonous – unchanging /boring
pallor – an unhealthy pale appearance
perched – sat/rested
pucker – to contract the face into wrinkles
rebukes – scoldings
seclusion – isolation
shroud – cloth used to wrap a dead person
snapped – broke / cut.
cherished – retained in memory
contentment – satisfaction
distressed – upset
inaudible – unable to be heard
sentimental – emotional
spotless – clean
untidily – disorderly
The Portrait of a Lady Synonyms
Choose the most appropriate synonym of the underlined word.
The thought was almost revolting.
Once she had been young and pretty.
That seemed quite absurd.
We treated it like the fables of the prophets.
She wore spotless white saree.
Her lips moved in inaudible prayer.
She hobbled about the house with her human back.
Her silver locks were scattered untidily.
She was breathing serenity and contentment.
The fables from the lives of people are really fascinating.
She was like an expanse of pure white serenity.
She was distressed that there was no teaching about God or scriptures.
Her silence meant disapproval.
The common link of friendship got snapped.
My grandmother accented her seclusion.
Only in the afternoon she relaxed for a while.
Hundreds of birds created a veritable bedlam of chirruping.
She fed the birds with frivolous rebukes.
The birds perched on her head or legs.
She never shooed them away.
She was not even sentimental.
When I left I cherished the moist imprint on my forehead on the last sign of physical contact.
For several hours she thumped the sagging skins of the dilapidated drum.
A peaceful pallor spread on her face.
We laid her on the ground and covered her with a rose shroud.
The Portrait of a Lady Antonyms
She had been old and her skin wrinkled for the twenty years I had known her.
She had once been pretty.
(b) plain / ugly
(b) plain / ugly
He wore a loose fitting garment.
The thought was revolting.
That seemed quite absurd.
(a) wise / logical
(a) wise / logical
She was alwavs spotless white.
One hand was resting on her waist to balance her stoop
Her silver hair lav scattered.
Her lips were moving constantly in inaudible naver.
She was an expanse of white serenitv.
There was contentment in her face?
She was distressed.
She was not sentimental.
(b) dispassionate / practical
(b) dispassionate / practical
Grandma accepted her seclusion.
We had to persuade her to avoid overstraining.
She said her morning prayers in a monotonous sing-song voice.
She rarely spoke to me after that.
They flew away quietly.
I cherished the moist imprint as the last sign of physical contact.
She fed the birds for a long time with frivolous rebukes.
Only a few hours before the last chapter of her life she had omitted to pray
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