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Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 7th Social Science History Solutions Term 3 Chapter 3 Jainism, Buddhism and Ajivika Philosophy in Tamil Nadu

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Social Science Jainism, Buddhism and Ajivika Philosophy in Tamil Nadu Textual Evaluation

I. Choose the correct answer:

Question 1.
Where was the first Jain Council held to codify the Jaina canon?
(a) Pataliputra
(b) Vallabhi
(c) Mathura
(d) Kanchipuram
Answer:
(a) Pataliputra

Question 2.
In which language was Agama sutras written?
(a) Ardha-Magadhi Prakrit
(b) Hindi
(c) Sanskrit
(d) Pali
Answer:
(a) Ardha-Magadhi Prakrit

Question 3.
Which of the following was patronised by the Kalabhras?
(a) Buddhism
(b) Jainism
(c) Ajivikas
(d) Hinduism
Answer:
(b) Jainism

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Social Science History Solutions Term 3 Chapter 3 Jainism, Buddhism and Ajivika Philosophy in Tamil Nadu

Question 4.
Where are the Rock beds found with no head-rests?
(a) Vellore
(b) Kanchipuram
(c) Sittanavasal
(d) Madurai
Answer:
(a) Vellore

Question 5.
Who is believed to have built the Kazhugumalai Rock-Cut Temple?
(a) Mahendra Varman
(b) Parantaka Nedunchadayan
(c) Parantaka Veera Narayana Pandyan
(d) Harihara II
Answer:
(b) Parantaka Nedunchadayan

II. Fill in the Blanks

  1. The image of is considered to be the tallest Jain image in Tamil Nadu.
  2. Buddhacharita was written by .
  3. Chinese traveller Huein Tsang visited Pallava country in century.
  4. describes Buddhism as a religion in decay.
  5. The Mauryan emperor Asoka and his grandson Dasarata patronised .

Answer:

  1. Neminatha
  2. Asvaghosa
  3. 7th
  4. Mahendravarman’s Mattavilasa Prahasana
  5. Ajivikas

III. Match the following

Kalpa sutra Tiruthakkathevar
Jivaka Chintamani Madurai
Neminatha Nagasena
Milinda Panha Bhadrabahu
Kizha Kuyil Kudi 22nd Tirthankara

Answer:

Kalpa sutra Bhadrabahu
Jivaka Chintamani Tiruthakkathevar
Neminatha 22nd Tirthankara
Milinda Panha Nagasena
Kizha Kuyil Kudi Madurai

VI. Answer the following:

Question 1.
Find out the odd one
Tiruparuttikunram, Kizha Kuyil Kudi, Kazhugumalai, Nagapattinam, Sittanavasal.
Answer:
Nagapattinam

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Social Science History Solutions Term 3 Chapter 3 Jainism, Buddhism and Ajivika Philosophy in Tamil Nadu

Question 2.
Assertion (A): Gautama found that he had nothing to learn from the teachers of the old religions.
Reason (R): The religions proclaimed that the only way to salvation was through living the life of an ascetic.
(a) A is correct. R is the correct explanation of A
(b) A is correct. R is not the correct explanation of A.
(c) Both A and R are wrong. (d) A is wrong. But R is correct.
Answer:
(a) A is correct. R is the correct explanation of A

Question 3.
Find out the correct statement/s

  1. During the 6th century B.C. as many as 62 religious schools flourished in India.
  2. ‘Palli’ is an educational centre of Buddhists.
  3. Royal patronage allowed pre-Muslim India to become a land of vihars.
  4. The Ajivikas continued to exist till 15th century.

(a) i) and iii) are correct
(b) i), ii) and iv) are correct.
(c) i) and ii) are correct
(d) ii), iii) and iv) are correct.
Answer:
(a) i) and iii) are correct

Question 4.
Find out the wrong pair/s

  1. Parshvanatha – 22nd Tirthankara
  2. Mahabashya – the Ceylonese Chroniclei
  3. Visuddhimagga – Buddhagosha
  4. Buddha – Eight-fold Path

Answer:

  1. Parshvanatha – 22nd Tirthankara

V. True or False

  1. The 12th Agama Sutra is said to have been lost.
  2. Throughout history, Ajivikas had to face persecution everywhere.
  3. Education was imparted in institutions of Jains irrespective of caste and creed.
  4. Nalanda, Taxila and Vikramashila gained reputation as pilgrim centres.
  5. Buddhism faced challenges from Saiva and Vaishnava sects from the Chola period onwards.

Answer:

  1. True
  2. True
  3. True
  4. False
  5. False

VI. Answer the following:

Question 1.
Make a list of the Five Great Vows of Jainism.
Answer:
Five Great Vows of Jainism:

  1. Non-violence – Ahimsa
  2. Truth – Satya
  3. Non-stealing – Achaurya
  4. Celibacy/Chastity – Brahmacharya
  5. Non-possession – Aparigraha.

Question 2.
What are the four noble truths of Buddha?
Answer:

  1. Life includes pain, getting old, disease, and ultimately death.
  2. Suffering is caused by craving and aversion.
  3. Suffering can be overcome and happiness attained.
  4. True happiness and contentment are possible, if one pursues the eight-fold path.

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Social Science History Solutions Term 3 Chapter 3 Jainism, Buddhism and Ajivika Philosophy in Tamil Nadu

Question 3.
Explain the three divisions of Tripitaka.
Answer:

  1. The Pali canon Tripitaka has three divisions, also known as the Threefold Basket. They include Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka and Abhidhamma Pitaka.
  2. Vinaya Pitaka contains the rules of the order of Buddhist monks, which must be observed for achieving purity of conduct.
  3. Sutta Pitaka lays down the principles of religion by citing discourses as evidence.
  4. Abhidhamma Pitaka is the latest of the Tripitaka. It deals with ethics, philosophy and meta-physics.

Question 4.
Highlight the importance of Sittanavasal.
Answer:

  1. Sittanavasal cave in Pudukkottai district is located on a prominent rock that stands 70 m above the ground.
  2. It has a natural cavern, known as Eladipattam, at one end, and a rock-cut cave temple at the other.
  3. The largest of these ascetic beds contains a Tamil-Brahmi inscription that dates to the 2nd century B.C.
  4. The Sittanavasal cave temple, named Arivar Koil, lies on the west off the hillock. The facade of the temple is simple, with four rock-cut columns.
  5. Constructed in the early Pandya period, in the 7th century A.D. , it has a hall in the front called the Ardha-mandapam.

VII. Answer in detail.

Question 1.
Enumerate the sources of study for Jainism and Buddhism.
Answer:

Sources of Jainism:

  1. Mahaviras preaching was orally transmitted by his disciples over the course of about .one thousand years.
  2. In the early period of Jainism, monks strictly followed the five great vows of Jainism. Even religious scriptures were considered possessions and therefore knowledge of the religion was never documented.
  3. Two hundred years after the death of Mahavira, Jain scholars attempted to codify the canon by convening an assembly at Pataliputra, but it ended as a failure.
  4. A second council held at Vallabhi, in the 5th century A.D., was, however, successful in
  5. Over time, many learned monks, older in age and rich in wisdom, had compiled commentaries on various topics.

Sources of Buddhism:

  1. Buddhas teachings for a long time were transmitted through the memory of teachers and disciples.
  2. They were reduced to writing by 80 B.C. and were written in the Pali language.
  3. The Pali canon Tripitaka has three divisions, also known as the Threefold Basket. They include Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka and Abhidhamma Pitaka.

Question 2.
Give an account of relics of Jainism and Buddhism that have come to light in Tamil Nadu.
Answer:
Jains in Kanchipuram:

  1. Jainism flourished during the Pallava reign.
  2. The two Jain temples in Kanchipuram are Trilokyanatha Jinaswamy Temple at Tiruparuttikunram and the Chandra Prabha temple dedicated to the Tirtankara named Chandra Prabha.
  3. Mural paintings in the temples show scenes from the lives of Tirtankaras.
  4. In the Kanchipuram district, Jain vestiges have been found over the years in many villages across the state.

Kazhugumalai Jain Rock-cut Temple:

  1. The Kazhugumalai temple in Thoothukudi district marks the revival of Jainism in Tamil Nadu.
  2. Polished rock-cut cave beds, popularly known as Panchavar Padukkai at Kazhugumalai cavern host the figures of Tirtankaras and also the figures of yakshas and yakshis. Jain temples have also been excavated in the districts of Vellore, Tiruvannamalai and Madurai.

Buddhism in Tamilzhakam:

  1. Buddhism is believed to have spread to the Tamil country by the Ceylonese missionaries.
  2. The monuments are in caverns known as Pancha Pandava Malai.
  3. Chudamani Vihara of Nagapattinam was constructed by the Srivijaya king with the patronage of Rajaraja Chola.
  4. In the field of education, Buddhist Sanghas and Viharas served as centers of education.
  5. Nalanda, Taxila and Vikramshila gained reputation as great educational centres. They were originally Buddhist Viharas.
  6. Excavations of Buddhist Vihara and a temple at Kaveripoompattinam and hundreds of stone and bronze sculptures by ASI from over 125 sites have proved the spread of the religion in the state.

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Social Science History Solutions Term 3 Chapter 3 Jainism, Buddhism and Ajivika Philosophy in Tamil Nadu

Question 3.
Discuss the essence of Ajivika philosophy and its presence in Tamil Nadu.
Answer:
Ajivika Philosophy:

  1. The Ajivikas believed in the doctrine of karma, transmigration of the soul and determinism.
  2. The Ajivikas practiced asceticism of a severe type.
  3. The Ajivika religious order and school of philosophy is known from the vedic hymns, the Brahmanas, the Aryankas and other ancient Sanskrit compilations.
  4. Throughout history, Ajivikas had to face persecution everywhere.
  5. Village communities under Pallavas, Cholas and Hoysalas imposed special taxes on them.
  6. Despite such obstacles, Ajivikas continued to have influence along the Palar river in the modern states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu (Vellore, Kanchipuramand Tiruvallur districts) till about the 14th century. In the end, they seemed to have been absorbed into Vaishnavism.

VIII. HOTS.

Question 1.
Analyse the commonalities and differences between heterodox religions and Vedic religion.
Answer:
Heterodox religions and Vedic religion commonalities:
Hinduism is a way of life, while heterodox religions like Buddhism and Jainism advocate a way of life. All the religions doctrines are codified into texts to be followed by their devotees and practitioners. All these religions share key concepts, which one interpreted differently by different individuals.
Differences:

Heterodox religions Vedic religion
No rituals Rituals and practices had become elaborate and expensive.
Ahimsa was preached. Animal sacrifice existed.
Alternative basis of social order propagated. Birth based social status was prevalent.

Question 2.
Why did these heterodox religions fail to become mainstream religion in India?
Answer:

  1. As far as Buddhism was concerned, if declined due to the loss of patronage and donation after the end of the Gupta Empire.
  2. Invasion of north India by Huns, Turco Mongols and Persians was yet-another reason.
  3. In the case of Jainism Lack of Patronage, Lack of efforts to spread the religion. Jains adopted many Hindu faiths. Jains started to differentiate people in the name of castes and classes.
  4. Role of Hindu teachers was also another reason for the failure of these religions in India.

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Social Science Jainism, Buddhism and Ajivika Philosophy in Tamil Nadu Additional Questions

I. Choose the correct answer:

Question 1.
Agama Sutras consists of many sacred books of the ______ religion
(a) Jain
(b) Buddhist
(c) Vedic
(d) Sikh
Answer:
(a) Jain

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Social Science History Solutions Term 3 Chapter 3 Jainism, Buddhism and Ajivika Philosophy in Tamil Nadu

Question 2.
The______ Agama Sutra is said to have been lost.
(a) 3rd
(b) 8th
(c) 12th
(d) 10th
Answer:
(c) 12th

Question 3.
______ was the last and the 24th Tirthankara.
(a) Parshvanatha
(b) Mahavira
(c) Bhadrabahu
(d) Pushpasena
Answer:
(b) Mahavira

Question 4.
Jainism flourished during the ________ reign.
(a) Pandya
(b) Chera
(c) Chola
(d) Pallava
Answer:
(d) Pallava

Question 5.
The total population of jains in tamil nadu is _______ percent of the total population
(a) 1.2
(b) 0.50
(c) 0.12
(d) 0.26
Answer:
(c) 0.12

Question 6.
Tirumalai is a Jain temple in a cave complex located in ________ district.
(a) Madurai
(b) Tiruvannamalai
(c) Salem
(d) Tirunelveli
Answer:
(b) Tiruvannamalai

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Social Science History Solutions Term 3 Chapter 3 Jainism, Buddhism and Ajivika Philosophy in Tamil Nadu

Question 7.
Milindapanha was originally written in ________
(a) Sanskrit
(b) Pali
(c) Hindi
(d) Urdu
Answer:
(a) Sanskrit

Question 8.
Students from Tibet and China were influenced by ________
(a) Jainism
(b) Buddhism
(c) Hinduism
(d) Sikhism
Answer:
(b) Buddhism

Question 9.
Buddhist Viharas later transformed into ________
(a) temples
(b) hospital
(c) centres of learning
(d) forts
Answer:
(c) centres of learning

Question 10.
In the end, they seemed to have been absorbed into ________
(a) Jainism
(b) Sikhism
(c) Saivism
(d) Vishnavism
Answer:
(d) Vishnavism

II. Fill in the blanks:

  1. Both the Digambaras and the Swetambaras generally acknowledge the _______ to be their early literature.
  2. The _______ of Kalpa Sutra is a Jain text containing the biographies of the Jain Tirtankaras
  3. Tamils broadly come under ______ sects of jainism
  4. The Sittanavasal cave temple has a natural cavern, known as ______
  5. The Sittanavasal cave temple, named ______ lies on the west off the hillock.
  6. The Chinese traveller ______ visited Tamil Nadu during the Pallava rule.
  7. Polished rock-cut cave beds at Kazhugumalai were popularly known as ______
  8. ______ is a Jain temple in a cave complex located near Arni town.
  9. The sculptures at Kizha Kuyil Kudi are assigned to the period of ______
  10. ______ is an educational centre of Jains.
  11. Buddha’s original name ______
  12. Gautama Buddha was a contemporary of ______
  13. Buddha means the _______
  14. Buddha preached his teachings in ______
  15. Buddha’s teachings were written in the _____ Language
  16. ______ is the first Buddhist Commentator.
  17. The Tamil epic _____ was written by Kulavanigan Sithalai Sattanar.
  18. A 1.03 metre Buddha statue in _______ pose in remote Tirunattiyattankudi village.
  19. A ______ in Sanskrit means ‘dwelling’ or ‘house’.
  20. The head of Ajivika sect was ______

Answer:

  1. Agatna Sutras
  2. Jainacharitha
  3. Digambara
  4. Eladipattam
  5. Arivar Koil
  6. Hieun Tsang
  7. Panchavar Padukkai
  8. Tirumalai
  9. Prantaka veera Narayana Pandyan
  10. Palli
  11. Siddhartha Sakyamuni Gautama
  12. Mahavira
  13. Enlightened
  14. Prakrit
  15. Pali
  16. Buddhagosha
  17. Manimekalai
  18. padmasana
  19. Vihara
  20. Gosala Mankhaliputta

III. Match the following:

Maha Bhasya a) instructions manuals
Angas b) rules of conduct for the monks
Upangas c) great commentary
Chedas d) basic doctrine of Jainism
Mulas e) scriptures for Swetambaras

Answer:

  1. c
  2. e
  3. a
  4. b
  5. d

IV. Answer the following.

Question 1.
Find out the odd one out.
Jatakas, Mahavamsa, Jivaka Chintamani, Visuddhimagga
Answer:
Jivaka Chintamani

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Social Science History Solutions Term 3 Chapter 3 Jainism, Buddhism and Ajivika Philosophy in Tamil Nadu

Question 2.
Assertion (A): A major split occurred in Jainism in the 1st century B.C. into two sects.
Reason (R): Both the sects acknowledge the Agama Sutras to be their early literature, but differed with their content and interpretation.
(a) A is correct. R is not the correct explanation of A
(b) A is correct. R is the correct explanation of A.
(c) Both A and R are wrong. (d) A is wrong. But R is correct.
Answer:
(b) A is correct. R is the correct explanation of A.

Question 3.
Find out the correct statement/s
Answer:

  1. The 12th Agama Sutra is said to have been lost.
  2. Naladiyar is attributed to a Buddhist monk
  3. Vajrabodhi was a Buddhist monk skilled in tantric rituals.
  4. Emperor Asoka and his grandson Dasaratha patronised Jainism,

(a) i) and ii) are correct
(b) ii) and iii) are correct.
(c) i) and iii) are correct
(d) i), ii) and iv) are correct.
Answer:
(c) i) and iii) are correct

Question 4.
Find out the wrong

Irugappa Pushpasena
Thevaram Azhwars
Nalayira Divyaprabandam Saiva saints
Buddhacharita Asvaghosa

Answer:
(2) Thevaram – Azhwars,
(3) Nalayira Divyaprabandam – Saiva saints

V. Write True or False

  1. Buddhism split into two sects Digambaras and Swetambaras.
  2. The Jainacharitha of Kalpa Sutra is ascribed to Bhadrabahu.
  3. Thirukkural was composed by Tiruvalluvar, believed to be a Jain scholar.
  4. The images of Rishab Nath, Mahavira, Parshvanath and Bahubali are found in Bhairavamalai.
  5. Buddhavamsa contains a narration of the life and activities of the 24 Buddhas.

Answer:

  1. False
  2. True
  3. True
  4. True
  5. False
  6. True

VI. Answer the following.

Question 1.
Why did the Jain monks decide to document the Jain literature known to them?
Answer:

  1. The Jain acharyas (teachers) realised that it was extremely difficult to keep memorising the entire Jain literature complied by the many scholars of the past and present.
  2. In fact, significant knowledge was already lost and the rest was tampered with modifications. Hence, they decided to document the Jain literature as known to them.

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Social Science History Solutions Term 3 Chapter 3 Jainism, Buddhism and Ajivika Philosophy in Tamil Nadu

Question 2.
Write a short note on Agama Sutras.
Answer:

  1. Agama Sutras consists of many sacred books of the Jain religion.
  2. They have been written in the Ardha-magadhi Prakrit language.
  3. Containing the direct preaching of Mahavira, consisting of 12 texts, they were originally compiled by immediate disciples of Mahavira.
  4. The 12th Agama Sutra is said to have been lost.

Question 3.
Who are Tirthankaras?
Answer:
Tirthankaras are those who have attained nirvana and made a passage from this world to the next.

Question 4.
Who expanded the Trilokyanatha Temple and how?
Answer:
Irugappa, a disciple of Jaina-muni Pushpasena; and a minister of Vijayanagar King Harihara II (1377-1404), expanded the Trilokyanatha Temple by adding the Sangeetha mandapa. The grand murals were added only at this time.

Question 5.
How were the paintings at Trilokyanatha temple ruined?
Answer:
The paintings of the Trilokyanatha temple at Tiruparuttikunram have been ruined by overpainting done during renovation.

Question 6.
What literary work in Tamil provided evidence to the challenges Buddhism faced?
Answer:
The Thevaram hymns of Saiva saints and the Nalayira Divyaprabandam of Vaishnava Azhwars provided evidence to the challenges Buddhism faced in Tamil country.

Samacheer Kalvi 7th Social Science History Solutions Term 3 Chapter 3 Jainism, Buddhism and Ajivika Philosophy in Tamil Nadu

Question 7.
What testify the presence of Buddhism in later period?
Answer:
The presence of Virasozhiyam, Later Chola period grammar text and the discovery of 13th century Buddhist bronzes in Nagapattinam testify to the presence of Buddhism in later periods. The sculptures of Buddha in Thiyaganur village in Salem district strengthen this conclusion.

VII. Answer in detail

Question 1.
Narrate the transition of Gautama Buddha.
Answer:

  1. Buddha’s original name, Siddhartha Sakyamuni Gautama, if translated into English, would mean Gautama who belongs to the Sakya tribe and who has reached the goal of perfection.
  2. Gautama Buddha was a contemporary of Mahavira.
  3. His father ruled the tribe of Sakya in a region near the present-day Nepal.
  4. Gautama found that he had nothing to learn from the teachers of the old religions.
  5. The religions proclaimed that the only way to salvation was through living the life of an ascetic. But despite practicing asceticism, Gautama could not arrive anywhere near the truth. And one night, as he sat under a bodhi-tree struggling with his doubt and his loneliness, a great peace descended on him.
  6. He was no longer Gautama, the sceptic, but became Buddha, the Enlightened.

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