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Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science History Solutions Chapter 10 Social Transformation in Tamil Nadu

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Social Transformation in Tamil Nadu Textual Exercise

I. Choose the correct answer.

Social Transformation In Tamil Nadu Question 1.
……………. was the pioneer of social Reformers in India.
(a) C.W. Damotharanar
(b) Periyar
(c) Raja Rammohan Roy
(d) Maraimalai Adigal
Answer:
(c) Raja Rammohan Roy

Social Transformation Meaning In Tamil Question 2.
…………….. established a full-fledged printing press in 1709, atTranquebar.
(a) Caldwell
(b) F.W. Ellis
(c) Ziegenbalg
(d) Meenakshisundaram
Answer:
(c) Ziegenbalg

Samacheer Kalvi Guru 10th Social Question 3.
……………. was the official newspaper of the Self Respect Movement.
(a) Kudi Arasu
(b) Puratchi
(c) Viduthalai
(d) Paguththarivu
Answer:
(a) Kudi Arasu

Question 4.
Periyar wanted religion to be replaced by :
(a) Nationalism
(b) Iconoclasm
(c) Rationalism
(d) Spiritualism
Answer:
(c) Rationalism

Question 5.
…………… founded Adi Dravida Mahajana Sabha in 1893.
(a) Rettaimalai Srinivasan
(b) B. R. Ambedkar
(c) Rajaji
(d) M. C. Rajah
Answer:
(a) Rettaimalai Srinivasan

Question 6.
India’s first organised trade union, the Madras Labour Union was formed in ……………..
(a) 1918
(b) 1917
(c) 1916
(d) 1914
Answer:
(a) 1918

Question 7.
……………. was established by the Justice Party Government for the selection of Government officials.
(a) Staff Selection Board
(b) Public Service Commission
(c) Provincial Staff Recruitment Board
(d) Staff Selection Commission
Answer:
(a) Staff Selection Board

Question 8.
…………….. was the first elected Legislative Council Member from the depressed class in Madras Province.
(a) M.C. Rajah
(b) Rettaimalai Srinivasan
(c) T.M. Nair
(d) P. Varadarajulu
Answer:
(a) M.C. Rajah

II. Fill in the blanks.

1. …………… was the first non-European language that went into print.
2. The college of Fort St. George was founded by ……………….
3. …………….. is considered the father of Tamil linguistic purism.
4. ……………. was the first to approve participation of women in the electoral politics.
5. The name Suriyanarayana Sastri changed in Tamil as …………
6. ………….. gave prominence to Tamil music.
7. The first Woman Legislator in India was …………
Answers:
1. Tamil
2. F.W. Ellis
3. Maraimalai Adigal
4. Justice Party government
5. Parithimar Kalignar
6. Abraham Pandithar
7. Muthulakshmi Reddi

III. Choose the correct statement.

Question 1.
(i) Thirukkural was one of the earliest Tamil literary texts to be published in 1812.
(ii) Maraimalai Adigal collected and edited different palm leaf manuscripts of the Tamil grammar and literature.
(iii) Robert Caldwell established the close affinity between the Dravidian languages in contrast with Sanskrit and also established the antiquity of Tamil.
(iv) Thiru.Vi. Kalyanasundaram was an early pioneer in Trade union movement. .
(a) (i) and (ii) are correct
(b) (i) and (iii) are correct
(c) (iv) is correct
(d) (ii) and (iii) are correct
Answer:
(b) (i) and (iii) are correct

Question 2.
(i) Margret Cousin was one of the founders of Women’s India Association.
(ii) Periyar spent his entire life campaigning against superstitions through Thinkers or Rationalists Forums he had formed.
(iii) Singaravelar was a staunch supporter of the Flindu Mahasabha.
(iv) Periyar emphasised that the caste system in South India is linked with the arrival of Brahmins from the North.
(a) (iii) and (iv) are correct
(b) (ii), (iii) and (iv) are correct
(c) (i) (ii) and (iv) are correct
(d) (ii) and (iii) are correct
Answer:
(c) (i) (ii) and (iv) are correct

Question 3.
Assertion (A): The Justice Party continued to remain in government from 1920-1937 in Madras Presidency.
Reason (R): The Congress Party boycotted the Madras Legislature during this period of Dyarchy.
(a) Both A and R are correct
(b) A is correct, but R is not the correct explanation
(c) Both A and R are wrong
(d) R is correct, but it has no relevance to A
Answer:
(a) Both A and R are correct

Question 4.
Assertion (A): As World War I was in progress, the British Government was considering the introduction of representative institutions for Indians after the war.
Reason (R): In 1920, Dyarchy as a form of Government was introduced in the provinces.
(a) A is correct, but R is not the correct reason
(b) Both A and R are wrong
(c) Both A and R are right
(d) A is wrong and R has no relevance to A
Answer:
(b) Both A and R are wrong

IV. Match the following.
Social Transformation In Tamil Nadu Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science History Solutions Chapter 10
Answer:
1. (d)
2. (c)
3. (a)
4. (b)

V. Answer briefly.

Question 1.
Write a note on Tamil Renaissance.
Answer:

  1. The cultural hegemony of colonialism and the rise of humanism brought several changes in the socio – cultural life of the Indian subcontinent.
  2. Modem Tamil Nadu too experienced such a historical transition.
  3. Tamil language and cultural played a significant role in their identity construction.
  4. The introduction of printing press linguistic research on Dravidian languages etc under pinned the process of Tamil renaissance.
  5. Religious literature was taken up for publication after the advent of printing technology.

Question 2.
Highlight the contribution of Caldwell for the cause of South Indian languages.
Answer:
In 1816, F.W. Ellis formulated the theory that the South Indian languages belonged to a separate family which was unrelated to the Indo-Aryan family of languages. Robert Caldwell expanded this argument in a book titled, A comparative Grammar of the Dravidian or South Indian Family of languages, in 1856. He established a close affinity between the Dravidian languages in contrast with Sanskrit and also established the antiquity of Tamil.

Question 3.
List out the personalities who contributed to the revival of Tamil literature through their writings.
Answer:
C.W. Damotharanar (1832 – 1901) and U.V. Swaminathar (1855 – 1942) Parithimar Kalaignar (1870 – 1903), Thiru.Vi. Kalyanasundaram (1883 – 1953), Maraimalai Adigal (1876 – 1950), Subramania Bharathi (1882 – 1921), S. Vaiyapuri (1891 – 1956), and the poet Bharathidasan (1891 – 1964) in their ownways and through their writings, contributed to the revival of Tamil Literature.

Question 4.
Discuss the importance of Hindu Religious Endowment Act passed by the Justice ministry?
Answer:
Tamil Nadu has a large number of temples. These temples commanded huge resources which were monopolised and exploited by the dominant caste in the society and led to the mismanagement of public resources. The Justice Party introduced the Hindu Religious Endowment Act in 1926 and enabled any individual, irrespective of their caste affiliation, to become member of the temple committee and govern the resources of the religious institutions.

Question 5.
What do you know of the Cheranmadevi Gurukulam incident?
Answer:

  1. Caste based discrimination in the dinning hall at the Cheranmadevi Gurukulam (School), which was run by V.V. Subramaniam (a Congress leader) with the financial support of theTamil Nadu Congress Committee.
  2. Periyar was disappointed when, despite his objections and protests against this discrimination, the Congress continued to support the iniquitous practice in the Gurukulam.

Question 6.
Name the newspapers published by the South Indian Liberal Foundation.
Answer:
Name of the newspapers:

  1. Dravidian in Tamil
  2. Justice in English
  3. Andhra Prakasika in Telugu

Question 7.
Estimate Periyar as a Feminist.
Answer:

  1. Periyar was critical of patriarchy. He condemned child marriage and the devadasi system (institution of temple girls).
  2. Right from 1929, when the Self – Respect Conferences began to voice its concern over the plight of women, Periyar had been emphasising women’s right to divorce and property.
  3. Periyar objected to terms like “giving in marriage”. This, he said treats woman as a thing.
  4. He wants it substituted by “Valkaithunai” (companion) a word for marriage taken from the Thirukkural. Periyar’s most important work on this subject is why the woman is enslaved?
  5. Periyar believed that property rights for women would provide them a social status and protection. He welcomed equal rights for males and females in property, guardianship and adoption.
  6. He was a strong champion of birth control and contraception and said that motherhood was a burden to women.
  7. In 1989 Government of Tamil Nadu fulfilled the dream of radical reformers by the introduction of the Hindu Succession Tamil Nadu Amendment Act of 1989, which ensured the equal rights to ancestral . property for women in inheritance.

Question 8.
Explain the proceedings of All India Trade Union Congress Conference held in 1920?
Answer:
The first All India Trade Union Conference (AITUC) was held on 31st October 1920 in Bombay. The delegates discussed several resolutions. These included a demand for protection from police interference in labour disputes, the maintenance of an unemployment register, restrictions on exporting foodstuffs, compensation for injuries and health insurance. In addition, the delegates demanded that Indian workers be given some representation in the government, just as employers had representation on legislative councils.

VI. Answer all the questions given under each caption.

Question 1.
Periyar E.V.R
(a) When did Periyar found Dravidar Kazhagam?
Answer:
Periyar found Dravidar Kazhagam in 1944.

(b) What were the Newspapers and Journals run by Periyar?
Answer:
The newspapers and journals started by Periyar were – Kudi Arasu, Revolt, Puratchi, Paguththarivu and Viduthalai.

(c) Why was Periyar known as Vaikom hero?
Answer:
In Vaikom, people protested against the practice of no access to the temples by the lower caste people. After the local leaders were arrested Periyar led the Temple Entry Movement and was imprisoned. So, people hailed him as Vaikom Virar or hero of Vaikom.

(d) Which was the most important work of Periyar?
Answer:
Right from 1929, when the Self-respect Conferences began to voice its concern over the plight of women, Periyar had been emphasising women’s right to divorce and property. Periyar’s most important work on this subject is Why the Woman is Enslaved?

Question 2.
Labour movement in tamilnadu

(a) Highlight the factors that caused the birth of Trade Union Movement
Answer:
The First World War (1914 – 18) provides stimulus to industrial growth in India. At the end of the war there were retrenchments across the industries. Combined with high prices, this gave a momentum to the labour movement.

(b) dentify the three prominent persons associated with the Madras Labour Union.
Answer:
B.P. Wadia, Singaravelar, Thiru.Vi. Kalyanasundaram

(c) Where was the first conference of All India Trade Union Congress held?
Answer:
Bombay

(d) Who organised the first ever celebration of May Day in Madras and which year?
Answer:
Singaravelar organised the first ever celebration of May Day in 1923.

Question 3.
Maraimalai Adigal
(a) Name the Sangam texts for which Maraimalai Adigal wrote commentaries.
Answer:
Pattinappalai and Mullaipattu.

(b) Name the Journal where he worked as a young man.
Answer:
Siddhanta Deepika

(c) Why did he oppose imposition of Hindi?
Answer:
Adigal promoted the use of pure Tamil words and removal of the Sanskrit influences from Tamil language. He painted out that Tamil language would suffer with the introduction of Hindi.

(d) Who were the key influences in Maraimalai Adigal’s life?
Answer:
His teachers P. Sundaram Pillai and Somasundara Nayagar were the key influences in Maraimali Adigal’s life.

VII. Answer in detail.

Question 1.
Attempt an essay on the foundation and development of Tamil Renaissance in the 19th Century.
Answer:

  1. In the nineteenth century, Tamil scholars like C.W. Damotharanar (1832 – 1901) and U.V. Swaminathar (1855 – 1942) spent their lifetime in the re-discovery of the Tamil classics.
  2. C.W. Damotharanar collected and edited different palm-leaf manuscripts of the Tamil grammar and literature.
  3. His editions included such texts as Tolkappiyam, Viracholiyam, Iraiyanar-Akapporul, Ilakkana Villakkam, Kaliththokai and Culamani.
  4. U.V. Swaminathar a student of Meenakshi Sundaranar took efforts to publish the classical texts such a Civakachinthamani (1887), Paththupattu (1889), Chilapathikaram (1892), Purananuru (1894), Purapporul – Venpa – Malai (1895), Manimekalai (1898), Ainkurunuru (1903) and Pathitrupathu (1904).
  5. The publication of these ancient literary texts created an awareness among the Tamil people about their historical tradition, language, literature and religion.
  6. In 1816 F.W. Ellis (1777 – 1819) who founded the College of Fort . St. George formulated the theory that the South Indian languages belonged to separate family which was unrelated to the Indo – Aryan family of languages.
  7. Robert Caldwell (1814 – 1891) expanded this argument in a book titled A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian (or) South Indian family of Languages in 1856.
  8. He established the close affinity between the Dravidian languages in contrast with Sanskrit and also established the antiquity of Tamil.
  9. Tamil intellectuals of this period identified the fundamental differences between Tamil / Dravidian / Egalitarian and Sanskrit / Aryan Brahmanism.
  10. They argued that Tamil was a language of Dravidian people who are Non – Brahmin and their social life was casteless, gender – sensitised and egalitarian.
  11. These ideas are exemplified in the Tamil invocation song in the play, Manonmaniam written by R Sundaranar (1855 – 1897).
  12. Abraham Pandithar (1859 – 1919) gave prominence to Tamil music and published books on the history of Tamil music.
  13. C.W. Damotharanar, U.V. Swaminathar Thiru.Vi. kalyanasundaram (1883 – 1953), Parithimar Kalaignar (1870 – 1903) Maraimalai Adigal (1876 – 1950), Subramania Bharathi (1882 – 1921), S. Vaiyapuri (1891 – 1956), and the poet Bharathidasan (1891 – 1964) in their own ways and through their writings, contributed to the revival of Tamil literature.
  14. V.G. Suryanarayana Sastri one of the earliest scholars to identify the influence of Sanskrit on Tamil and adopted a pure Tamil name for himself: Parithimar Kalaignar.
  15. He was the first to argue that Tamil is a classical language and demanded that the University of Madras should not call Tamil a vernacular language.
  16. Maraimalai Adigal (1876 – 1950) is considered the father of Tamil linguistic purism and the founder of Tani Tamil Iyakkam.
  17. His daughter Neelambikai complied a dictionary that provided pure Tamil equivalents to Sanskrit words that had crept into Tamil vocabulary.

Question 2.
Describe the background for the formation of the Justice party and point out its contribution to the cause of social justice.
Answer:
It was the period of World War I. The British government thought to introduce representative institutions for Indians after the war. Fearing that such political reforms would further strengthen the political power of Brahmins, educated non-Brahmins decided to organize themselves politically. So, in 1916, some prominent non-Brahmin leaders came together from South Indian Liberation Federation (SILF). It later came to be known as the Justice Party. It was a political party in the Madras Presidency of British India.

Contribution of the Justice Party to the cause-social justice:
The Justice Party government widened education and employment opportunities for the majority of the population and created space for them in the political sphere. The Justices removed the legal hindrances restricting inter-caste marriages and broke the barriers that prevented Adi Dravidars from the use of public wells and tanks. In 1921, the Madras legislature under the Justice Party government was the first to approve participators of women in the electoral politics.

Question 3.
Estimate Periyar E.V.R’s decisive contribution to the social transformation of Tamil Nadu.
Answer:

  1. Periyar was keen on the introduction of reservations in representative bodies such as the legislative council for Non – Brahmins.
  2. Periyar understood the relevance of mass communication in spreading rationalist thought. He started a number of newspapers and journals.
  3. He also supported Ambedkar’s demand for separate electorates for scheduled castes.
  4. Periyar had a close relationship with Singaravelar who is considered the first communist of South India and a pioneer of Buddhism.
  5. In 1937, in opposition to the Rajaji’s Government move to introduce compulsory Hindi in schools, he launched a popular movement to oppose it.
  6. The anti – Hindi agitation (1937 – 39) had a big impact of Tamil Nadu’s politics. Periyar was imprisoned for his role in the movement.
  7. Rajaji, the Chief Minister of Madras State (1952 – 54), introduced a vocational education programme with training in tune with their father’s occupation.
  8. Periyar criticised it as Kula Kalvi Thittam (caste – based education scheme) and opposed it tooth and nail.
  9. Anti-north Indian campaigns had made Periyar to take an anti – Hindi stand.
  10. Periyar’s experiences taught him that it was necessary to eradicate religion in order to impart progress and Justice.
  11. Periyar wanted religion to be replaced by rationalism.
  12. Periyar objected to the hereditary priesthood in temples.
  13. He advocated inter – caste and Self Respect Marriages devoid of any such rituals.
  14. Periyar was critical of patriarchy. He condemned child – marriage and the devadasi system (institution of temple girls).
  15. Periyar objeeted to terms like “giving in marriage” This he said, treats women as a thing- He wants it substituted by Valkaithunai (companion).
  16. Periyar’s most important work on this subject is why women is enslaved? (xvz7) Periyar believe that property rights for women would provide them a social status and protection.
  17. Periyar had been emphasising women’s right to divorce and property.

VIII. Students Activity

Question 1.
Students can be taught to distinguish between Labour Movement and Trade Union Movement. Project work on the activities of local trade union organizations be done by students.
Answer:
Do it yourself.

Question 2.
Students can compile the activities of the local writers’ associations or women’s collectives.
Answer:
Do it yourself.

Social Transformation in Tamil Nadu Additional Questions

I. Choose the correct answer.

Question 1.
South Indian Liberal Federation is otherwise known as the ……………….
(a) Dravidian Party
(b) Janatha Party
(c) Justice Party
Answer:
(c) Justice Party

Question 2.
………………. is an ideological and cultural phenomenon.
(a) Culture
(b) Heritage
(c) Renaissance
(d) Architecture
Answer:
(c) Renaissance

Question 3.
The greatest social reformer of Tamil Nadu ……………
(a) E.V. Ramasamy
(b) Nehru
(c) Gandhiji
Answer:
(a) E.V. Ramasamy

Question 4.
The fundamentalist religious practices that denied humans their:
(a) religious
(b) social
(c) culture
(d) dignity
Answer:
(d) dignity

Question 5.
All India Women conference was organized at
(a) Pune
(b) Bombay
(c) Thame
Answer:
(a) Pune

Question 6.
………………. is one of earliest Tamil literary text.
(a) Thirukkural
(b) Chilapathikaram
(c) Purananuru
(d) Manimekalai
Answer:
(a) Thirukkural

Question 7.
Justice Party failed in the year ……………
(a) 1937
(b) 1934
(c) 1930
Answer:
(a) 1937

Question 8.
………………. and ………………. spent their life time in the discovery of the Tamil classics.
(a) C.W. Damotharanar
(b) U.V. Swaminathar
(c) both (a) and (b)
(d) none
Answer:
(c) both (a) and (b)

Question 9.
In 1921, the Justice Party granted women the right to ……………
(a) Education
(b) Vote
(c) Property
Answer:
(b) Vote

Question 10.
Who was a student of Meenakshi Sundaranar?
(a) P. Sundaranar
(b) Thiru.Vi. Ka
(c) U.V. Swaminathar
(d) Parithimar Kalaignar
Answer:
(c) U.V. Swaminathar

Question 11.
Who collected and edited different palm-leaf manuscripts of the Tamil grammar and literature?
(a) Ziegenbalg
(b) C. W. Damotharanar
(c) Singaravelar
(d) Subramaniya Bharati
Answer:
(b) C. W. Damotharanar

Question 12.
Whose writings contributed to the revival of Tamil literature?
(a) Subramania Bharathi
(b) Bharathidasan
(c) Thiru.Vi.Ka
(d) All the above
Answer:
(d) All the above

Question 13.
Women’s India Association was started in ……………….
(a) 1916
(b) 1917
(c) 1920
(d) 1921
Answer:
(b) 1917

Question 14.
Who wrote commentaries on the sangam texts?
(a) Parithimar Kalaignar
(b) Maraimalai Adigal
(c) U.V. Swaminathar
(d) Ramalinga Adigal
Answer:
(b) Maraimalai Adigal

II. Fill in the blanks :

1. The Justice Party was established in ……………
2. …………… was the first Non – European language that went for print.
3. In 1578 a Tamil book ThambiranVanakkam was published from …………….
4. In 1816 ……………. founded the college of Fort St. George.
5. Ramalinga Adigal is popularly known as ………….
6. ……………. was founded by Pandithar Iyotheethassar.
7. …………. popularly known as M. C. Rajah.
8. M. Singaravelar organized the first celebration of ……………. in 1923.
9. WIA was started in 1917 by ………………
10. The Self-Respect Movement championed not only the causes of the non-Brahmin Hindus, but also that of the ………………
11. ……………. is known for the crucial role he played in the abolition of Sati.
12. Tamil Renaissance questioned the cultural ceremony of ………………
13. ……………… was an early pioneer in Buddhist revival.
14. The Madras Non-Brahmin Association was founded in 1909 to help the …………. students.
Answers:
1. 1916
2. Tamil
3. Goa
4. F. W. Ellis
5. Vallalar
6. Advaidananda Sabha
7. Mylai Chinnathambi Raja
8. May Day
9. Annie Besant
10. Muslims
11. Raja Rammohan Roy
12. Brahminism
13. M. Singaravelu
14. Non-Brahmin

III. Choose the correct statement.

Question 1.
(i) Rettaimalai Srinivasan was a close associate of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.
(ii) He participated in the third Round Table Conference held in London.
(iii) He voiced the opinions of the marginalised sections of the society.
(iv) He was a signatory to the Poona Pact of 1932.
(a) (i) and (ii) are correct
(b) (i), (iii) and (iv) are correct
(c) (ii), (iii) and (iv) are correct
(d) (ii) and (iii) are correct
Answer:
(b) (i), (iii) and (iv) are correct

Question 2.
(i)Agamic temples permitted the performance of rituals in Tamil.
(ii) Tamil songs had a marginal place in musical concerts.
(iii) M.C. Rajah systematically studied the history of Tamil music.
(iv) Abraham Pandithar founded the Tanjore Sangitha Vidya Mahajana Sangam in 1912.
(a) (i) and (iii) are correct
(b) (ii) and (iii) are correct
(c) (ii) and (iv) are correct
(d) (i), (ii) and (iii) are correct
Answer:
(c) (ii) and (iv) are correct

IV. Match the following.

1. Justice (a) E. V. Ramasamy Periyar
2. Vaikom Hero (b) T. M. Nair
3. Devadasi System (c) Dr. Muthulakshmi Reddy
4. Justice Party (d) English News Paper

Answer:
1. (d)
2. (a)
3. (c)
4. (b)

1. Andhra University (a) Kerala
2. Vaikom Sathyagraha (b) 1924
3. Widow Remarriage Act (c) 1856
4. Public Service Commission (d) 1925
5. Vaikom (e) 1929

Answer:
1. (d)
2. (b)
3. (c)
4. (e)
5. (a)

1. Self Respect Movement (a) Anna Durai
2. Dravidan (b) Periyar
3. Dravida Munnetra kazhagam (c) Dr. Muthulakshmi Reddy
4. The First Woman Doctor (d) News paper

Answer:
1. (b)
2. (d)
3. (a)
4.(c)

1. Manonmaniam (a) Tamil language movement
2. Tamil Isai Iyakkam (b) Liberation
3. Valkaitunai (c) Regions
4. Viduthalai (d) P. Sundaram Pillai
5. Tinais (e) Companion

Answer:
1. (d)
2. (a)
3. (e)
4. (b)
5. (c)

V. Answer briefly:

Question 1.
What is Renaissance?
Answer:
Renaissance is an ideological and cultural phenomenon. It is closely tied to modernity, rationalism, and the progressive movement of the society.

Question 2.
Narrate Dr. Muthulakshmi rule in the agitation against Devadasi system.
Answer:
(i) Dr. Muthulakshmi dedicated herself to the cause of removing the cruel practice of devadasi system from Tamil Nadu. She fought against this system vigorously.

(ii) Appreciating her role in the agitation against Devadasi System she was nominated to the Tamil Nadu Legislative Council in 1929.

(iii) She was vehemently supported in her efforts by Thiru. Muvalur Ramamirtham and Periyar.

(iv) As a result the Justice Party Government enacted a law abolishing Devadasi System.

Question 3.
How for printing press played a significant role in Tamil literary works?
Answer:

  1. The introduction of printing press linguistic research on Dravidian languages underpinned the process of Tamil renaissance.
  2. Religious literature was taken up for publication in the early years after the advent of printing technology.
  3. This led the resurgence of interest among Tamil scholars in publishing the more ancient Tamil classics around that period.

Question 5.
Write about Dr. Muthulakshmi Reddy.
Answer:
Dr. Muthulakshmi Reddy was the first woman in India to get a degree in medicine. She started the cancer institute at Adyar. She dedicated herself to the cause of removing the cruel practice devadasi system from Tamil Nadu.

Question 6.
What kind of vocational education programme was introduced by C. Rajagopalachari in Madras State? How did Periyar react to this?
Answer:
C. Rajagopalachari introduced a vocational education programme that encouraged imparting school children with training in tune with their father’s occupation. Periyar criticised it as caste-based education scheme and opposed it severely.

Question 7.
Write a short note on Tani Tamil Iyakkam.
Answer:

  1. Maraimalai Adigal promoted the use of pure Tamil words and removal of the Sanskrit influence from the Tamil language.
  2. The movement made a great impact on Tamil culture especially in language and literature.
  3. His daughter Neelambikai played an important role in its foundation.
  4. The movement was critical of Hindi, Sanskrit and Brahminical hegemony in Tamil society.
  5. This movement paved the way for later social movements that countered Brahminical and the Sanskrit tradition in Tamil society.

Question 8.
Throw light on the context in which the Dravidian Movement emerged.
Answer:
In Madras Presidency, Brahmins dominated all the fields of society, especially politics, education and job opportunities in the government. The 1911 census showed that Brahmins were slightly over 3 percent of Madras Presidency’s population, and non-Brahmins 90 percent. Yet in the ten years from 1901 to 1911 Madras University turned out 4074 Brahmin graduates compared with only 1035 non-Brahmin graduates. It was in this context the Dravidian movement emerged as a defense of the non-Brahmin castes against the Brahmin dominance.

Question 9.
Mention the women activists in the Self – Respect Movement.
Answer:
There were several women activists in the Self Respect Movement. Muthulakshmi Ammaiyar, Nagammai Kannamma, Nilavathi, Muvalu Ramamirtham, Rukmani Ammal, Alarmelmangai Thayammal, Nilambikai and Sivakami Chidambaranar.

Question 10.
What are the countries Periyar visited over the years?
Answer:
Over the years Periyar visited many countries and interacted with intellectuals all over. He visited Singapore and Malaya, Egypt, U.S.S.R, Greece, Turkey, Germany, England, Spain, France and Portugal.

VI. Answer all the questions given under each caption:

Question 1.
The Justice Party.
(a) Who established the Justice Party?
Answer:
Dr. C. Natesanar, Sir Pitti Theyagarayar, T.M. Nair and Alamelu Mangai Thayarammal established the Justice Party.

(b) When did the Justice Party come to power?
Answer:
The Justice Party came to power in 1920.

(c) When was it defeated?
Answer:
The Justice Party was defeated in 1937.

(d) Write any two achievements of the Justice Party.
Answer:

  • It introduced the system of giving free pattas for housing sites to the poor.
  • In 1929 Annamalai university was opened.

Question 2.
The Justice Party

(a) Who established the Justice Party?
Answer:
T.M. Nair and Thiyagaraja Chetty.

(b) When did the Justice Party come to power?
Answer:
In 1920.

(c) When was it defeated?
Answer:
In 1937.

(d) Write the work of the Justice Party.
Answer:
The Justice Party worked towards legislating provisions for communal . representation-reservations for various communities. Two communal Government orders (1921 and 1922) were passed to ensure equitable distribution in appointments to achieving social Justice.

Question 3.
Language agitation before Indian Independence
(a) Name the movements that helped to galvanise the Tamil language.
Answer:
Maraimalai Adigal’s Pure Tamil Movement, the language reforms of Periyar and Tamil Isai Movement.

(b) Highlight the contribution of Abraham Pandithar for the cause of Tamil music.
Answer:
Abraham Pandithar systematically studied the history of Tamil music and attempted to reconstruct ancient Tamil musical system. He founded the Tanjore Sangitha Vidya Mahajana Sangam in 1912 which became the kernel of the Tamil Isai Movement or Tamil Music Movement.

(c) What was seen as a threat to Tamil language and music?
Answer:
The implementation of Hindi as a compulsory language in Tamil Nadu, at various points of time, was seen as a threat to Tamil language and culture.

(d) Who introduced Hindi as a compulsory subject in schools?
Answer:
C. Rajagopalachari introduced Hindi as a compulsory subject in schools.

Question 4.
Women’s movements
(a) Why were several streams of women’s movements and organisations established in the early twentieth century?
Answer:
They were established to address the question of women empowerment in Madras Presidency.

(b) Why did women’s India Association publish pamphlets and bulletins in different languages?
Answer:
It published pamphlets and bulletins in different languages to detail the problems of personal hygiene, marriage laws, voting rights, child care and women’s role in the public.

(c) Why was the All India Women’s Conference formed in 1927?
Answer:
It was formed to address the problem of women’s education and recommended that the government implement various policies for the uplift of women.

(d) What was one major objective of the Self-Respect movement?
Answer:
One major objective of the Self-Respect movement was women’s liberation.
IMPORTANT EVENTS AND YEARS:

Year Events
1905 Partition of Bengal / Swadeshi Movement
1906 Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company was started
1916 Home Rule League / Lucknow Pact
1917 Champaran Satyagraha
1918 Kheda Satyagraha
1919 Rowlatt Act, Jalianwala Bagh Massacre
1920 Khilafat Movement /Non-Co-operation Movement
1922 Chauri Chaura incident
1923 The formation of Swaraj Party
1927 The appointment of the Simon Commission
1928 Motilal Nehru Report
1929 The Lahore Congress Session
1930 Salt Satyagraha / First Round Table Conference
1931 Gandhi Irwin Pact / Second Round Table Conference
1932 Communal Award / Poona Pact / Third Round Table Conference
1935 The Government of India Act
1937 First Congress Ministry in Provinces
1940 August Offer / Individual Satyagraha
1942 Cripps Mission / Quit India Movement
1945 Wavell Plan / Simla Conference
1946 RIN Revolt / Cabinet Mission / Interim Government
1947 Mountbatten Plan / India won Independence

We think the data given here clarify all your queries of Chapter 10 and make you feel confident to attempt all questions in the examination. So, practice more & more from Tamilnadu State Board solutions for 10th Social Science History Chapter 10 Social Transformation in Tamil Nadu Questions and Answers & score well. Need any information regarding this then ask us through comments & we’ll give the best possible answers very soon.

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