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Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science History Solutions Chapter 9 Freedom Struggle in Tamil Nadu

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Freedom Struggle in Tamil Nadu Textual Exercise

I. Choose the correct answer.

Freedom Struggle In Tamil Nadu Class 10 Question 1.
Who was the first President of the Madras Mahajana Sabha?
(a) T.M. Nair
(b) P. Rangaiah Naidu
(c) G. Subramaniam
(d) G.A. Natesan
Answer:
(b) P. Rangaiah Naidu

Freedom Struggle In Tamil Nadu Question 2.
Where was the third session of the Indian National Congress held?
(a) Marina
(b) Mylapore
(c) Fort St. George
(d) Thousand Lights
Answer:
(d) Thousand Lights

Question 3.
Who said “Better bullock carts and freedom than a train de luxe with subjection”?
(a) Annie Besant
(b) M. Veeraraghavachari
(c) B.P. Wadia
(d) G.S. Arundale
Answer:
(a) Annie Besant

Question 4.
Which among the following was SILF’s official organ in English?
(a) Dravidian
(b) Andhra Prakasika
(c) Justice
(d) New India
Answer:
(c) Justice

Question 5.
Who among the following were Swarajists?
(a) S. Satyamurti
(b) Kasturirangar
(c) P. Subbarayan
(d) Periyar EVR
Answer:
(a) S. Satyamurti

Question 6.
Who set up the satyagraha camp in Udyavanam near Madras?
(a) Kamaraj
(b) Rajaji
(c) K. Santhanam
(d) T. Prakasam
Answer:
(d) T. Prakasam

Question 7.
Where was the anti-Hindi Conference held?
(a) Erode
(b) Madras
(c) Salem
(d) Madurai
Answer:
(c) Salem

Question 8.
Where did the congress volunteers clash with the military during Quit India Movement?
(a) Erode
(b) Madras
(c) Salem
(d) Madurai
Answer:
(d) Madurai

II. Fill in the blanks.

1. …………… was appointed the first Indian Judge of the Madras High Court.
2. The economic exploitation of India was exposed by …………….., through his writings.
3. Nilakanta Brahmachari started the secret society name …………….
4. The starting of trade unions in Madras was pioneered by ……………..
5. The Dravidian Association Hostel for non-Brahmin students was established by ………………
6. ……………… formed the first Congress Ministry in Madras.
7. …………….. was the founder of the Madras branch of the Muslim League.
8. ……………. hoisted the national flag atop Fort St. George on 26 January 1932.
Answers:
1. T. Muthuswami
2. G. Subramaniam
3. Bharata Matha Society
4. B.P. Wadia
5. C. Natesanar
6. Rajaji
7. Yakub Hasan
8. Bhashyam

III. Choose the correct statement.

Question 1.
(i) Madras Native Association was founded in 1852.
(ii) Tamil nationalist periodical Swadesamitran was started in 1891.
(iii) The Madras Mahajana Sabha demanded conduct of civil services examinations only in India.
(iv) V.S. Srinivasanar was an extremist.
(a) (i) and (ii) are correct
(b) (iii) is correct
(c) (iv) is correct
(d) All are correct
Answer:
(a) (i) and (ii) are correct

Question 2.
(i) EVR did not participate in the Non – Cooperation Movement.
(ii) Rajaji worked closely with Yakub Hasan of the Muslim League.
(iii) Workers did not participate in the Non- Cooperation Movement.
(iv) Toddy shops were not picketed in Tamil Nadu.
(a) (i) and (ii) are correct
(b) (i) and (iii) are correct
(c) (ii) is correct
(d) (i) (iii) and (iv) are correct.
Answer:
(c) (ii) is correct

Question 3.
Assertion (A): The Justice Party opposed the Home Rule Movement.
Reason (R): The Justice Party feared that Home Rule would give the Brahmins more power.
(a) Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation
(b) A is correct but R is wrong
(c) Both A and R are wrong
(d) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation
Answer:
(d) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation

Question 4.
Assertion (A): EVR raised the issue of representation for non-Brahmins in legislature.
Reason (R): During the first Congress Ministry, Rajaji abolished sales tax.
(a) Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation
(b) A is correct but R is wrong
(c) Both A and R are wrong
(d) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation
Answer:
(b) A is correct but R is wrong

IV. Match the following.
Freedom Struggle In Tamil Nadu Class 10 Samacheer Kalvi Social Science History Solutions Chapter 9
Answer:
1. (d)
2. (e)
3. (b)
4. (c)
5. (a)

V. Answer the questions briefly.

Question 1.
List out the contribution of the moderates.
Answer:
Contributions of the Moderates:

  1. They exposed the liberal claims of the British and how the British exploited India.
  2. They exposed British’s hypocrisy in following democratic principles in England and imposing an unrepresentative Government in the colonies.

Question 2.
Write a note on the Tirunelveli Uprising.
Answer:
The Tirunelveli uprising took place after the arrests of V.O. Chidambaram Pillai and Subramania Siva in 1908. They were charged with sedition. During the protests, a police station, a court building and municipal office were burnt down and four people died in police firing.

Question 3.
What is the contribution of Annie Besant to India’s freedom struggle?
Answer:

  1. Annie Besant, an Irish lady and the leader of the Theosophical society started the Home Rule League on the modelof Irish Home Rule League in 1916.
  2. She carried forward the demand for Home Rule all over India: She started the newspapers “New India, Commonweal” to carry forward her agenda.
  3. Large number of students who joined the movement were trained in Home Rule classes.
  4. They were formed into boy scouts and volunteer troops.
  5. By forming trade unions with her member B.P Wadia improved the working conditions of’the workers and they made them part of the struggle for freedom.

Question 4.
Mention the various measures introduced by the Justice Ministry.
Answer:
Measures introduced by Justice Ministry:

  • reservation for non-Brahmins in local bodies and education
  • establishment of Staff Selection Board
  • enactment of Hindu Religious, Endowment Act,
  • abolition of devadasi system
  • allotment of waste government land to the poor, and extension of primary education to depressed classes.

Question 5.
Write briefly on EVR’s contribution to the constructive programme.
Answer:

  1. E.V.R played an important role in Tamil Nadu during the period of Non – Cooperation movement.
  2. He campaigned vigorously for the promotion and sale of Khadi.
  3. In his opposition to consumption of liquor he cut down on entire coconut grove owned by him.
  4. He played a key role in Satyagraha for temple entry in vaikom, then under Travancore.
  5. E.V.R went to Vaikom and galvanised the movement.
  6. He was imprisoned and released after one-month.
  7. He refused to leave vaikom and sentenced to six month rigorous imprisonment for making inspiring speeches.
  8. Due to his undeterred effort, in 1925, the ban on the roads around the temple where the permission was not given to the depressed classes to enter was lifted.
  9. He was hailed as “Vaikom Hero” for his contribution against caste discrimination and temple entry agitation.

Question 6.
What is Cheranmadevei Gurukuiam controversy?
Answer:
V.V.S. Iyer established a Gurukuiam in Cheranmadevi. It got funds from Congress, but students were discriminated on the basis of caste. E.V. Ramaswamy got to know about the practices in 1925 and he severely criticised it.

Question 7.
Why was anti-Hindi agitation popular?
Answer:

  1. Congress Ministry under Rajaji introduced Hindi as a compulsory subject in schools.
  2. This was considered as a form of Aryan and North. Indian imposition detrimental to Tamil language and culture, and therefore caused much public resentment.
  3. E.V.R led a massive campaign against it.
  4. He organised an anti-Hindi conference at Salem and formulated a definite programme of action.
  5. A rally was organised from Trichirapalli to Madras.
  6. More than 1200 protesters including E.V.R were arrested.
  7. As a result after the resignation of Congress Ministry the then Governor of Madras removed Hindi as a compulsory subject in schools. Thus the anti-Hindi agitation became popular as it succeeds in its objective.

Question 8.
Outline the key incidents during the Quit India Movement in Tamil Nadu.
Answer:
All sections of the society in Tamil Nadu participated in the Quit India Movement. There were workers’ strikes and students also protested. There were many incidents of violence and disruption of rail traffic. Congress volunteers clashed with the military in Madurai. There were police firings at some places.

VI. Answer the questions given under each caption.

Question 1.
Early Nationalist Movement In Tamil Nadu

(a) What were the objectives of Madras Native Association?
Answer:

  1. To promote the interests of its members.
  2. Focused on reduction of taxation.

(b) What led to the emergence of nationalist press in Tamil Nadu?
Answer:
The entire press was owned by the Europeans. When the appointment of Indian T. Muthuswami as Judge was criticised they felt the need of nationalist press to express the Indian perspective.

(c) What were the demands of Madras Mahajana Sabha?
Answer:

  1. Conduct of simultaneous civil services examinations in England and India.
  2. Reduction of taxes and reduction of civil and military expenditure.

(d) Who were the early nationalist leaders in Tamil Nadu?
Answer:
The early nationalists leaders in Tamil Nadu were V.S. Srinivasa Sastri. RS.Sivasamy and G.A.Natesan, T.R.Venkatramanar, S.Subramaniar, V.krishnasamy.

Question 2.
Revolutionary Movement in Tamil Nadu
(a) List a few revolutionaries in Tamil Nadu. ‘
Answer:
Some revolutionaries in Tamil Nadu were M.P.T. Acharya, V.V.S. Iyer and T.S.S. Rajan.

(b) Why did Subramania Bharati moved to Pondicherry?
Answer:
Subramania Bharati went to Pondicherry to escape imprisonment after the Tirunelveli uprising in 1908. Pondicherry was under French rule.

(c) Name a few of the revolutionary literature?
Answer:
Some revolutionary literature includes India, Vijaya, and Suryodayam, which came out of Pondicherry.

(d) What did Vanchinathan do?
Answer:
Vanchinathan shot dead by Robert W.D’E. Ashe, the collector of Tirunelveli, at Maniyachi junction on 17th June 1911. He shot himself after that.

Question 3.
Non-Brahmin Movement

(a) Why was the South Indian Liberal Federation formed?
Answer:
South Indian Liberal Federation was formed to promote the interests of the Non – Brahmins.

(b) What is the Non-Brahmin Manifesto?
Answer:
Reservation of jobs for Non – Brahmins in Government service and seats in representative bodies.

(c) Why did EVR join the Non-Brahmin Movement?
Answer:
When EVR raised the issue of representation for Non – Brahmins in the legislature his efforts to achieve this since 1920 had met with.

(d) What do you know about anti-Hindi agitation?
Answer:
It Caused much resentment as it was considered to be a form of Aryan and North India imposition detrimental to Tamil language and culture.

VII. Answer the following in detail.

Question 1.
Discuss the response to Swadeshi Movement in Tamil Nadu.
Answer:
During the Swadeshi movement, public meetings were organized in various parts of Tamil Nadu, and they were attended by thousands of people. Tamil was used for the first time to mobilize people. Many journals came into existence to spread Swadeshi ideals. Students and youth participated widely in the movement. Some lectures were delivered by Bipin Chandra Pal, while Subramania Bharati’s patriotic songs stirred patriotic emotions in people.

Question 2.
Examine the origin and growth of Non- Brahmin Movement in Tamil Nadu.
Answer:
Origin of Non – Brahmin Movemet.

Cause: In the Madras presidency due to the rapid growth of education, there was an increase in the number of educated Non – Brahmins.

Reason: Intense political and social activities politicised the educated Non-Brahmins to raise the issue of caste discrimination and unequal opportunities in Government employment and representation in the elected bodies which were dominated by Brahmins.

Formation: The Non – Brahmins organised themselves into political organisations to protect their interests.

  1. In 1912 the Madras Dravidian Association was founded with C.Natesanar as its secretary. Active role if C.Natesanar. for the.growth of Non – Brahmin movement.
  2. In June 1916 he established the Dravidian Association Hostel for Non¬Brahmin students.
  3. He bridged the gap between the two leading Non-Brahmin leaders of the time Dr. T.M.Nair and P.Thiyagarayar.
  4. On 20th November 1916 a meeting was held for about thirty Non-Brahmins under the leadership of P.Thiyagarayar Dr. T.M.Nair and C.Natesanar at Victoria public hall (Chennai).

South Indian Liberal Federation (SILF):

South Indian Liberal Federation was founded to promote the interests of the Non-Brahmins.

News papers launching: They launched three newspapers Justice – in English, Dravidian – in Tamil and Andhra prakasika in Telugu.

  1. SILF popularly known as ‘Justice party’ after its English Newspaper.
  2. They held several meetings throughout the presidency to set up branches.

Objectives of Non- Brahmin Manifesto:

  1. Reservation of jobs in Government services.
  2. Seats in local bodies

Achievement: The act of 1919 provided reservation of seats to Non-Brahmins.

In the elections held in 1920 the Justice Party won the majority seats in the Legislative Council. A. Subburayalu of the Justice Party became the first Chief Minister.

Question 3.
Describe the role of Tamil Nadu in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Answer:
Tamil Nadu was at the forefront of the Civil Disobedience Movement. Shops were picketed and foreign goods were boycotted in Madurai. C. Rajagopalachari led the Salt Satyagraha march to Vedaranyam and was arrested. The march took place in April 1930. Twelve volunteers broke the salt law by picking up the salt.

VIII. Activity

Question 1.
Students can be asked to write a sentence or two about the important places of freedom struggle in Tamil Nadu.
Answer:
Panchalankuruchi is a place 17 km from Tuticorin. This small village holds a lot of historic value in terms of India’s freedom struggle against English dominance. It is home to an 18th century chieftain Veerapandya Kattabomman who fought valiantly against the English, but was defeated and hanged.

Velunachiyar employed agents for gathering intelligence to find where the British had stored their ammunition. With military assistance from Gopala Nayakar and Hyder Ali she recaptured Sivagangai. She was the first female ruler or queen to resist the British colonial power in India.

A procession carrying national flags and singing patriotic songs was brutally beaten by the police in Tirupur. O.K.S.R. Kumaraswamy, popularly Tirupur Kumaran, fell dead holding the national flag aloft.

The Salt satyagraha under the leadership of T. Prakasam and K. Nageswara Rao set up a camp at Udayavanam near Madras. However, the police arrested them. In Madras, the Simon Boycott Propaganda Committee was set up with S. Satyamurti as the president. There was widespread campaign among the students, shopkeepers, lawyers and commuters in train to boycott.

Rowlatt Satyagraha: On 6 April 1919 hartal was organised to protest against the “Black Act”. Protest demonstrations were held at several parts of Tamil Nadu. Processions from many areas of the city converged in the Marina beach where there was a large gathering.

Annie Besant started the Home Rule League in 1916 and carried forward the demand for home rule all over India. G.S. Arundale, B.P. Wadia and C.P. Ramaswamy assisted her in this campaign.

Radical papers such as India, Vijaya and Suryodayam came out of Pondicherry. Such revolutionary papers and Bharati’s poems were banned as seditious literature. These activities in Pondicherry intensified with the arrival of Aurobindo Ghosh and V.V. Subramanianar in 1910.

Question 2.
Role Play: Students can be divided into groups and asked to debate the views of the Moderates, Extremists, Revolutionaries, Annie Besant’s supporters, Justice Party, and British Government.
Answer:
Do it yourself.

Freedom Struggle in Tamil Nadu Additional Questions

I. Choose the correct answer.

Question 1.
The first organization in the Madras presidency to agitate for the rights of people was the …………..
(a) Indian National Congress
(b) Madras Native Association
(c) Muslim league
Answer:
(b) Madras Native Association

Question 2.
…………………. played an active role as the secretary of Madras Mahajana Sabha.
(a) P.Anandacharlu
(b) Gazalu
(c) T.Muthuswami
(d) G.Subramaniam
Answer:
(a) P.Anandacharlu

Question 3.
The Headquarters of the Tamil Nadu Congress Committee is named as ……………
(a) Raj Bhavan
(b) Sathyamurthi Bhavan
(c) Rajaji Bhavan
Answer:
(b) Sathyamurthi Bhavan

Question 4.
…………………. purchased two ships for Swadeshi Indian Trade.
(a) Bipin Chandra Pal
(b) V.O.Chidambaranar
(c) T.S.S.Rajan
(d) V.V.Subramaninar
Answer:
(b) V.O.Chidambaranar

Question 5.
Who made Hindi a compulsory subject …………..
(a) Rajaji
(b) V.O.C
(c) Nehru
Answer:
(a) Rajaji

Question 6.
Annie Besant was the leader of …………………. society who propagated Home Rule Movement in Madras.
(a) Theosophical
(b) Madras Dravidian Association
(c) Madras Mahajana Sabha
(d) Madurai Labour Union
Answer:
(a) Theosophical

Question 7.
Who started the Tamil nationalist periodical Swadesamitram?
(a) T. Muthuswami
(b) G. Subramaniam
(c) M. Veeraraghavachari
(d) P. Anandacharlu
Answer:
(b) G. Subramaniam

Question 8.
In Tamil Nadu Khilafat day was observed on:
(a) 19th April 1920
(b) 15 th April 1920
(c) 21st April 1920
(d) 17th April 1920
Answer:
(d) 17th April 1920

Question 9.
What was Bharata Matha Society?
(a) A newspaper
(b) A periodical
(c) A secret society
(d) A political party
Answer:
(c) A secret society

Question 10.
…………………. was hailed as Vaikom Hero.
(a) Periyar
(b) P.Subbarayan
(c) Rajaji
(d) M.A.Ansari
Answer:
(a) Periyar

II. Fill in the blanks :

1. The third session of the Indian National Congress was held at …………., now known as the thousand lights.
2. ………….. provided a safe haven for the revolutionaries.
3. On 18th march 1919 Gandhi addressed a meeting on …………..
4. …………….. was the epicenter of Khilafat Agitaion.
5. A no-tax campaign took place in ……………
6. ………….. and ……………. was the first woman to pay penalty for violation of salt laws.
7. E.V.R organized an Anti-Hindi conference at …………..
8. In Madras, the Simon Boycott Propaganda Committee was set up with ……………… as the President.
9. The Government of India Act of 1935 introduced ……………….
10. ……………One of the controversial measures of Rajaji was the introduction of ………………. as a compulsory subject in school.
11. The Swarajists did not contest the 1930 elections leading to an easy victory for the ……………. party.
12. The Madras Native Association or MNA was the earliest organization to be founded in ……………. to articulate larger public rather than sectarian interests.
Answers:
1. Makkis Garden
2. Pondicherry
3. Marina beach
4. Vaniyambadi
5. Thanjavur
6. Rukmani Lakshmipathi
7. Salem
8. S. Satyamurthi
9. Provincial Autonomy
10. Hindi
11. Justice
12. South India

III. Choose the correct statement.

Question 1.
(i) The Non-Brahmin Manifesto opposed the Home Rule Movement as a movement of Brahmins and feared that Home Rule might give them more power.
(ii) However, it never criticized the Congress as the party of the Brahmins.
(iii) The Justice Party demanded communal representation in society.
(iv) The Madras government was supportive of the Justice Party. .
(a) (i) and (ii) are correct
(b) (ii) and (iii) are correct
(c) (i) (iii) and (iv) are correct
(d) (ii) and (iv) are correct
Answer:
(c) (i) (iii) and (iv) are correct

Question 2.
Assertion: E. V. R. was becoming increasingly dissatisfied with the Congress.
Reason: He felt it was promoting the interests of the Brahmins alone.
(a) Both A and R are correct but R is not the right explanation
(b) A is right but R is wrong
(c) Both A and R are wrong
(d) Both A and R are correct and R is the right explanation
Answer:
(d) Both A and R are correct and R is the right explanation

IV. Match the following.

1. The Madras Native Association (a) 1878
2. The Hindu newspaper (b) 1884
3. The Madras Dravidian Association (c) 1852
4. The Temple Entry Authorisation and Indemnity Act (d) 1912
5. The Madras Mahajana Sabha (e) 1939

Answer:
1. (c)
2. (a)
3. (d)
4. (e)
5. (b)

V. Answer briefly:

Question 1.
Who was appointed as High court Judge of Madras in 1877? How it was criticized?
Answer:
The appointment of T. Muthuswami as the First Indian Judge of Madras High court in 1877. The press entirely owned by Europeans criticized the appointment of an Indian as Judge.

Question 2.
Write a note on Subramaniya Siva.
Answer:

  • Subramaniya Siva was bom in Vathalagundu in Dindigal district.
  • He was a freedom fighter and a creative writer.
  • He was arrested many times for his anti-imperialist activities.
  • While in jail he was affected by leprosy and he was ordered to be shifted to Salem jail.
  • But the British Government enacted a law for Siva stating that leprosy patient should not travel by rail. So he had to walk a long distance with sores on his body.
  • He died of the disease on 23rd July 1925.

Question 3.
Name the states that was then a part of the Madras Presidency.
Answer:
Tamil Nadu was then a part of Madras Presidency which included larger parts of the present day states of Andhra Pradesh (Coastal districts and Royalaseema) Karnataka (Bengaluru, Bellary, South Canara) Kerala (Malabar) and even Odhisha (Ganjam).

Question 4.
Name the paper edited by Subramania Bharathiyar in 1907.
Answer:
Tamil weekly India and the English Newspaper ‘Bala Bharatham’ were edited by Subramania Bharathiyar in 1907.

Question 5.
Name the persons who assisted Annie Besant to carry the Home Rule Movement campaign.
Answer:
G.S.Arundale, B.P. Wadia and C.P.Ramaswamy were some of the personalities who assisted Annie Besant to carry the Home Rule movement campaign.

Question 6.
Who established the Madras Native Association? Why?
Answer:
It was established by Harley Lakshmi Narasu Chetty and Srinivasa Pillai in 1852.

Question 7.
Name the Newspapers launched by SILF.
Answer:
The Newspapers launched by SILF (South Indian Liberal Federation) were
Justice – in English
Dravidian – In Tamil – and
Andhra prakasika – in Telugu

Question 8.
When was the need for a newspaper keenly felt?
Answer:
The appointment of T. Muthuswami Iyer as the first South Indian Judge of the Madras High Court in 1878 created resentment in Madras Presidency. The entire press in Madras criticised the appointment of an Indian as a judge. This left a deep impact on the educated youth of India. For the first time they realized that the entire press was owned by Europeans. At this very moment the need for a newspaper to express the Indian perspective was keenly felt,

Question 9.
Name the persons who organised the “Black Act” protest, How?
Answer:
On 6th April 1919 hartal was organised to protest against the ‘Black Act’ (Rowlatt Act).

  1. Processions from many areas of the city converged at Marina Beach.
  2. Rajaji, Kasturirangari S.Sathyamurthy, and George Joseph addressed the meeting.
  3. Workers meeting was addressed by Thiru.V. Kalyanasundaranar, B.P. Wadia and V.O.C.. They devoted the whole day to fasting and prayers along with large number of people in the Marina Beach.

Question 10.
Why were the moderates disappointed with the Minto-Morley reforms?
Answer:
They were disappointed with the Minto-Morley reforms as it did not provide for responsible government. Despite this the Congress extended support to the British war effort in the hope of getting more reforms.

Question 11.
What resulted in India’s Independence?
Answer:
The Royal Navy Mutiny, the negotiations initiated by the newly formed • labour party Government in England resulting in India’s independence.

VI. Answer all the questions given under each caption:

Question 1.
Vanchinathan
(a) Whom did Vanchinathan kill?
Answer:
Collector Ashe.

(b) Where did he kill him?
Answer:
At Maniyachi Railway Station.

(c) Why did he kill him?
Answer:
To take revenge against the death of four extremists.

(d) What was the end of Vanchinathan?
Answer:
He committed suicide.

Question 2.
Salt March to Vedaranyam (second part)

(a) Who composed the marching song?
Answer:
A special song was composed for the salt march by Nammakkal Ramalinganar.

(b) How was the response from the people along their route?
Answer:
The marching Satyagraha’s were provided warm reception along the route.

(c) How many volunteers along with Rajaji picked up the salt ?
Answer:
Twelve volunteers under the leadership of Rajaji picked up the salt.

(d) Who were the other prominent leaders from Tamil Nadu participated?
Answer:
T.S.S.Rajan, Rukmani Lakshmipathi, Sardar Vedarathnam, C.Swaminathar and K.Santhanam were the prominent leaders who participated in Vedaranyam Salt march.

Question 3.
No Tax Campaign and Movement against Liquor
(a) Name the city where no-tax campaign took place. How did people respond to this campaign?
Answer:
Thanjavur. People boycotted councils, schools and courts. They also boycotted foreign goods.

(b) What was temperance movement? How was this movement made successful?
Answer:
Temperance Movement was a movement against liquor. This movement was made successful by picketing toddy shops.

(c) Why were Rajaji, Subramania Sastri and E. V. R. arrested?
Answer:
They were arrested because they were going to organise civil disobedience movement in Tamil Nadu.

(d) Why was the Non Co-operation Movement withdrawn?
Answer:
It was withdrawn after the Chauri Chaura incident in which 22 policemen were killed.

VII. Answer the following in detail.

Question 1.
What were the reforms brought forth by the first Congress Ministry led by C. Rajaji?
Answer:

  1. C. Rajaji formed the first Congress Ministry in 1937.
  2. He introduced prohibition on an experimental basis in salem.
  3. To compensate the loss of revenue he introduced a sales tax.
  4. He opened temples to the ‘untouchables’ (Harijans).
  5. He appointed a committee to enquire into the condition of the tenants in the zamindari areas.
  6. One of the controversial measures of Rajaji was the introduction of Hindi as a compulsory subject in schools [and Kula Kalvi Thittam in 1953].
  7. After the resignation of Congress Ministry in 1939 the then, Governor of Madras Lord Erskine in Feb 1940 who took over the reigns of administration removed Hindi as compulsory subject.

Question 2.
Throw light on the Madras Native Association or MNA. When did it cease to exist?
Answer:
(i) The Madras Native Association was the earliest organization to be founded in South India.
It was started by Gazulu Lakshminarasu, Srinivasanar and their associates in 1852. It con¬sisted primarily of merchants.

(ii) The objective of MNA was to promote the interests of its members and their focus was on reduction in taxation. It also protested against the support of the government to Christian missionary activities.

(iii) It drew attention of the government to the condition and needs of the people. Its main contribution was its agitation against torture of the peasants by revenue officials.

(iv) The efforts of MNA led to the establishment of the Torture Commission and the eventual abolition of the Torture Act, which justified the forcible collection of land revenue through tortuous methods.

(v) The Madras Native Association ceased to exist by 1862.

Question 3.
Reason out why James Neill statue was moved to Madras Museum.
Answer:

  1. James Neill of the Madras Fusilers (Infantry men with fire arms) was brutal in wrecking vengence at Kanpur. Women and children were massacred in 1857 Revolt.
  2. A statue was erected for him at mount road, Madras.
  3. Nationalist felt this as an insult to Indian sentiments.
  4. They organised a series of demonstrations in Madras.
  5. Protesters came from all over the Madras Presidency and were led by S.N.Somayajulu of Tirunelveli.
  6. Many were arrested and sentenced to prison.
  7. Gandhi who visited Madras during the same time gave his support to the agitation.
  8. The statue was finally moved to Madras Museum when Congress Ministry, led by C.Rajaji formed the Government in 1917.

IMPORTANT EVENTS AND YEAR

Years Events
1806 Vellore Mutiny
1852 Madras Native Association
1884 Madras Mahajana Sabha
1905 Partition of Bengal
1907 The congress session held at Surat
1908 Swaraj Day
1910 Abhinava Bharats Sangham
1911 Vanchinathan shot Ashe
1916 Home Rule League
1912 Madras Dravidian Association
1919 Gandhi addressed on Marina beach
1930 Vedaranyam march

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