Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science History Solutions Chapter 6 The Middle Ages

You can Download Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Book Solutions Guide Pdf, Tamilnadu State Board help you to revise the complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science History Solutions Chapter 6 The Middle Ages

The Middle Ages Textual Exercise

I. Choose the correct answer.

The Middle Ages Class 9 Question 1.
……………….. was the old religion of Japan.
(a) Shinto
(b) Confucianism
(c) Taoism
(d) Animism
Answer:
(a) Shinto

Europe In The Middle Ages 9th Standard Question 2.
…………. means great name/lord.
(a) Daimyo
(b) Shogun
(c) Fujiwara
(d) Tokugawa
Answer:
(a) Daimyo

Samacheer Kalvi Guru 9th Social Science Question 3.
The Arab General who conquered Spain was …………..
(a) Tariq
(b) Alaric
(c) Saladin
(d) Mohammad the Conqueror
Answer:
(a) Tariq

Samacheer Kalvi Guru 9th Social Question 4.
Harun-al-Rashid was the able emperor of ……………
(a) Abbasid dynasty
(b) Umayyad dynasty
(c) Sassanid dynasty
(d) Mongol dynasty
Answer:
(a) Abbasid dynasty

Class 9 History Chapter 6 Question 5.
Feudalism centred around ……………
(a) vassalage
(b) slavery
(c) serfdom
(d) land
Answer:
(a) vassalage

II. Find out the correct statement.

Question 1.
(i) Chengiz Khan was an intolerant person in religion
(ii) Mongols destroyed the city of Jerusalem
(iii) Crusades weakened the Ottoman Empire
(iv) Pope Gregory succeeded in making King Henry IV to abdicate the throne by means of Interdict
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (ii) is correct
(c) (ii) and (iii) are correct
(d) (iv) is correct
Answer:
(d) (iv) is correct

Question 2.
(i) Mangu Khan was the Governor of China.
(ii) Mongol court in China impressed Marco Polo.
(iii) The leader of Red Turbans was Hung Chao.
(iv) Mongols established their rule in China in the name of Yuan dynasty.
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (ii) is correct
(c) (ii) and (iv) are correct
(d) (iv) is correct
Answer:
(c) (ii) and (iv) are correct

Question 3.
(i) Boyang and Changon were built during Sung dynasty.
(ii) Peasant uprisings led to the collapse of Tang dynasty.
(iii) Seljuq Turks were a tribe of Tartars.
(iv) Mongols established their rule in China in the name of Yuan dynasty.
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (ii) is correct
(c) (iii) is correct
(d) (iv) is correct
Answer:
(iii) and (iv) are correct

Question 4.
Assertion (A): Buddhism went to China from India.
Reason (R): The earliest Indian inhabitants in China were the followers of Buddhism.
(a) A is correct; R is wrong
(b) Both A & R are wrong
(c) Both A &, R are correct
(d) A is wrong R is irrelevant to A
Answer:
(a) A is correct; R is wrong

Question 5.
Assertion (A): The fall of Jerusalem into the hands of Seljuk Turks led to the Crusades.
Reason (R): European Christian pilgrims were denied access to Jerusalem. .
(a) A is correct; R is not the correct explanation of A ‘
(b) A and R are correct
(c) A and R are wrong
(d) A is correct, R is the correct explanation of A
Answer:
(d) A is correct, R is the correct explanation of A

III. Fill in the blanks.

1. ……………. were the original inhabitants of Japan.
2. ……………. was the original name of Japan.
3. ………… was the original name of Medina. ,
4. ………….were the barbarians posing a threat to the Chinese in the north.
5. …………… established Ottoman supremacy in the Balkans.
Answer:
1. Ainus
2. Yamato
3. Yethrib
4. The Mongols
5. Mohammed II

IV. Match the following:

The Middle Ages Class 9 Social Science History Solutions Chapter 6 Samacheer Kalvi
Answer:
1. (d)
2. (e)
3. (a)
4. (c)
5. (b)

V. Answer all questions given under each heading.

Question 1.
Shogunate in Japan.
(a) Name the two Daimyo families that fought for power in Japan.
Answer:
The Tara and Minamota

(b) Who emerged successful in the fight?
Answer:
Yoritomo emerged successful in the fight.

(c) What was the title given by the Emperor to the victorious?
Answer:
The high sounding title of Sei-i-tai Shogun (which means the Barbarian-Subduing-Great- General).

(d) Where was the capital of the first Shogunate established?
Answer:
The capital of the first Shogunate established at Kamakura,

Question 2.
Rule of Abbasids.
(a) Who were the Abbasids?
Answer:
The descendants of the Prophet Mohammad’s uncle Abbas and his followers were called Abbasids. ’ ,

(b) What was the title assumed by Abbasid Caliph?
Answer:
“The commander of the faithful” was the title assumed by Abbasid Caliph.

(c) Where did they have their new capital?
Answer:
Baghdad in Iraq

(d) In whose period was the Abbasid Empire at the height of its glory?
Answer:
The Abbasid Empire was at the height of its glory during the reign of Harun-al-Rashid.

VI. Answer the following briefly.

Question 1.
The Great Wall of China.
Answer:
Between 8th and 7th centuries B.C. (BCE), the warring states in China built defensive walls to protect themselves from enemies from the north. During Chin (Qin) Dynasty, the separate walls were connected and consequently the wall stretched from east to west for about 5000 kilometres. This wall, considered to be one of the wonders of the world, served to keep nomadic tribes out. The Wall was further extended and strengthened by the succeeding dynasties. Now ’ it is 6,700 kilometres in length.

Question 2.
Contribution of Arabs to Science and Technology.
Answer:
The Arabs had a scientific spirit of inquiry. In some subjects like medicine and mathematics they learnt much from India. Many Arab students went to Takshashila, which was still a great university for specialized medicine. Indian scholars and mathematicians came in large numbers to Baghdad. Sanskrit books on medicine and other subjects were translated into Arabic. In medicine and surgery, Arab physicians and surgeons earned a great reputation.

Question 3.
Impact of Crusades.
Answer:
Crusades ended the feudal relations. Many of the nobles who went to East to take part in the Crusades either stayed too long a period or did not return. The serfs took advantage of their absence to break away from their bondage to the soil. Increasing demand for products of the East led to expansion of trade. Venice, Genoa and Pisa emerged as important commercial centres in the Mediterranean region.

Constantinople ceased to be the middle man in the trade between the East and the West. The elimination of powerful nobles had its influence in strengthening the monarchy in France and England. One notable outcome of Crusades was the loss of prestige suffered by Pope and Papacy.

Question 4.
How was Feudalism organized in the Middle Ages?
Answer:
Europe In The Middle Ages 9th Standard Social Science History Solutions Chapter 6 Samacheer Kalvi

Question 5.
Write about the two instruments used by Medieval Pope to assert his authority.
Answer:
New elements were included in Christian theology. They were the theory of priesthood and the theory of sacraments. These two elements increased the power of the clergy. These two elements also helped the Church to extend its authority over all of its lay members. Excommunication and Interdict were the two instruments used against those who defied the Church.

VII. Answer the following in detail.

Question 1.
Discuss the emergence of Japan under the Shogunate.
Answer:
During the two-hundred-year rule of Fujiwaras, a new class of large landholders emerged. These landholders were also military men, called Daimyos (meaning great names-lords). The Daimyos became powerful with their retainers and armies. Involved in personal fights, they ignored the central government in Kyoto. Out of the fight between two chief families, the Tara and the Minamota, Yoritomo emerged successful. In AD (CE) 1192, the emperor gave him the high sounding title of Sei-i-tai-Shogun, which means the Barbarian-subduing-Great-General. The title carried full power to govern hereditarily. The Shogun became the real ruler. In this way began the rule of Shogunate.

Question 2.
Who were the Mongols? How did they rule China?
Answer:

  1. Mongols were nomads. They came into Europe from the Steppes of Asiatic Russia.
  2. They were herdsmen. ‘
  3. The Mongols were experts in warfare and produced a remarkable chief, Chengiz Khan.
  4. He was a great military genius.
  5. His religion was Shamanism, a worship of the “Everlasting Blue Sky. Mongols’ hold over Russia for about 300 years made Russia technologically backward from the rest of Europe until the end of Middle Ages”.

Rule in China

  1. The Mongols established their rule in the name of Yuan dynasty.
  2. The Mongols, who overran Persia and the whole of Central Asia, did not spare China either.
  3. Mangu Khan became the Great Khan in 1252 who appointed Kublai Khan the Governor of China.
  4. The Mongol presence from one end of Eurasia to the other played a key role in spreading Chinese technological advances to the less developed societies in the west.
  5. Though the Mongol court in Beijing impressed a foreigner like Marco Polo, the poverty of peasantry continued.
  6. There were revolts of religious sects and secret societies.
  7. Finally, the leader of “Red Turbans” Chu Yuan Chang took the Mongol capital Beijing and proclaimed himself emperor in 1369.
  8. The Ming Empire, which replaced the Mongol empire, consciously discouraged industry and foreign trade in order to concentrate on agriculture.
  9. This resulted in China lagging behind in the 16th century. ‘
  10. Other parts of Eurasia, building on the techniques of the Chinese, began to march ahead.

Student Activities

Question 1.
In an outline map of Europe, the students are to sketch the extent of Ottoman Empire at the height of its glory
Answer:
Samacheer Kalvi Guru 9th Social Science History Solutions Chapter 6 The Middle Ages

Question 2.
Students are to be guided by teachers to look through Google the architectural splendours of Saracenic architecture.
Answer:
You can do this activity under the guidance of your teacher.

Assignment with Teacher’s guidance.

Question 1.
Sketching Ottoman family tree and attempting a biographical account of Saladin of Egypt and Suleiman the Magnificent of Ottoman Empire.
Answer:
The teacher can guide the students to google and find out. Narrate the entire Ottoman family tree.

Question 2.
Attempting an account of the Crusades led by Richard the Lion-Hearted of England and German Emperor Frederick Barbarossa.
Answer:
You can do this activity under the guidance of your teacher.

The Middle Ages Additional Questions

I. Choose the correct answer.

Question 1.
Historians call the period between ………………. and …………… as the Middle Ages.
(a) 470 A.D and 1400 A.D.-(C.E)
(b) 460 A.D (C.E) and 1450 A.D (C.E)
(c) 475 A.D (C.E) and 1453 A.D (C.E)
(d) 476 A.D (C.E) and 1453 A.D (C.E)
Answer:
(d) 476 A.D (C.E) and 1453 A.D (C.E)

Question 2.
The founders of Saracenic Civilization were …………….
(a) Arabs
(b) Jews
(c) Persians
(d) Syrians
Answer:
(a) Arabs

Question 3.
……………. dynasty undertook enormous public works.
(a) Sui
(b) Tang
(c) Sung
(d) Yuan
Answer:
(b) Tang

Question 4.
……………… excelled in Ceramics and Porcelain-making.
(a) Japan
(b) Korea
(c) China
(d) Europe
Answer:
(c) China

Question 5.
Japan’s name was given by a ………….. Emperor.
(a) Mongol
(b) Chinese
(c) Korean
(d) Russian
Answer:
(b) Chinese

Question 6.
…………… established Islam.
(a) Abu Bakr
(b) Abbas
(c) Prophet Mohammed
(d) None of the above
Answer:
(c) Prophet Mohammed

Question 7.
……………. is the holy city of the Christians.
(a) Jerusalem
(b) Baghdad
(c) Venice
(d) Pisa
Answer:
(a) Jerusalem

Question 8.
Chengiz Khan was the remarkable chief of ……………..
(a) Turks
(b) Arabs
(c) Mongols
(d) Chinese
Answer:
(c) Mongols

II. Find out the correct statement.

Question 1.
(i) Tang dynasty undertook enormous public works.
(ii) Land was divided into smdll peasant holdings.
(iii) Now the length of the Great Wall of China is 6,800 kilometres.
(iv) The agricultural surplus went to the Aristocrats as rents.
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (i) and (ii) are correct
(c) (iii) is correct
(d) (iv) is correct
Answer:
(b) (i) and (ii) are correct

Question 2.
(i) The message of equality and brotherhood had great appeal only for Arabs.
(ii) Mohammed and his followers stayed in their birth place.
(iii) The flight of Mohammad from Mecca in 622 A.D is called Hijrat. :
(iv) Mohammad died 20 years after the Hijrat.
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (ii) is correct
(c) (iii) is correct
(d) (iv) is correct
Answer:
(c) (iii) is correct

Question 3.
(i) Traders and artisans were brought under the feudal system.
(ii) The merchants and artisans formed guilds and groups.
(iii) In course of time they obeyed the nobles and kings. ,
(iv) This development continued the Feudal system. –
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (ii) is correct
(c) (iii) is correct
(d) (iv) is correct
Answer:
(b) (ii) is correct

Question 4.
Assertion: Seljuq Turks were a tribe of Tartars from Central Asia.
Reason: They established a powerful empire in Persia.
(a) A is correct R is wrong
(b) Both A and R are wrong
(c) Both A and R are correct
(d) A is correct R is irrelevant to A.
Answer:
(c) Both A and R are correct

Question 5.
Assertion: The Abbasid Empire was at the height of its glory during the reign of Harun-al- Rashid.
Reason: The Arab Empire flourished soon after the death of Harun-al-Rashid.
(a) A is correct; R is not the correct explanation of A
(b) A and R are correct
(c) A and R are wrong
(d) A is correct, R is the correct explanation of A .
Answer:
(a) A is correct; R is not the correct explanation of A

III. Fill in the blanks.

1. …………….. period was also a period of great prosperity to the landowning class, officials and rich merchants. .
2. The original religion of Japan, the Shinto was a mixture of nature and ……………..
3. The first great family that controlled the state was the ……………… family.
4. The first Shogunate is called the ……………. Shogunate.
5. …………… advocated simplicity and equality.
6. The capital of Umayyads was …………..
7. The other name of Baghdad was ……………..
8. …………….. ended the feudal relations.
9. The religion of Chengiz Khan was ……………..
10. …………… meant depriving a person of all the privileges of a Christian.
Answers:
1. Sung
2. ancestor worship
3. Soga
4. Kamakura
5. Islam
6. Damascus
7. the city of Arabian Nights
8. Crusades
9. Shamanism
10. Excommunication

IV. Match the following:

Samacheer Kalvi Guru 9th Social Science History Solutions Chapter 6 The Middle Ages
Answer:
1. (g)
2. (a)
3. (b)
4. (f)
5. (c)
6. (d)
7. (e)

V. Answer all questions given under each heading.

Question 1.
Yuan Dynasty
(a) Who overran Persia and China?
Answer:
The Mongols overran Persia and China.

(b) Who was appointed as the Governor of China?
Answer:
Kublai Khan

(c) Mention the foreigner who impressed the Beijing.
Answer:
Marco Polo

(d) Who was the leader of the “Red Turbans”?
Answer:
Chu Yuan Chang

Question 2.
Punic Wars
(a) Who were Carthaginians?
Answer:
The Carthaginians were the descendants of the Phoenicians who excelled in seafaring and trade.

(b) Write about the Third Punic War.
Answer:
After the defeat and destruction of the Carthage in the Third Punic War, Rome emerged as an unrivalled power in the western world.

(c) Who united to drive out the Greeks?
Answer:
Rome and Carthage united to drive out the Greeks.

(d) Who was Hannibal?
Answer:
Hannibal was a general who defeated the Roman army and made a great part of Italy a desert.

Question 3.
Silk Route
(a) What is meant by Silk route?
Answer:
The trade route from China to Asia Minor and India, known as the Silk Road or Silk Route.

(b) Which places were linked by this route?
Answer:
It linked China with the West. Goods and ideas between the two great civilizations of Rome and China were exchanged through this route.

(c) Name the good exchanged from East to West and West to East.
Answer:
Silk went westward, and wools, gold, and silver went east.

(d) Name the religion which reached China through this route.
Answer:
China received Buddhism from India via the Silk Road. .

Question 4.
Slave Trade in Rome
(a) Why was the new labour force produced by Rome?
Answer:
Rome produced a new labour force for the rich to exploit. Big landholders bought slaves cheaply and used them to cultivate their estates.

(b) What was the strength of the Slave population in the 1st century B.C.?
Answer:
The strength of the slave population in the 1st century B.C. was 3.25 million.

(c) What was the result of Slave trade?
Answer:
Slave trade led to the impoverishment of free labour. Many poor peasants had to abandon their children who also ended up in the slave markets.

(d) Which place became a great slave market?
Answer:
The island of Delos became a great slave market.

Question 5.
Arabs’ Scholarly Pursuits.
(a) What did the Abbasid Caliphs do?
Answer:
Abbasid Caliphs did not attempt to conquer new lands.

(b) What were their interest?
Answer:
They were more interested in scholarly pursuits.

(c) Name the subjects, they learnt from India.
Answer:
Medicine and Mathematics.

(d) In which field (Arabs) they earned a great reputation? .
Answer:
In medicine and surgery, Arab physicians and surgeons earned a great reputation.

VI. Answer the following briefly.

Question 1.
Write a short account of the public works undertaken by Tang dynasty.
Answer:

  • Tang dynasty undertook enormous public works. Two capital cities, Boyang and Chang- on, were built.
  • Scholar officials, trained in Confucius Philosophy, were appointed to counterbalance the landowning aristocratic class.
  • Land was divided into small peasant holdings.
  • As a result, the agricultural surplus went to the state as taxes, not to the aristocrats as rents. State monopoly of salt, and tea added to its- revenues.

Question 2.
What led to the collapse of Chin dynasty?
Answer:

  • Shih Huang Ti crushed all local rulers and established a strong central government.
  • However, uprisings of the peasantry, unlike in other cultures, occurred again and again in China.
  • Such uprisings led to the collapse of Chin dynasty.

Question 3.
What do you know about Sung Dynasty?
Answer:

  1. The rebellion of hard-pressed peasantry under the leadership of Hung Ch’ao dealt a death knell to the tottering Tang empire.
  2. The empire split into five rival states, until it was reunited under a new dynasty, Sung.
  3. Trade and industry flourished during the reign of Sung dynasty.
  4. Iron and steel industries became highly organized.

Question 4.
Why did Oligarchy start in Greece?
Answer:

  1. When the Greek City-States first emerged, they still carried the legacy of the past.
  2. The rulers came from lines of traditional chieftains.
  3. Those who grew rich from the expansion of trade, resented the privileges enjoyed by the old ruling families.
  4. The outcome was the overthrow of the kings and the establishment of “oligarchies” in many city-states.

Question 5.
Name the Empire which replaced the Mongol Empire. What did they do?
Answer:
The Ming Empire, which replaced the Mongol empire, consciously discouraged industry and foreign trade in order to concentrate on agriculture. This resulted in China lagging behind in the 16th century. Other parts of Eurasia, building on the techniques of the Chinese, began to march ahead.

Question 6.
Write about the reign of Alexander, the Great.
Answer:

  1. Under Alexander the Great, the Greeks were able to establish a kingdom in Macedonia.
  2. This kingdom succeeded in annexing two historic empires of Egypt and the Middle East.
  3. But the entire period of Alexander’s reign was spent on wars.
  4. The Greek school of Science, Mathematics and Philosophy reached its peak in the Greek.

Question 7.
What was the message given by Islam?
Answer:
Islam gave a message of brotherhood. Mohammed laid stress on the equality of all those who were Muslims. This message of equality and brotherhood had great appeal not only for the Arabs, who were divided into warring tribes but also for people in other parts of the world.

Question 8.
What do you know about Excommunication and Interdict?
Answer:
Excommunication meant depriving a person of all the privileges of a Christian. He was denied the right to sacraments in Church. His or her body could not be buried in the consecrated ground. Interdict was to deny benefits of religion to a ruler’s subject, intended to kindle their resentment against him.

VII. Answer the following in detail.

Question 1.
Describe Feudalism in detail, with diagram.
Answer:
Despite the hold of powerful religions such as Christianity and Islam, the economic life of . people was governed by feudal relations.
In the prevailing anarchy and violence, the mighty living in strong castles seized whatever they could and the poor peasants and labourers suffered. The latter were not organized to defend their interests. There was no strong central government either to protect them. Out of this chaos and disorder evolved the feudal system.
Class 9 History Chapter 6 Social Science Solutions Chapter 6 The Middle Ages Samacheer Kalvi
The king, supposed to represent God on earth, was at the head of the feudal regime. Immediately after him were the great nobles, known as dukes, counts, earls. The relationship was one of a vassal. The nobles in turn had vassals of their own, dividing and distributing their fief to lesser nobles called viscounts or barons. Last in this order were the knights, whose fiefs could not be divided.

At the bottom were the villeins or serfs. In the feudal system which centered around vassalage, there was no idea of equality or freedom.
There were only rights and obligations. The Bishops, Abbots and Cardinals and the Church came under this socio-political structure. The nobility and the clergy did not do any physical work. So the burden of producing the food and other necessities of life fell on the peasants and. Feudalism artisans.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Geography Solutions Chapter 6 Man and Environment

You can Download Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Book Solutions Guide Pdf, Tamilnadu State Board help you to revise the complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Geography Solutions Chapter 6 Man and Environment

Man and Environment Textual Exercise

I. Choose the correct answer.

Man And Environment Class 9 Question 1.
All external influences and factors that affect the growth and development of living organisms is ………
(a) Environment
(b) Ecosystem
(c) Biotic factors
(d) Abiotic factors.
Answer:
(a) Environment

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Question 2.
The ‘World Population Day’ is observed on every year.
(a) August 11th
(b) September 11th
(c) July 11th
(d) January 11th
Answer:
(c) July 11th

Samacheer Kalvi Guru 9th Social Science Question 3.
The statistical study of human population is
(a) Demography
(b) Morphology
(c) Etymology
(d) Seismography
Answer:
(a) Demography

Social Science Class 9 Chapter 1 Man And Environment Question 4.
The extraction of valuable minerals and other geological minerals from the mines, is …..
(a) Fishing
(b) Lumbering
(c) Mining
(d) Agriculture
Answer:
(c) Mining

Samacheer Kalvi Social Science 9th Std Question 5.
The Secondary sector of the economy produces …… from raw materials.
(a) Semi finished goods
(b) Finished goods
(c) Economic goods
(d) raw materials
Answer:
(b) Finished goods

Social Solutions For Class 9 Samacheer Kalvi Question 6.
Gradual increase of the earth’s temperature by the Green house gases in the atmosphere is called …….
(a) Acid rain
(b) thermal pollution
(c) Global warming
(d) Deforestation
Answer:
(c) Global warming

II. Consider the given statements and choose the right option given below.

Social Samacheer Kalvi 9th Question 7.
Assertion (A): Ozone layer in the stratosphere is considered as a protective shield.
Reason (R): It prevents the UV radiation from reaching the earth’s surface.
(a) A and R are correct and A explains R
(b) A and R are correct, but A does not explain R
(c) A is incorrect but R is correct
(d) Both A and R are incorrect
Answer:
(a) A and R are correct and A explains R

9th Samacheer Kalvi Social Question 8.
Assertion (A): In tertiary activities, instead of producing goods by themselves, they are in the process of production.
Reason (R): People in Tertiary activities are purely eco friendly.
(a) Both A and R are incorrect
(b) A and R are correct, but A does not explain R
(c) A is correct and R is incorrect.
(d) A and R are correct and A explains R.
Answer:
(c) A is correct and R is incorrect.

III. Match the following:

Man And Environment Class 9 Samacheer Kalvi Social Science Geography Solutions Chapter 6
Answers:
1. (c)
2. (e)
3. (d)
4. (a)
5. (b)

IV. Answer the following in brief:

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Question 1.
What do you mean by the term ‘density of population’?
Answer:
Density of population refers to the number of people living per square kilometre. An area is said to be sparsely populated when it has a large area with less number of people. Similarly, smaller the area with a large number of people, it is said to be densely populated.

9th Social Samacheer Kalvi Question 2.
What is ‘black death’?
Answer:
The black death is estimated to have killed 30 – 60 percent of Europe’s total population during the 14th century. The dominant explanation for black death is attributed to the outbreak of plague.

Samacheer Kalvi Social 9th Question 3.
Where do we have high and low densities of population?
Answer:
Areas of high density (above 50 people per sq.km) – East Asia, South Asia, North West Europe & Eastern North America.

Areas of low density (less than 10 people per sq.km) – Central Africa, Western Australia, Northern Russia, Canada, etc.

9th Samacheer Kalvi Social Science Question 4.
What is Green House effect?
Answer:
Global warming is caused by the increase of green house gases such as carbondioxide, methane, water vapour and Chloro Fluoro Carbons(CFC), carbon monoxide, photo chemical oxidants and hydrocarbons, which are responsible for the heat retention ability of the atmosphere. Global warming causes climatic change, ozone layer depletion, rise in sea level and drowning of coastal inhabited land, melting of ice, etc., They are posing an even greater threat to human existence and so, man must start thinking of protecting the environment from pollution.

Samacheer Kalvi Guru 9th Social Question 5.
Write any two ways of how the locals and the government restored Palk Bay. Restoration of Palk Bay
Answer:
Local communities, government and civic organisations all came together not just to conserve the remaining mangroves, but also to restore it.

  • Saplings of native species of plants and trees are being grown, planted and cared for.
  • Live colonies of coral from the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve are being transplanted to Palk Bay. The existing mangroves and the region are being mapped and the way land is used around the mangrove is being studied.
  • The local communities are actively involved in the conservation and restoration of the mangroves. Education and awareness programmes about mangrove ecosystem are being undertaken.

Samacheer Kalvi Guru 9 Social Science Question 6.
Define

  1. Population growth
  2. Infant Mortality Rate
  3. Census
  4. Sustainable Development.

Answer:

  1. Population growth refers to an increase in the number of people who reside in a particular area during a particular period.
  2. The number of deaths under one year of age for every 1000 live births in a year is known as Infant Mortality Rate
  3. Census is an official enumeration of population carried out periodically. It records information about the characteristics of population such as age, sex, literacy and occupation.
  4. “Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs”.

V. Distinguish the following:

Samacheer Kalvi 9 Social Question 1.
Birth rate and Death Rate
Answer:

Birth Rate Death Rate
Number of live births per 1000 people in a year Number of deaths under one year of age for every 1000 live births in a year

Question 2.
Emigration and Immigration
Answer:

Emigration Immigration Emigration Immigration
Emigration means moving out or to leave a place. Immigration means to enter or come into a new country for the purpose of settling there.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Solutions Question 3.
Rural settlement and urban settlement
Answer:

Rural Settlement

Urban Settlement

Any settlement where most of the people are engaged in primary activities like agriculture, forestry, mining and fishery is known as a rural settlement. Urban is the term related to cities and towns where people are primarily engaged in non-agricultural activities, such as secondary, tertiary and quartemary activities.
The most important and unique feature of rural settlements is the vast, open spaces with green, pollution-free environment. The common characteristic feature of an urban unit is that they are compact, congested and liable to a large number of population.

Social Science 9th Samacheer Kalvi Question 4.
Metropolitan and Mega cities
Answer:

Metropolitan

Mega cities

Cities accommodating population between 10 lakhs and 50 lakhs are metropolitan cities. E.g.: Madurai Cities with more than 50 lakh population are called Megacities. E.g.: Greater Chennai

Samacheer Kalvi Guru Social 9th Question 5.
Primary Activities Secondary Activities
Answer:

Primary Activities Secondary Activities
Primary Activities pertain to the extraction of raw materials from the earth’s surface. For example: food gathering, hunting, lumbering, fishing, cattle rearing, mining and agriculture. Secondary Activities transform raw materials into finished goods.
For example: Iron and Steel industries, automobilemanufacturing etc.

VI. Give reasons for the following:

9th Standard Samacheer Kalvi Social Question 1.
Reforestation is encouraged throughout the world.
Answer:
Deforestation results in many effects like floods and droughts, loss of soil fertility, air pollution, extinction of species, global warming, spread of deserts, depletion of water resource, melting of ice caps and glaciers, rise in sea level and depletion of ozone layer. Therefore, reforestation is encouraged throughout the world in order to conserve our mother Earth.

9th Social Solutions Samacheer Kalvi Question 2.
Acid rain destroys the ecosystem.
Answer:
When pollutants combine with water vapour in the presence of sunlight and oxygen, they form dilute sulphuric and nitric acids in the atmosphere. When this mixture precipitates from the atmosphere, it is called acid rain. This would cause lot of damages to life and property. It would affect the health of humans and animals, alter the constituents of water bodies, plants and trees may die as it deteriorates the soil quality and many more damages to nature.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Solutions Question 3.
The economy of the quaternary sector is called knowledge economy.
Answer:
Quaternary sector deals with the activities related to Research and Development, as well as knowledge. For e g. Services like consultation, education and banking. Hence, it is called as knowledge economy.

Question 4.
Population growth has to be brought under control.
Answer:
Population growth leads to high competition for all available resources. It leads to poor quality of life, education, food supply, low income and so on. The resources of Earth may exhaust one day and would lead to the end of mankind.

Question 5.
Sustainable development growth has been set to protect the planet.
Answer:
The excessive usage of natural and manmade resources deplete its availability for the future generation. Hence conservation and awareness are the two important terms that can bring sustainability to our living: When we use the word sustainability to mean maintain, it means to maintain it forever. This is because our actions have a lasting effect on the environment and we should protect it for our future generations.

VII. Answer in a paragraph:

Question 1.
Explain the factors affecting the distribution of population.
Answer:
The world population is not uniformly distributed, owing to the following factors.

  • Physical Factors: Physical factors include temperature, rainfall, soil, relief, water, natural vegetation, distribution of minerals and availability of energy resources.
  • Historical Factors: Regions with historical importance (river valley civilizations), war and constant invasions fall under historical factors responsible for population distribution.
  • Economic Factors: Educational institutions, employment opportunities, manufacturing industries, luxurious amenities, trade and commerce and other facilities encourage dense population in an area.

Question 2.
Describe the patterns of rural settlement with neat diagrams.
Answer:
Rectangular pattern:
Rectangular pattern of settlements are found in plain areas or valleys. The roads are rectangular and cut each other at right angles.
Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Geography Solutions Chapter 6 Man And Environment
Linear pattern:
In a linear pattern, the houses are located along a road, railway line and along the edge of the river valley or along a levee.
Samacheer Kalvi Guru 9th Social Science Geography Solutions Chapter 6 Man And Environment
Circular or semicircular pattern:
The pattern of settlement that is found around the lakes, ponds and sea coasts are called circular or semi circular pattern.
Samacheer Kalvi Social Science 9th Std Geography Solutions Chapter 6 Man And Environment
Star like pattern:
Where several metalled or unmetalled roads converge, star shaped settlements develop. In the star shaped settlements, houses are spread out along the sides of roads in all directions.
Social Solutions For Class 9 Samacheer Kalvi Geography Solutions Chapter 6 Man And Environment
Triangular pattern:
Triangular patterns of rural settlement generally develop at the confluence of rivers.
Social Samacheer Kalvi 9th Science Geography Solutions Chapter 6 Man And Environment
T-Shaped, Y-Shaped, Cross-Shaped or
Cruciform settlements:
T-shaped settlements develop at trijunctions of the roads (T), while Y-shaped settlements emerge as the places where two roads converge with the third one. Cruciform settlements develop on the cross-roads which extend in all four directions.
9th Samacheer Kalvi Social Science Geography Solutions Chapter 6 Man And Environment

Nebular pattern:
The arrangement of roads is almost circular which ends at the central location or nucleus of the settlement around the house of the main landlord of the village or around a mosque, temple or church.
Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Geography Solutions Chapter 6 Man And Environment

VIII. HOTS:

Question 1.
Study your area and write down about its settlement pattern.
Answer:

  1. My area is Velachery, Chennai – 42.
  2. It was developed after the late 1990, in the Southern axis radiating out of the city.
  3. It was built over a complex of low-lying wetlands.
  4. In an already sunken Velachery, repeated road repairs had led to the roads increasing in height.
  5. Lifting houses to escape floods.
  6. Though Velachery is still a low lying area and the rainy season will be bad, it wouldn’t be as bad as before.
  7. It is a place where we can get all facilitites like transport, shopping, restaurants, hair parlours etc., within 1 km

IX. Map skill:

A. On the outline map of the world mark the following.
1. An area of high density of population in Europe
2. An area of low density of population in Australia
3. PalkBay
4. A fracking banned country
5. England – A country affected by‘black death’
6. Denmark – First country where the modem census was conducted «
7. River Hwang Ho
9th Social Samacheer Kalvi Science Geography Solutions Chapter 6 Man And Environment

B. On the outline map of Tamil Nadu mark the following.

1. A metropolitan city
2. A district with 7857 people per sq. km.
3. Gulf of Mannar
4. Palk Strait
Samacheer Kalvi Social 9th Science Geography Solutions Chapter 6 Man And Environment

Man and Environment ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS

I. Choose the correct answer.

Question 1.
The interaction between man as an individual with his family, occupation and society is ……..
(a) Natural Environment
(b) Human Environment
(c) Man-made Environment
(d) None of these
Answer:
(b) Human Environment

Question 2.
The physical factor is ………..
(a) temperature
(b) war
(c) trade
(d) commerce
Answer:
(a) temperature

Question 3.
The economical factor is ……..
(a) rainfall
(b) water
(c) soil
(d) luxurious amenities
Answer:
(d) luxurious amenities

Question 4.
To enter (or) come into a new country for the purpose of settling there is known as ………..
(a) internal migration
(b) emigration
(c) immigration
(d) none of these
Answer:
(c) immigration

Question 5.
The rural settlement that is found at the confluence of rivers is ……….
(a) linear pattern
(b) circular pattern
(c) star like pattern
(d) triangular pattern
Answer:
(d) triangular pattern

Question 6.
Transforming raw materials into finished goods is activity.
(a) primary
(b) secondary
(c) tertiary
(d) quinary
Answer:
(b) secondary

Question 7.
…….. is man-made pollution.
(a) Vehicular emission
(b) Wind erosion
(c) Pollen disposal
(d) Evaporation of organic compounds
Answer:
(a) Vehicular emission

Question 8.
Dry recyclable wastes are ……..
(a) food products
(b) packing plastics
(c) diapers
(d) mobiles
Answer:
(b) packing plastics

Question 9.
Van Mahotsav is a weeklong festival celebrated between ………
(a) 1st and 7th July
(b) 1st and 7th June
(c) 1st and 7th August
(d) 1st and 71th September
Answer:
(a) 1st and 7th July

Question 10.
…… disease is caused by water pollution.
(a) Hypertension
(b) Mental illness
(c) Stress
(d) Diarrhoea
Answer:
(d) Diarrhoea

II. Consider the given statements and choose the right option given below:

Question 1.
Assertion (A): Noise pollution is basically a problem of urban areas, industrial areas, transport areas due to bombardment, traffic etc.
Reason (R): It has an impact on the habitat of animals migration and health of inhabitants.
(a) A and R are correct and A explains R
(b) A and R are correct and A does not explain R
(c) A is incorrect and R is correct
(d) Both A and R are incorrect
Answer:
(a) A and R are correct and A explains R

Question 2.
Assertion (A): Things used for domestic purposes can be reused and recycled.
Reason (R): Organic waste matter should be disposed off far away from settlements.
(a) Both A and R are incorrect
(b) Both A and R are correct
(c) A is correct and R is wrong
(d) A and R are correct and A explains R
Answer:
(b) Both A and R are correct

III. Match the following:

9th Samacheer Kalvi Social Science Geography Solutions Chapter 6 Man And Environment
Answers:
1. (e)
2. (a)
3. (b)
4. (c)
5. (d)

IV. Fill in the blanks.
1. …….. is the statistical study of human population.
2. ……. is an official enumeration of population carried out periodically.
3. …… is a condition when a country has more people than its resources to sustain.
4. Cities with more than 50 lakh population are called ……..
5. ……… Activities pertain to the extraction of raw materials from the earth’s surface.
6. …….. is a poisonous gas made up of molecules consisting three oxygen atoms.
7. ……. refers to the process of increase in urban population and urban areas in a country.
8. The economic sustainability is successfully implemented through strong ………
Answers:
1. Demography
2. Census
3. Overpopulation
4. megacities
5. Primary
6. Ozone
7. Urbanisation
8. Public Distribution System

V. Answer the following in brief.

Question 1.
Define Environment.
Answer:
Environment is a set of relationships between man and nature. Man has survived through the ages, dwelling within his surrounding called the environment.

Question 2.
Write a short note on “Human Environment”.
Answer:
Human environment is defined as the interaction between man as an individual, with his family, occupation and society. It is also related to various cultural aspects such as education, religion, economics and politics.

Question 3.
What is Demography?
Answer:
In ancient Greek, ‘demos’ means people and ‘graphis’ means study Of measurement: So, ‘Demography’is the statistical study of human population.

Question 4.
What does population distribution refer to?
Answer:
Population distribution refers to the way in which people are spread out across the earth’s surface.

Question 5.
What do you mean by Nebular pattern of road arrangement?
Answer:
The arrangement of roads is almost circular which ends at the central location or nucleus of the settlement around the house of the main landlord of the village or around a mosque, temple or church.

Question 6.
Mention the patterns of Rural Settlement.
Answer:

  1. Rectangular pattern
  2. Linear pattern
  3. Circular or semicircular pattern
  4. Star like pattern
  5. Triangular pattern
  6. T-Shaped, Y-Shaped, Cross-Shaped or Cruciform settlements
  7. Nebular pattern

Question 7.
What are the control measures of Noise pollution?
Answer:
The control measures of noise pollution are:

  1. Development of green belt vegetation.
  2. Installation of decibel meters along highways and in places of public gatherings.
  3. Planting trees along the compound wall to protect houses.

Question 8.
State the problems of urbanisation.
Answer:
As the town expands, it mounts more pressure on transport system, water supplies, sewage and profuse disposal. The overall development creates problems like air pollution, water pollution, traffic congestion and noise pollution etc., This disturbed environment affects the human beings as mental illness, heart troubles, breathing problems etc.

Question 9.
Classify wastes.
Answer:
Wastes can be classified into five types, which are commonly found around the house. These . include liquid waste, solid rubbish, organic waste, recyclable rubbish and hazardous waste like e-waste.

Question 10.
What do you mean by Environmental Sustainability?
Answer:
Environmental sustainability is the ability of the environment to support a defined level of environmental quality and natural resource extraction rates forever to mankind. Unnecessary disturbances to the environment should be avoided whenever possible.

VI. Distinguish the following

Question 1.
Natural Environment and Human Environment.
Answer:

Natural Environment Human Environment
The components of natural components of environment are lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. Human environment is defined as the interaction between man as an individual, with his family, occupation and society.
This includes the biotic and abiotic components like ponds, lakes, grasslands, forests, mountains, etc. It is related to various cultural aspects such as education, religion, economics and politics.

Question 2.
Rectangular Pattern and Linear Pattern.
Answer:

Rectangular Pattern

Linear Pattern

Rectangular pattern of settlements are found in plain areas or valleys. The roads are rectangular and cut each other at right angles. In a linear pattern, the houses are located along a road, railway line and along the edge of the river valley or along a levee.

Question 3.
Tertiary Activities and Quarternary Activities.
Answer:

Tertiary Activities Quarternary Activities
Activities which by themselves do not produce goods, but support the process of production are called tertiary activities. The activities related to Research and Development, as well as knowledge are called Quaternary activities.
For example: Transport, communication, banking, storage and trade. For e.g. Services like consultation, education andbanking.

Question 4.
Town and City
Answer:

Town City
A town is generally larger than a village, but smaller than a city. It has a population of less than 1 lakh. Cities are much larger than towns and have a greater number of economic functions.
The population in cities are estimated to be more than 1 lakh.
E.g.: Arakkonam near Chennai E.g.: Coimbatore

VII. Give Reasons

Question 1.
“It is easy to add but difficult to maintain.”
Answer:

  1. Population is a dynamic phenomenon where the distribution and composition are constantly changing.
  2. Human population increases as babies are born and decreases as people die. So it is easy to increase the number but difficult to maintain.

Question 2.
“Human settlement can be described as any temporary (or) permanent unit area”.
Answer:

  1. During the early days man preferred tree branches, caves, pits (or) even rock cuts as his shelter.
  2. Slowly settlements came into existence.
  3. Later small settlements developed into villages, towns, cities. So he started living in settled areas.

Question 3.
“We must use forest products properly”.
Answer:
Besides providing habitats for animals and livelihoods for humans, forest products are one of the most essential things in our day to day life. Therefore we must use forest products properly.

Question 4.
“Pollution is an unfavourable modification of the natural world”.
Answer:
Pollute means to degrade or to make dirty. It is caused entirely (or) partly due to direct (or) indirect actions of human beings. So pollution is an unfavourable modification of the natural world.

Question 5.
Why do we get impervious diseases like skin cancer, blindness, loss of plankton?
Answer:
Due to the depletion of ozone layer, UV rays fall on the earth’s surface, and leads to impervious diseases like skin cancer, blindness, loss of plankton etc.

VIII. Answer in a paragraph.

Question 1.
Define Sustainable Development. Explain Social Sustainability and Economic Sustainability.
Answer:
“Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs”. For sustainable development to be achieved, it is crucial to harmonize three core elements: economic growth, social aspects and environmental protection. These elements are interconnected and are crucial for the wellbeing of individuals and societies. To achieve true sustainability, we need to balance the economic ,social and environmental factors of sustainability in equal harmony.

Social Sustainability
The ability of a social system such as a country, family or organization to function at a defined level of social well being and harmony is called social sustainability. Problems like war, endemic poverty, widespread injustice and low education rates are symptoms of a system in socially unsustainable. The balancing capacity of a government in maintaining peaceful existence towards other countries and at the same time providing the requirements of its citizens without affecting the environment creates social sustainability.

Economic Sustainability
The people on earth consume far more than what is their fair share.

  • The economic sustainability is successfully implemented through strong Public Distrubution System.
  • Economic sustainability ensures that our economic growth maintains a healthy balance with our ecosystem.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Maths Solutions Chapter 1 Set Language Ex 1.1

You can Download Samacheer Kalvi 9th Maths Book Solutions Guide Pdf, Tamilnadu State Board help you to revise the complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 9th Maths Solutions Chapter 1 Set Language Ex 1.1

Set Language Maths 9th Class Question 1.
Which of the following are sets?
(i) The Collection of prime numbers upto 100.
(ii) The Collection of rich people in India.
(iii) The Collection of all rivers in India.
(iv) The Collection of good Hockey players.
Solution:
(i) A = {2, 3, 5, 7,11, 13,17,19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43, 47, 53, 59, 61, 67, 71, 73, 79, 83, 89 and 97}
As the collection of prime numbers upto 100 is known and can be counted (well defined). Hence this is a set.
(ii) The collection of rich people in India. Rich people has no definition.
Hence, it is not a set.
(iii) A = {Cauvery, Sindhu, Ganga, }
Hence, it is a set.
(iv) The collection of good hockey players is not a well – defined collection because the criteria for determining a hockey player’s talent may vary from person to person.
Hence, this collection is not a set.

9th Maths Set Language Exercise 1.1 Question 2.
Listthe set of letters of the following words in Roster form.
(i) INDIA
(ii) PARALLELOGRAM
(iii) MISSISSIPPI
(iv) CZECHOSLOVAKIA
Solution:
(i) A = {I, N, D, A}
(ii) B = {P, A, R, L, E, O, G, M}
(iii) C = {M, I, S, P}
(iv) D = {C, Z, E, H, O, S, L, V, A, K, I}.

9th Maths Exercise 1.1 In Tamil Question 3.
Consider the following sets A = {0, 3, 5, 8} B = {2, 4, 6, 10} C = {12, 14, 18, 20}
(a) State whether True or false.
(i) 18 ∈ C
(ii) 6 ∉A
(iii) 14 ∉ C
(iv) 10 ∈ B
(v) 5 ∈ B
(vi) 0 ∈ B

(b) Fill in the blanks?
(i) 3 ∈ ___
(ii) 14 e ___
(iii) 18 ___ B
(iv) 4 ___ B
Solution:
(a) (i) True
(ii) True
(iii) False
(iv) True
(v) False
(vi) False,

(b) (i) A
(ii) C
(iii) ∉
(iv) ∈

9th Maths Exercise 1.1 Question 4.
Represent the following sets in Roster form.
(i) A = The set of all even natural numbers less than 20.
(ii) B = {y : y = \(\frac{1}{2 n}\), n ∈ N, n ≤ 5}
(iii) C = (x : x is perfect cube, 27 < x < 216}
(iv) D = {x : x ∈ Z, -5 < x ≤ 2}
Solution:
(i) A= {2,4, 6, 8,10, 12, 14,16, 18}
(ii) N = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
Set Language Maths 9th Class Chapter 1 Samacheer Kalvi Ex 1.1
(iii) C = {64, 125}
(iv) D = {-4,-3, -2, -1,0, 1, 2}

9th Maths Set Language Exercise 1.1 Solutions Question 5.
Represent the following sets in set builder form.
(i) B = The set of all Cricket players in India who scored double centuries in One Day Internationals.
(ii) C = { \(\frac{1}{2}, \frac{2}{3}, \frac{3}{4} \ldots . .\)}.
(iii) D = The set of all tamil months in a year.
(iv) E = The set of odd Whole numbers less than 9.
Solution:
(i) B = {x : x is an Indian player who scored double centuries in one day internationals}
(ii) C = {x : x = \(\frac{n}{n+1}\), n ∈ N}
(iii) D = {x : x is a tamil month in a year}
(iv) E = {x : x is odd number, x ∈ W, x < 9, where W is the set of whole numbers}.

Class 9 Maths Chapter 1 Set Language Question 6.
Represent the following sets in descriptive form.
(i) P = {January, June, July}
(ii) Q = {7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29}
(iii) R= {x : x ∈ N,x< 5}
(iv) S = {x : x is a consonant in English alphabets}
Solution:
(i) P is the set of English Months begining with J.
(ii) Q is the set of all prime numbers between 5 and 31.
(iii) R is the set of all natural numbers less than 5.
(iv) S is the set of all English consonants.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 5 Little Cyclone: The Story of a Grizzly Cub

You can Download Little Cyclone: The Story of a Grizzly Cub Questions and Answers, Summary, Activity, Notes, Samacheer Kalvi 9th English Book Solutions Guide Pdf Supplementary Chapter 5 help you to revise complete Tamilnadu State Board New Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 9th English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 5 Little Cyclone: The Story of a Grizzly Cub

Little Cyclone: The Story of a Grizzly Cub Warm Up: 

Little Cyclone The Story Of A Grizzly Cub Question 1.
Why are some animals endangered?
Answer:
An animal is called endangered when only a few of its kind are alive in the world. There are many reasons for a species to become endangered. The environmental conditions on Earth are continually changing. Some animals become endangered because they can no longer survive in the new conditions of their changing habitat. Some other prominent reasons are overhunting by humans and pollution.

Little Cyclone The Story Of A Grizzly Cub Summary Question 2.
Why do wild animals from the forest often enter the human living spaces?
Answer:
Due to urbanisation, people are felling trees and destroying forests to expand their habitable area. This reduces animal habitat due to which they are forced to enter into human living space, in search of food, water and shelter.

Little Cyclone: The Story Of A Grizzly Cub Questions And Answers Question 3.
Are animals happy in wild life rehabilitation centres?
Answer:
Animals are brought to the wild life rehabilitation centres to live and be protected for the rest of their lives. But the animals might not be happy in captivity. Although they are provided with good sanitary conditions, sufficient enclosures, proper vet care and appropriate feed, they may definitely miss their natural habitat.

Little Cyclone The Story Of A Grizzly Cub Questions And Answers Question 4.
Can a rehab animal survive in the wild?
Answer:
Most animals are brought into wildlife rehabilitation centres for help. They are so sick or emaciated that their chances for survival are often slim. They are taken care of and treated under captivity only until able to live independently in the wild. Every effort is made to minimize human contact and prevent the taming of rehabilitation patients. So, when they are released back in their wild habitat, they often survive well.

Little Cyclone: The Story Of A Grizzly Cub Book Back Answers Question 5.
How many types of bear do you think are there living in the world today?
Answer:
Today, there are only eight species of bears surviving in the world. Except for Antarctica and Australia, all other continents of the world provide habitats for bears.

Vocabulary:

A. use the following phrases in sentences of your own.

Little Cyclone The Story Of A Grizzly Cub Samacheer Kalvi 9th English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 5

1. earn one’s name – make a name for oneself.
She earned her name in politics, as a powerful leader.

2. in the rear of – at the back of.
Harry was sitting in the rear of seat of his car.

3. to see one fight – to struggle to get through something.
I can see him fighting for his right to vote.

4. devoid of – lacking in.
This apartment is devoid of all comforts.

5. air and manner – to behave in a way that does not show how you really feel.
Audy assumed an air and manner of indifference, whenever her name was mentioned.

6. quick as a flash – very quickly.
He was at her side as quick as a flash.

7. in wild haste – rapidly.
It is very important that decisions are not taken in wild haste.

8. make a pass – make advances to someone.
Men seldom make passes at girls who wear glasses.

B. Now refer a dictionary and find idioms on the following animals, birds and insects. Learn their meanings and share what you have learnt with your class. Try to frame illustrative sentences with those idioms. Find opportunities to use them in your everyday conversations.

Little Cyclone The Story Of A Grizzly Cub Summary Samacheer Kalvi 9th English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 5

1. lion – get the lion’s share – get the greatest percentage.
My aunt got the lion’s share of the inheritance.

2. mouse – as poor as a church mouse – very poor.
My cousin is as poor as a church mouse and never has any money to spend.

3. parrot – as sick as a parrot – To be thoroughly displeased.
Tim was as sick as a parrot to be separated from my family.

4. fox – as sly as a fox – smart and clever.
The manager of our apartment is as sly as a fox.

5. hawk – watching like a hawk – watching something very, very closely.
I’m watching you like a hawk.

6. Snake – nurse a snake in one’s bosom – look after.
I have nursed a snake in my bosom all these years.

7. monkey – I’ll be a monkey’s uncle – I’m very surprised.
Well, I’ll be a monkey’s uncle. I never thought I’d pass that test.

8. dog – dog days – very hot days.
I slept in the basement during the dog days of August.

9. snail – At a snail’s pace – Moving very slowly.
Traffic is moving at a snail’s pace.

10. bee – make a beeline for – go quickly and directly to somebody or something.
My grand mother made a beeline for the food as soon as she arrived

C. Based on your reading, answer the following questions in a paragraph of about 100-150 words each.

Summary Of Little Cyclone The Story Of A Grizzly Cub Question 1.
Describe the appearance of Little Cyclone.
Answer:
Little Cyclone is a grizzly cub from Alaska. He earned his name by the vigour of his resistance to ill-treatment. He was a curious and amusing little cub. It had fluffy hair, two big black eyes which sparkled like jet beads, short and fat nose and high shoulders. But his claws were strong and dangerous and he had a truly grizzly spirit. He did not show any fear to its opponents. He was bom full of courage and devoid of all sense of fear. He was a queer looking gray fellow with a broad head. He could fight any other bear on three seconds’ notice.

Little Cyclone: The Story Of A Grizzly Cub Ppt Question 2.
What does the fight Little Cyclone and his brother put up, tell you about the nature of grizzly bears?
Answer:
Grizzly bears are bom full of courage and devoid of all sense of fear. Little cyclone is a grizzly cub from Alaska. He earned his name by the vigour of his resistance to ill treatment. When his mother was fired at, on a timbered hillside, he and his brother ran away as fast as their short and thick legs could carry them. When they came back,they thought their mother was sleeping. They cuddled up close against her warm body and slept peacefully until morning.

They were awakened by the rough grasp of human hands. Bravely, they bit, scratched and cried aloud with anger. His brother made a fight so fierce and terrible that his nervous captor let him go. Although, Little Cyclone fought just as desperately, his captor seized him by his hind legs, dragged him backwards and bound him. This fight of the grizzly bears proves their strength and grit. They do not wish to be cowed down or dominated by their opponents.

Little Cyclone: The Story Of A Grizzly Cub Mind Map Question 3.
“If any of you fellows think there is anything coming to you from me, come and take (t”. How did Little Cyclone prove this?
Answer:
When Little Cyclone’s travelling box was opened, he found himself free in the Bear Nursery at New York. He walked stiffly with pride to the centre of the stage, halted and calmly looked about him. His air and manner said as plainly as English, “I’m a grizzly from Alaska, and I’ve come to stay. If any of you fellows think there is anything coming to you from me, come and take it’. Usually a new comer would be badly scared during his first day in the Nursery and very timid during the next. But grizzlies are different. They are born full of courage and devoid of all sense of fear.

Naturally, it is a good test of courage and temper to turn a new bear into that roistering crowd. But Little Cyclone was fearless and quick in attacking his opponents on three seconds’ notice.

Little Cyclone The Story Of A Grizzly Cub Ppt Question 4.
Describe the confrontation between Little Czar and Little Cyclone.
Answer:
Little Czar was a very cheeky and impertinent bear. But it was a good-natured European brown bear. He walked to Little Cyclone and aimed a sample blow at Cyclone’s left ear. Quick as a flash, outshot Cyclone’s right paw, as only a grizzly can strike and caught the would-be hazer on the side of the head. Amazed and confused, Czar fled in wild haste. Next Cyclone also attacked a black bear cub, who made a pass at the newcomer and made him to quit the field.

Little Cyclone carefully and meticulously met every attack, real or faked, that was made upon him. All the bears in the Nursery understood that Little Cyclone can fight any other bear on three seconds’ notice. He could also strike anyone hard and quickly.

D. Telling the Story Again.

Little Cyclone was a grizzly cub from __________ (1) ___________. earned his name __________ (2) _________. When his mother was fired at, they ____________ .(3) ___________. The next day at sunrise the two orphans found themselves at _____________ (4) _____________ .One of them escaped ____________ (5) _____________. So the captor let him go. But the other cub was ____________ (6) ___________ and taken to the ___________ (7) ___________ at New York. The Zoological Park had _____________ (8) _____________ . Usually a newcomer is badly scared on his first day but ______________ (9) ______________. When the box was opened he stood up with courage __________(10) ____________.  Cyclone courageously met every __________________ (11) ___________ In less than an hour, all the other bears understood _________ (12) ____________. From then on Little Cyclone’s position was _____________ (13) _____________.
Answer:

  1. Alaska, who
  2. by the vigour of his resistance to ill-treatment.
  3. ran away as fast as their stumpy legs could carry them.
  4. the rough grasp of human hands.
  5. after a fierce and terrible fight,
  6. seized
  7. Zoological Park
  8. Bears’ Nursery.
  9. grizzly bears are different
  10. and walked stiffly with pride to the center of the stage, halted and calmly looked about him.
  11. attack real or faked.
  12. that Cyclone could strike quick and hard and fight any other bear on three seconds’notice.
  13. assured with respect and dignity.

E. Choose the correct answer.

Little Cyclone The Story Of A Grizzly Cub In Tamil Question 1.
Little Cyclone is a grizzly cub who earned his name by his ____________.
(a) appearance and behaviour.
(b) viguor of resistance to ill-treatment.
(c) speed and courage.
(d) escape from a cyclone.
Answer:
(b) vigour of resistance to ill-treatment

Little Cyclone The Story Of A Grizzly Cub Mind Map Question 2.
The nervous captor let one bear go because ____________.
(a) he was afraid of bears.
(b) he did not have proper equipment to seize him.
(c) he bear fought so fiercly.
(d) the bear escaped and ran away.
Answer:
(c) the bear fought so fiercly

The Story Of A Grizzly Cub Summary Question 3.
Little Cyclone was rescued by the ____________.
(a) members of the Blue Cross.
(b) friendly hands of the Zoological Society.
(c) members of the National Zoo.
(d) volunteers from New York.
Answer:
(b) friendly hands of the Zoological Society

Question 4.
Little Czar was a ____________.
(a) good natured European brown bear.
(b) grizzly cub from Alaska.
(c) furry little Polar bear.
(d) North American black bear.
Answer:
(a) good natured European brown bear

Question 5.
Little Cyclone will fight any other bear in ____________.
(a) 10 minutes’ notice.
(b) 15 minutes’ notice.
(c) 03 seconds’ notice.
(d) 10 seconds’ notice.
Answer:
(c) 03 seconds’ notice

F. Learn the following idioms on bears.

Little Cyclone: The Story Of A Grizzly Cub Questions And Answers Samacheer Kalvi 9th English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 5

Little Cyclone: The Story of a Grizzly Cub About The Author:

William Temple Homaday was an American Zoologist, conservationist, taxidermist and author. The first director of the New York Zoological Park, William Temple Homaday was a pioneer in the early wildlife conservation movement in the United States.

He is known for his dramatic ‘life groups” of animals in natural setting for museum displays. Homaday’s goal was to educate the American people about these magnificent animals and generate interest in environmental conservation. He also produced a very popular exhibit of a bison group for the National Museum.

In 1889, Homaday published ‘The Extermination of the American Bison’ a popular work that did create public support to save this species. He emphasized the importance of saving American native wildife.

Little Cyclone: The Story of a Grizzly Cub Summary:

Little Cyclone The Story Of A Grizzly Cub Questions And Answers Samacheer Kalvi 9th English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 5

A young grizzly bear by name Little Cyclone had proved its strength and grit. Little Cyclone did not cow down nor let the bigger bears to dominate it. Little Cyclone is from Alaska. It earned this name after it showed its vigour of resistance to ill-treatment.

One day when Little Cyclone’s mother was fired at a timbered hillside facing Chilkat River, he and his brother ran to the spot and cuddled her thinking that she was asleep the whole night. The next day, before dawn the two brothers were seized by humans.

One of them escaped from the human hand by making a terrible and forceful fight and stayed in Chilkoot. The other failed in its endeavour and was captured and seized. Then it was collared, chained in the rear of the saloon in Porcupine city. To tame the grizzly cub they used a long pole and violently prodded to see if it defended. Very soon Little Cyclone was rescued by die zoological society’s field agent who took him to New York.

In New York at the Bears’ Nursery, which is a big yard, it had a shade tree, a tree to climb, a swimming pool, three sleeping dens and a rock cliff where usually six to eight cubs were accommodated. Naturally it is a good test of courage and temper to turn a new bear into that roystering crowd.

A newcomer generally in a nursery takes time to adapt but grizzlies are different. Especially Little Cyclone’s behaviour was very different. When he was let out from the travelling box, he stalked and occupied the centre stage with an air and manner which pronounced thus: “I’m a grizzly from Alaska, and I’ve come to stay.” His mannerism also stated that if you dare to protest come for a fight.

Little Czar, a very saucy but good. natured European brown bear cub gave a blow at Little Cyclone’s left ear. Quick as a flash, Cyclone’s right paw struck Czar and caught the side of the head. Amazed and confounded Czar fled. Next came a black bear cub twice the size of Cyclone but he received a fierce blow that he immediately left the field and ran to the top of the cliff.

There were lots of attack at Cyclone one after the other but in less than an hour every bear in the Nursery understood that Little Cyclone, the queer looking gray fellow with broad head and short nose could strike quick and hard and finish them off in less than three seconds. From that time, Cyclone’s position was assured.

Little Cyclone: The Story of a Grizzly Cub Glossary:

Little Cyclone: The Story Of A Grizzly Cub Book Back Answers Samacheer Kalvi 9th English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 5

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Algebra Ex 3.6

You can Download Samacheer Kalvi 9th Maths Book Solutions Guide Pdf, Tamilnadu State Board help you to revise the complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 9th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Algebra Ex 3.6

9th Maths Exercise 3.6 Question 1.
Factorise the following:
(i) x2 + 10x + 24
(ii) z2 + 4z – 12
(iii) p2 – 6p – 16
(iv) t2 + 72 – 17t
(v) y2 – 16y – 80
(vi) a2 + 10a – 600
Solution:
(i) x2 + 10x + 24
x2 + 10x + 24 = x2 + 6x + 4x + 24
9th Maths Exercise 3.6 Solutions Chapter 3 Algebra Samacheer Kalvi
= x(x + 6) + 4 (x + 6)
= (x + 6) (x + 4)

(ii) z2 + 4z – 12
z2 + 4z – 12 = z2 + 6z – 2z- 12
Exercise 3.6 Class 9 Samacheer Kalvi Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Algebra
= z (z + 6) – 2 (z + 6)
= (z + 6) (z – 2)

(iii) p2 – 6p – 16
p2 – 6p – 16 = p2 – 8p + 2p – 16
9th Maths 3.6 Samacheer Kalvi Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Algebra
= p(p – 8) + 2(p – 8)
= (p – 8)(p + 2)

(iv) t2 + 72 – 17t
t2 + 72 – 17t = t2 – 17t + 72
= t2 – 9t – 8t + 72
9th Standard Maths Exercise 3.6 Samacheer Kalvi Solutions Chapter 3 Algebra
= t(t – 9) – 8 (t – 9)
= (t – 9) (t – 8)

(v) y2 – 16y – 80
y2 – 16y – 80 = y2 – 20y + 4y – 80
9th Maths Exercise 3.6 In Tamil Samacheer Kalvi Solutions Chapter 3 Algebra
= y(y – 20) + 4 (y – 20)
= (y – 20) (y + 4)

(vi) a2 + 10a – 600
a2 + 10a – 600 = a2 + 30a – 20a – 600
9th Class Math Exercise 3.6 Solution Samacheer Kalvi Solutions Chapter 3 Algebra
= a(a + 30) -20 (a + 30)
= (a + 30) (a – 20)

Exercise 3.6 Class 9 Question 2.
Factorise the following
(i) 2a2 + 9a + 10
(ii) 5x2 – 29xy – 42y2
(iii) 9 – 18x + 18x2
(iv) 6x2 + 16xy + 8y2
(v) 12x2 + 36x2y + 27y2x2
(vi) (a + b)2 + 9 (a + b) + 18
Solution:
(i) 2a2 + 9a + 10
2a2 + 9a + 10 = 2a2 + 4a + 5a + 10
Samacheer Kalvi 9th Maths Chapter 3 Algebra Ex 3.6
= 2a(a + 2) + 5 (a + 2)
= (a+ 2) (2a+ 5)

(ii) 5x2 – 29xy – 42y2
5x2 – 35xy + 6xy – 42y2
Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 9th Maths Solutions Chapter 3 Algebra Ex 3.6
= 5x (x – 7) + 6y (x – 7)
= (x – 7) (5x + 6y)

(iii) 9 – 18x + 8x2
= 8x2 – 18x + 9
= 8x2 – 6x – 12x + 9
Class 9 Maths Chapter 3 Exercise 3.6 Samacheer Kalvi Algebra
= 2x (4 x – 3) – 3 (4x – 3)
= (4x – 3) (2x – 3)

(iv) 6x2 + 16xy + 8y2
= 2 (3x2 + 8xy + 4y2)
= 2 (3x2 + 8xy + 4y2)
Exercise 3.6 Maths Samacheer Kalvi 9th Solutions Chapter 3 Algebra
= 2 (3x2 + 6xy + 2xy + 4y2)
= 2 (3x (x + 2y) + 2y (x + 2y))
= 2 (x + 2y) (3x + 2y)

(v) 12x2 + 36x2y + 27y2x2
= 27y2x2 + 36x2y + 12x2 = 3x2(9y2 + 12y + 4)
Maths Chapter 3 Class 9 Samacheer Kalvi Solutions Algebra Ex 3.6
= 3x2 (9y2 + 6y + 6y + 4) = 3x2 (3y (3y + 2) + 2 (3y + 2))
= 3x2 (3y + 2) (3y + 2) = 3x2 (3y + 2) (3y + 2)

(vi) (a + b)2 + 9 (a + 6) + 18
= (a + b)2 + 6 (a + b) + 3 (a + b) + 18
Samacheer Kalvi 9th Maths Chapter 3 Algebra Ex 3.6 12
= (a + b) ((a + b) + 6) + 3 ((a + b) + 6)
= ((a + 6) + 6) ((a + b) + 3) = (a + b + 6) (a + b + 3)

9th Maths 3.6 Question 3.
Factorise the following:
(i) (p – q)2 – 6(p – q) – 16
(ii) m2 + 2mn – 24n2
(iii) \(\sqrt{5} a^{2}\) + 2a – \(3 \sqrt{5}\)
(iv) a4 – 3a2 + 2
(v) 8m3 – 2m2n – 15mn2
(vi) \(\frac{1}{x^{2}}+\frac{1}{y^{2}}+\frac{2}{x y}\)
Solution:
(i) (p – q)2 – 6 (p – q) – 16
= (p – q)2 – 8(p – q) + 2(p – q) – 16
Samacheer Kalvi 9th Maths Chapter 3 Algebra Ex 3.6 13
= (p – q)((p – q) – 8) + 2((p – q) – 8)
= (p – q – 8)(p – q + 2)

(ii) m2 + 2mn – 24n2
= m2 + 6mn – 4mn – 24n2
Samacheer Kalvi 9th Maths Chapter 3 Algebra Ex 3.6 14
= m(m + 6n) – 4n(m + 6n)
= (m + 6n)(m – 4n)

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Maths Chapter 3 Algebra Ex 3.6 15

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Science Solutions Chapter 7 Heat

You can Download Samacheer Kalvi 9th Science Book Solutions Guide Pdf, Tamilnadu State Board help you to revise the complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Science Solutions Chapter 7 Heat

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Science Heat Textbook Exercises

I. Choose the correct answer:

Heat Lesson For 9th Class Question 1.
Calorie is the unit of
(a) heat
(b) work
(c) temperature
(d) food
Answer:
(a) heat

9th Class Physics Heat Lesson Question 2.
SI unit of temperature is
(a) fahrenheit
(b) joule
(c) Celsius
(d) kelvin
Answer:
(d) kelvin

Heat Samacheer Kalvi Question 3.
Two cylindrical rods of same length have the area of cross-section in the ratio 2:1. If both the rods are made up of same material, which of them conduct heat faster?
(a) Both rods
(b) Rod-2
(c) Rod-1
(d) None of them
Answer:
(c) Rod-1

Heat Lesson In Physics For Class 9 Question 4.
In which mode of transfer of heat, molecules pass on heat energy to neighbouring molecules without actually moving from their positions?
(a) Radiation
(b) Conduction
(c) Convection
(d) Both B and C
Answer:
(b) Conduction

9th Class Physical Science Heat Lesson Question 5.
A device in which the loss of heat due to conduction, convection and radiation is minimized is
(a) Solar cell
(b) Solar cooker
(c) Thermometer
(d) Thermos flask
Answer:

  1.  (a) Heat
  2.  (d) kelvin
  3.  (c) Rod-1
  4.  (b) Conduction
  5.  (d) Thermos flask

II. Fill in the blanks.

  1. The fastest mode of heat transfer is ……………….
  2. During day time, air blows from ………… to …………….
  3. Liquids and gases are generally …………….. conductors of heat.
  4. The fixed temperature at which matter changes state from solid to liquid is called ………………

Answer:

  1. radiation
  2. land, sea
  3. bad
  4. melting point

III. Assertion and Reason type questions.

Mark the correct choice as:
(a) If both assertion and reason are true and reason is the correct explanation of assertion.
(b) If both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the correct explanation of assertion.
(c) If assertion is true but reason is false.
(d) If assertion is false but reason is true.

Chapter 7 Heat Question 1.
Assertion(A): Food can be cooked faster in copper bottom vessels.
Reason (R): Copper is the best conductor of heat.
Answer:
(a) If both assertion and reason are true and reason is the correct explanation of assertion.

Heat 9th Class Question 2.
Assertion(A): Maximum sunlight reaches earth’s surface during the afternoon time.
Reason(R): Heat from the sun reaches earth’s surface by radiation.
Answer:
(b) If both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the correct explanation of assertion.

7 Heat Question 3.
Assertion(A): When water is heated up to 100°C, there is no raise in temperature until all water gets converted into water vapour.

Reason(R): Boiling point of water is 10°C.
Answer:
(c) If assertion is true but reason is false.

IV. Answer briefly.

Lesson 7 Science Class 9 Question 1.
Define conduction.
Answer:
The process of transfer of heat in solids from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature without the actual movement of molecules is called conduction.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Science Question 2.
Ice is kept in a double-walled container. Why?
Answer:
Ice is kept in a double-walled container so as to prevent melting of ice from the heat absorbed present in the immediate surroundings. The vacuum present in between the two walls prevents the transfer of heat from the first to the second wall and hence the ice remains in the solid form for a longer time period.

Define Sublimation Class 9 Samacheer Kalvi Question 3.
How does the water kept in an earthen pot remain cool?
Answer:
An earthen pot consists of small pores from which the water inside the pot constantly seeps out and gets evaporated due to the presence of high temperature around it. The evaporation process requires heat which is acquired from the surface of the pot, hence making the water and the pot cooler.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Science Practical Question 4.
Differentiate convection and radiation.
Answer:

S.No. Convection Radiation
1. Flow of heat through a fluid from places of higher temperature to places of lower temperature by movement of the fluid itself. Flow of heat from one place to another by means of electromagnetic waves.
2. Convection needs matter to be present. Radiation can occur even in vacuum.
3. Convection seen in daily life:

Hot air balloons, breeze, wind, chimney.

Radiation in daily life:

White or light coloured cloths, highly polished surface of airplane, helps to reflect most of the heat radiation from the sun.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Science Solutions Question 5.
Why do people prefer wearing white clothes during summer?
Answer:
People prefer white or light coloured clothes during summer as they are good reflectors of heat and hence, they keep us cool.

Question 6.
What is specific heat capacity?
Answer:

  • The specific heat capacity of a substance is defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of the substance by 1°C or 1 K.
  • Q = mC∆T, where Q is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature and m is the mass of the body and AT is the change in temperature of the body.
  • The SI unit of specific heat capacity is Jkg– 1 K– 1. The most commonly used units of specific heat capacity are J/kg°C and J/g°C.

Question 7.
Define thermal capacity.
Answer:

  • Heat capacity or thermal capacity is defined as the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of a body by 1°C. It is denoted by ‘C’.
  • C = Q/t, where C’ is the heat capacity, ‘Q’ is the quantity of heat required and ‘f’ is rise in temperature.
  • SI unit of heat capacity is J/K. It is also expressed in cal/°C, kcal/°C or J/°C.

Question 8.
Define specific latent heat capacity.
Answer:

  • Specific latent heat is the amount of heat energy absorbed or liberated by unit mass of a substance during change of state without causing any change in temperature.
  • Specific latent heat is given as L = Q/m, where ‘Q’ is the amount of heat energy absorbed or liberated and ‘m’ is mass of a substance during its change of phase at a constant temperature.
  • The SI unit of specific latent heat is J/kg.

V. Answer in detail.

Question 1.
Explain convection in daily life.
Convection in daily life:
(i) Hot air balloons: Air molecules at the bottom of the balloon get heated by a heat source and rise. As the warm air rises, cold air is pushed downward and it is also heated. When the hot air is trapped inside the balloon, it rises.
Heat Lesson For 9th Class Science Solutions 7 Samacheer Kalvi
(ii) Breeze: During day time, the air in contact with the land becomes hot and rises. Now the cool air over the surface of the sea replaces it. It is called sea breeze. During night time, air above the sea is warmer. As the warmer air over the surface of the sea rises, cooler air above the land moves towards the sea.
9th Class Physics Heat Lesson Chapter 7 Samacheer Kalvi
(iii) Winds: Air flows from area of high pressure to area of low pressure. The warm air molecules over hot surface rise and create low pressure. So, cooler air with high pressure flows towards low pressure area. This causes wind flow.
(iv) Chimneys: Tall chimneys are kept in kitchen and industrial furnaces. As the hot gases and smoke are lighter, they rise up in the atmosphere.

Question 2.
What are the changes of state in water? Explain.
Answer:
Any matter around us can be in three forms: solid, liquid and gas, called as states of matter. Depending upon the temperature, pressure and transfer of heat, matter is converted from one state to another and is known as change of state in matter. There are different such processes in the change of state in matter.
Heat Samacheer Kalvi 9th Science Solutions Chapter 7
For example;

  • Water molecules are in liquid state at normal temperature. When water is heated to 100°C, it becomes steam or vapour which is a gaseous state of matter. The process by which a
    liquid is converted to vapour by absorbing heat is called boiling or vaporization.
  • The temperature at which a liquid changes its state to gas is called boiling point.
  • On reducing the temperature of the steam it becomes water again. The process by which a vapour is converted to liquid by releasing heat is called condensation. On reducing the temperature of water further to 0°C, it becomes ice which is a solid state of water.
  • The process by which a liquid is converted to solid by releasing heat is called freezing. The
    temperature by which a liquid changes its state to solid is called freezing point. Ice on
    heating, becomes water again by absorbing heat, a process known as melting.
  • Dry ice changes directly to gaseous state without becoming liquid. This process is called
    sublimation.

Thus, water changes its state when there is a change in temperature.
Heat Lesson In Physics For Class 9 Samacheer Kalvi

Question 3.
How can you experimentally prove that water is a bad conductor of heat? How is it possible to heat water easily while cooking.
Experiment to prove that water is a bad conductor of heat:
Answer:
Take a glass tube and drop an ice cube wrapped in wire gauze in it.
Now fill 3/4th of this tube with water and place it above the burner as shown in the figure.
You can observe that the water boils at the edge and the ice present in the bottom of the tube has not melted indicating that heat has not reached the bottom where the ice cube is present. This proves that water is a bad conductor of heat.
It is easy to heat water easily or quickly while cooking. This is because, while cooking the vessel or pan is usually covered with a lid.
9th Class Physical Science Heat Lesson Chapter 7 Samacheer Kalvi
This leads to three things;

  1. Radiation from the hot water is reflected back into the pan rather than being emitted
  2. Free convection is effectively eliminated, and
  3. Evaporative cooling’ is also eliminated.
    This in turn allows the water to be heated more easily.

VI. Problems:

Question 1.
What is the heat in joules required to raise the temperature of 25 grams of water from 0°C to 100°C? What is the heat in Calories? (Specific heat of water = 4.18 J/g°C).
Solution:
Given m = 25 g, ∆T = (100 – 0) = 100°C
Or in terms of Kelvin (373.15 – 273.15) = 100K,
C = 4.18J/g°C
Heat energy required, Q = m × C × ∆T = 25 × 4.18 × 100 = 10450 J

Question 2.
What could be the final temperature of a mixture of 100 g of water at 90°C and 600g of water at 20°C.
Solution:
To find final temperature: ∆Q = mc
lOOg of water originally at 90°C will loose an amount of heat,
∆Q = mc ∆T
∆Q = 100 × c × (90 – T)
The same amount of heat will be absorbed by 600g of water originally at 20°C to raise its temperature to T.
∆Q = 600 × c × (T – 30)
600C (T – 20°) = 100C (90° – T)
6T – 120° = 90° – T
6T + T = 120° + 90°
7T = 210° ⇒ T = 210/7
T = 30°C

Question 3.
How much heat energy is required to change 2 kg of ice at 0°C into water at 20°C? (Specific latent heat of fusion of water = 3,34,000J/kg, Specific heat capacity of water = 4200Jkg– 1 K– 1 ).
Solution:
Total heat = Heat required to convert 2Kg of ice into water at 0°C + Heat required to convert 2Kg of water at 0°C to 2Kg of water at 20°C
Heat = m (hfw) + mc∆T
Here, m(mass of ice) = 2Kg
hfw (specific latent heat of water) = 3,34,000J/Kg
C (specific heat capacity of water) = 4200JKg– 1K– 1
AT (Temperature difference) = 20°C
Therefore, Heat required = (2 × 334000) + (2 × 4200) (20 – 0)
= 668000 + 8400 (20)
= 668000+ 168000
Heat required = 8,36,000 J

Activity

Question 1.
Take a glass of water and put some ice cubes into it. Observe it for some time. What happens? The ice cubes melt and disappear. Why did it happen?
Solution:
It is because heat energy in the water is transferred to the ice.

Question 2.
Take metal rods of copper, aluminium, brass and iron. Fix a match stick to one end of each rod using a little melted wax. When the temperature of the far ends reach the melting point of wax, the matches drop off. It is observed that the match stick on the copper rod would fall first, showing copper as the best conductor followed by aluminum, brass and then iron.
Answer:
You can do the activity by yourself.

Question 3.
Drop a few crystals of potassium permanganate down to the bottom of a beaker containing water. When the beaker is heated just below the crystals, by a small flame, purple streaks of water rise upwards and fan outwards.
Answer:
You can do the activity by yourself.

Question 4.
Take some crushed ice cubes in a beaker and note down the temperature using thermometer. It will be 0°C. Now heat the ice i n the beaker. You can observe that ice is melting to form water. Record the temperature at regular intervals and it will remain at 0°C until whole ice is converted to liquid. Now heat the beaker again and record the temperature. You can notice that the temperature will rise up to 100°C and it will be at 100°C even after continuous heating until the whole mass of water in the beaker is vaporized.
Answer:
You can do the activity by yourself.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Science Heat In Text Problems

Question 1.
Convert the following,

  1.  25 °C to Kelvin
  2. 200 K to °C

Solution:

  1. Tk = T°C + 273.15
    Tk = 25 + 273.15 = 298.15 K
  2. T°C = Tk – 273.15
    T°C = 200 – 273.15 = – 73.15 °C

Question 2.
Convert the following.

  1. 35° C to Fahrenheit (°F)
  2. 14 °F to °C

Solution:

  1. T°F = T°C × 1.8 + 32
    T°F = 25° C × 1.8 + 32 = 77 °F
  2. T°C = (T°F – 32)/1.8
    T°C = (14°F – 32)/1.8 = – 10 °C

Question 3.
Calculate the heat energy required to raise the temperature of 2 kg of water from 10°C to 50°C. Specific heat capacity of water is 4200 JKg– 1 K– 1.
Solution:
Given m = 2 Kg, ∆T = (50 – 10) = 40°C
In terms of Kelvin, ∆T = (323.15 – 283.15) = 40K,
C = 4200 J Kg– 1 K,sup>- 1
∴ Heat energy required, Q = m × C × ∆T = 2 × 4200 × 40 = 3,36,000 J

Question 4.
An iron ball requires 5000 J heat energy to raise its temperature by 20°C. Calculate the heat capacity of the iron ball.
Solution:
Given, Q = 5000 J, ∆T = 20°C or 20 K
Heat Capacity = \(\frac{\text { Heat energy required, } \mathrm{Q}}{\text { Rise in temperature, } \Delta \mathrm{T}}=\frac{5000}{20}\) = 250 JK– 1

Question 5.
How much heat energy is required to melt 5 kg of ice? (Specific latent heat of ice = 336 Jg– 1)
Solution:
Given, m = 5 Kg = 5000g, L = 336 Jg– 1
Heat energy required = m × L
= 5000 × 336
= 1680000J or 1.68 × 106J

Question 6.
How much boiling water at 100°C is needed to melt 2 kg of ice so that the mixture which is all water is at 0°C?
[Specific heat capacity of water = 4.2 JKg– 1 and specific latent heat of ice = 336 Jg– 1].
Solution:
Given, mass of ice = 2 kg = 2000 g.
Let m be the mass of boiling water required.
Heat lost = Heat gained.
m × c × ∆t = m × L
m × 4.2 × (100 – 0) = 2000 × 336
m = \(\frac{2000 \times 336}{4.2 \times 100}\)
= 1600 g or 1.6 kg.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Science Heat Additional Questions

I. Short answers questions.

Question 1.
Define radiation.
Answer:
Radiation is a method of heat transfer that does not require particles to carry the heat energy.

Question 2.
What is heat energy?
Answer:
The sum of the kinetic and potential energy is called the internal heat energy of the molecules. This internal energy when flows out is called heat energy.

Question 3.
What are the three scales of temperature?
Answer:
There are three scales of temperature.

  1. Fahrenheit scale
  2. Celsius or Centigrade scale
  3. Kelvin or Absolute scale.

Question 4.
What is absolute zero?
Answer:
The temperature at which the pressure and volume of a gas theoretically reaches zero is called absolute zero.

Question 5.
What is the concept of temperature?
Answer:
Temperature is the degree of hotness or coolness of a body. The hotter the body is higher is its temperature.

Question 6.
Differentiate between the three temperature scales.
Answer:

Fahrenheit Scale Celcius Scale Kelvin Scale
32°F and 212°F are the freezing and boiling points respectively. 0°C and 100°C are the freezing and boiling points respectively. OK represents absolute zreo. 373.15k and 273.15k are boiling and freezing points respectively.
The interval has been divided into 180 parts. The interval has been divided into 100 parts. A one degree difference in kelvin is equal to one degree difference in celcius.
The formula for converting a Fahrenheit scale to Celcius scale is – C = 5/9(F-32) The formula for converting a Celcius scale to Fahrenheit scale is

– F = 9/5C + 32

The formula for converting a Kelvin scale to Celcius scale is

-C = K-273.15

Also known as centigrade scale. Also known as absolute scale.

II. Long answers questions.

Question 1.
Write specific heat capacity of any five substances.
Answer:
Specific heat capacity of a substance is defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of the substance by 1°C or 1 K. The SI unit of specific heat capacity is Jkg– 1K– 1.

Specific Heat Capacity of some common substances

S. No. Substance Specific Heat Capacity in JKg-1 KT1
1. Lead 130
2. Mercury 139
3. Brass 380
4. Zinc 391
5. Copper 399
6. Iron 483
7. Glass (flint) 504
8. Aluminium 882
9. Kerosene 2100
10. Ice 2100
11. Sea Water 3900
12. Water 4180

Question 2.
Differentiate between Conduction, Convection and Radiation.
Answer:

Conduction Convection Radiation
Conduction takes place in solids Convection takes place in liquids and gases. All hot objects give away heat by radiation.
Heat transfer takes place on contact between hot to cold molecule. The hot molecules goes away from the heat source to the coldest region to the top. Heat is carried as small packets of energy, which travel in straight line.
Conduction does not occur in vacuum. Convection does not occur in vacuum. Radiation can occur in vacuum.
Heat transfer can occur in any direction from hot to cold body. Heat transfer occurs along the path of convection current from heat source to the coldest region on the top. Heat transfer occurs when photons are met with an obstacle.
Conduction is a relatively slow process. This process is faster than conduciton, but slower than radiation Radiation is fastest way of heat transfer.

Question 3.
What is latent heat of vapourisation. Explain with diagram.
Answer:
Chapter 7 Heat Samacheer Kalvi 9th Science Solutions
Heat energy is absorbed by a solid during melting and an equal amount of heat energy is liberated by the liquid during freezing, without any temperature change. It is called latent heat of fusion. In the same manner, heat energy is absorbed by a liquid during vaporization and an equal amount of heat energy is liberated by the vapor during condensation, without any temperature changes. This is called latent heat of vaporization.

Question 4.
Give reasons why –

  1. a steam burn is more damaging than a burn caused from boiling water at the same temperature.
  2. an igloo is built as a winter shelter
  3. gaps are left between railway tracks
  4. chimneys are located high up in kitchens and factories
  5. we wear woollen clothes in winter.

Answer:

  1. A steam bum is more damaging as when steam hits our skin it condenses to water and attains the temperature of our skin. There will be an energy release due to latent heat and fall in temperature. Whereas when boiling water fall on our skin, there is no transition in energy, only fall in temperature and heat transferred to the skin will be due to cooling.
  2. igloo is built as a winter shelter due to snow’s insulating property. The inside of an igloo acts as an insulator and keeps it relatively warm.
  3. During summer, heat causes expansion in tracks that are made of metal. If gaps a re not left between tracks, the track may bend due to expansion and accidents can occur.
  4. As hot gases and smoke are lighter, they rise up. Therefore chimneys are placed high up in kitchens and factories, so that the hot air can rise up and go out into the atmosphere.
  5. We wear woollen clothes in winter, as wool acts as an insulator. The air trapped between the woollen sweater and our clothes acts as an insulator and does not allow air from outside to enter, thereby keeping us warm.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Maths Solutions Chapter 1 Set Language Ex 1.5

You can Download Samacheer Kalvi 9th Maths Book Solutions Guide Pdf, Tamilnadu State Board help you to revise the complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 9th Maths Solutions Chapter 1 Set Language Ex 1.5

Exercise 1.5 Class 9 Maths Samacheer Question 1.
Using the adjacent venn diagram, find the following sets:
(i) A – B
(ii) B – C
(iii) A’ ∪ B’
(vi) A’ ∩ B’
(v) (B ∪ C)’
(vi) A – (B ∪ C)
(vii) A – (B ∩ C)
Exercise 1.5 Class 9 Maths Samacheer Kalvi Chapter 1 Set Language
Solution:
(i) A – B = {3, 4, 6}
(ii) B – C = {-1, 5, 7}
(iii) A’ ∪ B’
A’ = {1, 2, 0, -3, 5, 7, 8}
B’ = {-3, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6)
A’ ∪ B’ = {-3, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8)

(iv) A’ ∩ B’
A’ ∩ B’ = {-3, 0, 1, 2}

(v) B ∪ C = {-3, -2, -1, 0, 3, 5, 7, 8}
(B ∪ C)’ = U – (B ∪ C)
= {-3, -2, -1, 0, 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8} – {-3, -2, -1, 0, 3, 5, 7, 8}
(B ∪ C)’ = {1, 2, 4, 6}

(vi) A – (B ∪ C) = {-2, -1, 3, 4,6} – {-3, -2, -1, 0, 3, 5, 7, 8} = {4, 6}
A – (B ∩ C)
B ∩ C = {-2, 8}
A- (B ∩ C) = {-2, -1, 3, 4, 6} – {-2, 8} = {-1, 3, 4, 6}

9th Maths Exercise 1.5 Samacheer Kalvi Question 2.
If K = {a, b, d, e,f}, L = {b, c, d, g} and M {a, b, c, d, h} then find the following:
(i) K ∪ (L ∩ M)
(ii) K ∩ (L ∪ M)
(iii) (K ∪ L) ∩ (K ∪ M)
(iv) (K ∩ L) ∪ (K ∩ M) and verify distributive laws.
Solution:
K = {a, b, d, e, f}, L = {b, c, d, g} and M {a, b, c, d, h}
(i) K ∪ (L ∩ M)
L ∩ M = {b, c, d, g} ∩ {a, b, c, d, h} = {b, c, d}
K ∪ (L ∩ M) = {a, b, d, e, f } ∪ {b, c, d) = {a, b, c, d, e, f}

(ii) K ∩(L ∪ M)
L ∪ M = {a, b, c, d, g, h}
K ∩ (L ∪ M) = {a, b, d, e, f} ∩ {a, b, c, d, g, h} = {a, b, d}

(iii) (K ∪ L) ∩ (K ∪ M)
K ∪ L = {a, b, c, d, e, f, g}
K ∪ M = {a, b, c, d, e, f, h}
(K ∪ L) ∩ (K ∪ M) = {a, b, c, d, e,f}

(iv) (K ∩ L) ∪ (K ∩ M)
(K ∩ L) = {b, d)
(K ∩ M) = {a,b,d}
(K ∩ L) ∪ (K ∩ M) = {b, d} ∪ {a, b, d} = {a, b, d}

Distributive laws
K ∪ (L ∩ M) = (K ∪ L) ∩ (K ∪ M)
{a, b, c, d, e, f) = {a, b, c, d, e, f, g} ∩ {a, b, c, d, e, f, h}
= {a, b, c, d, e, f}
Thus Verified.
K ∩ (L ∪ M) = (K ∩ L) ∪ (K ∩ M)
{a, b, d} = {a, b, c, d, e, f, g} ∪ {a, b, c, d, e, f, h}
= {a, b, d}
Thus Verified.

9th Maths Set Language Exercise 1.5 Question 3.
If A = {x : x ∈ Z, -2 < x ≤ 4}, B = {x : x ∈ W, x ≤ 5}, C ={-4, -1, 0, 2, 3, 4}, then verify A ∪ (B ∩ C) = (A ∪ B) ∩ (A ∪ C).
Solution:
A = {x : x ∈ Z, -2 < x ≤ 4} = {-1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4}
B = {x : x ∈ W, x ≤ 5} = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
C = {-4, -1, 0, 2, 3, 4}
A ∪ (B ∩ C)
B ∩ C = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5} ∩ {-4, -1, 0, 2, 3, 4} = {0, 2, 3, 4}
A ∪ (B ∩ C) = {-1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4} ∪ (0, 2, 3, 4} ={-1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4} …………. (1)
(A ∪ B) ∩ (A ∪ C)
A ∩ B = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4}
A ∩ C = {-1, 0, 2, 3, 4}
(A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ C) = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4} ∪ {-1, 0, 2, 3, 4}= {-1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4} …………. (2)
From (1) and (2), it is verified that
A ∪ (B ∩ C) = (A ∪ B) ∩ (A ∪ C)

9th Maths Exercise 1.5 Question 4.
Verify A ∪ (B ∩ C) = (A ∪ B) ∩ (A ∪ C) using Venn diagrams.
Solution:
L.H.S A ∪ (B ∩ C)
9th Maths Exercise 1.5 Samacheer Kalvi Chapter 1 Set Language
From (2) and (5), it is verified that A ∪ (B ∩ C) = (A ∪ B) ∩ (A ∪ C)

Class 9 Maths Chapter 1 Samacheer Kalvi Question 5.
If A = {b, c, e, g, h}, B = {a, c, d, g, i} and C = {a, d, e, g, h}, then show that A – (B ∩ C) = (A – B) ∪ (A – C).
Solution:
A = {b, c, e, g, h}
B = {a, c, d, g, i}
C = {a, d, e, g, h}
B ∩ C = {a, d, g}
A – (B ∩ C) = {b, c, e, g, h} – {a, d, g} = {b, c, e, h} ……..… (1)
A- B = {b, c, e, g, h} – {a, c, d, g, i} = {b, e, h}
A – C = {b, c, e, g, h} – {a, d, e, g, h} = {b, c}
(A – B) ∪ (A – C) = {b, c, e, h} ………..… (2)
From (1) and (2) it is verified that
A – (B ∩ C) = (A – B) ∪ (A – C)

Samacheerkalvi.Guru 9th Maths Question 6.
If A = {x : x = 6 n ∈ W and n < 6}, B = {x : x = 2n, n ∈ N and 2 < n ≤ 9} and C = {x : x = 3n, n ∈ N and 4 ≤ n < 10}, then show that A – (B ∩ C) = (A – B) ∪ (A – C)
Solution:
A = {x : x = 6n, n ∈ W, n < 6}
x = 6n
n = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
⇒ x = 6 × 0 = 0
x = 6 × 1= 6
x = 6 × 2 = 12
x = 6 × 3 = 18
x = 6 × 4 = 24
x = 6 × 5 = 30
∴ A = {0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30}

B = { x : x = 2n, n ∈ N, 2 < n ≤ 9}
n = {3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}
x = 2 n
⇒ x = 2 × 3 = 6
2 × 4 = 8
2 × 5 = 10
2 × 6 = 12
2 × 7 = 14
2 × 8 = 16
2 × 9 = 18
∴ B {6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18}

C = { x : x = 3n, n ∈ N, 4 ≤ n < 10}
N = { 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}
x = 3 × 4 = 12
⇒ x = 3 × 5 = 15
x = 3 × 6 = 18
x = 3 × 7 = 21
x = 3 × 8 = 24
x = 3 × 9 = 27
x = 2 × 9 = 18
∴ C = {12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27}

A – (B ∩ C) = (A – B) ∪ (A – C)
L.H.S R.H.S
B ∩ C = {12,18}
A – (B ∩ C) = {0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30} – {12, 18} = {0, 6, 24, 30} ……….…. (1)
(A – B) = {0, 24, 30}
(A – C) = {0, 6, 30}
(A – B) ∪ (A – C) = {0, 6, 24, 30} …………. (2)
From (1) and (2), it is verified that
A – (B ∩ C) = (A – B) ∪ (A – C).

Samacheer Kalvi Guru 9th Maths Question 7.
If A = {-2, 0, 1, 3, 5}, B = {-1, 0, 2, 5, 6} and C = {-1, 2, 5, 6, 7}, then show that A – (B ∪ C) = (A – B) ∩ (A – C).
Solution:
A = {-2, 0, 1, 3, 5},
B = {-1, 0, 2, 5, 6}
C ={-1, 2, 5, 6, 7}
B ∪ C = {-1, 0, 2, 5, 6, 7}
A – (B ∪ C) = {-2, 1, 3} …………. (1)
(A – B) = {-2, 1, 3}
(A – C) = {-2, 0, 1, 3}
(A – B) ∩ (A – C) = {-2, 1, 3} ………..… (2)
From (1) and (2), it is verified that . A – (B ∪ C) = (A – B) ∩ (A – C)

9th Standard Maths Exercise 1.5 Question 8.
if A={y: y = \(\frac{a+1}{2}\), a W and a 5},B = {y: y=\(\frac{2 n-1}{2}\),n W and n < 5} and C={1,\(-\frac{1}{2}\), 1, \(\frac{3}{2}\), 2} then show that A – (B ∪ C) = (A – B) ∩ (A – C).
Solution:
9th Maths Set Language Exercise 1.5 Chapter 1 Set Language Samacheer Kalvi
9th Maths Exercise 1.5 Solutions Chapter 1 Set Language Samacheer Kalvi
(A – B) ∩ (A – C) = {3} …………. (2)
From (1) and (2), it is verified that A – (B ∪ C) = (A – B) ∩ (A – C).

9th Maths Exercise 1.5 In Tamil Question 9.
Verify A – (B ∩ C) = (A – B) ∪ (A – C) using Venn diagrams.
Solution:
Class 9 Maths Chapter 1 Samacheer Kalvi Set Language Ex 1.5
∴ A – (B ∩ C) = (A – B) ∪ (A – C)
Hence it is proved.

Kalvi Guru 9th Maths Question 10.
If U = {4, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16}, A = {7, 8, 11, 12} and B = {4, 8, 12, 15}, then verify De Morgan’s Laws for complementation.
U = {4, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16}
A = {7, 8, 11, 12}, B = {4, 8, 12, 15}
De Morgan’s Laws for complementation.
(A ∪ B)’ = A’ ∩ B’
A ∪ B = {4, 7, 8, 11, 12, 15}
(A ∪ B)’ = {4, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16} – {4, 7, 8, 11, 12, 15}
= {10, 16} ……………. (1)
A’ = {4, 10, 15, 16}
B’ = {7, 10, 11, 16}
A’ ∩ B’ = {10, 16} ………………(2)
From (1) and (2) it is verified that (A ∪ B)’ = A’ ∩ B’.

9th Class Math Exercise 1.5 Solution Question 11.
Verify (A ∩ B)’ = A’ ∪ B’ using Venn diagrams.
Solution:
(A ∩ B)’ = A’ ∪ B’
Samacheerkalvi.Guru 9th Maths Solutions Chapter 1 Set Language Ex 1.5
(2) = (5)
∴ (A ∩ B)’ = A’ ∪ B’

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Maths Solutions Chapter 4 Geometry Ex 4.6

You can Download Samacheer Kalvi 9th Maths Book Solutions Guide Pdf, Tamilnadu State Board help you to revise the complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 9th Maths Solutions Chapter 4 Geometry Ex 4.6

9th Maths Geometry Exercise 4.6 Question 1.
Draw a triangle ABC, where AB = 8 cm, BC = 6 cm and ∠B = 70° and locate its circumcentre and draw the circumcircle.
Solution:
∆ABC, where AB = 8 cm,
BC = 6 cm,
B = 70°
9th Maths Geometry Exercise 4.6 Chapter 4 Samacheer Kalvi
Construction:
(i) Draw the ∆ABC with the given measurements.
(ii) Construct the perpendicular bisector at any two sides (AB and BC) and let them meet at S which is the circumcircle.
(iii) S as centre and SA = SB = SC as radius, draw the circumcircle to pass through A, B, and C. Circum radius = 4.3 cm.

9th Maths Exercise 4.6 Question 2.
Construct the right triangle PQR whose perpendicular sides are 4.5 cm and 6 cm. Also locate its circumcentre and draw the circumcircle.
Solution:
Right triangle PQR whose perpendicular sides are 4.5 cm and 6 cm
9th Maths Exercise 4.6 Solutions Chapter 4 Geometry Samacheer Kalvi
Construction :
(i) Draw the right triangle PQR with the given measurements.
(ii) Construct the perpendicular bisector at any two sides (PQ and QR) and let them meet at S which is the circumcentre.
(iii) S as centre and SP = SQ = SR as radius, draw the circumcircle to pass through P, Q and R. Circumradius = 3.7 cm.

9th Maths Geometry Exercise 4.6 In Tamil Question 3.
Construct ∆ABC with AB = 5 cm ∠B = 100° and BC = 6 cm. Also locate its circumcentre draw circumcircle.
Solution:
9th Maths Geometry Exercise 4.6 In Tamil Chapter 4 Samacheer Kalvi
Construction :
(i) Draw the ∆ABC with the given measurements.
(ii) Construct the perpendicular bisector at any two sides (BC and AC) and let them meet at S which is the circumcentre.
(iii) S as centre and SA = SB = SC as radius, draw the circumcircle to pass through A, B, and C. Circumradius = 4.3 cm.

Ex 4.6 Class 9 Maths Question 4.
Construct an isosceles triangle PQR where PQ = PR and ∠Q = 50°, QR = 7cm. Also draw its circumcircle.
Solution:
Isosceles triangle PQR where PQ = PR and Q = 50°, QR = 7 cm.
Ex 4.6 Class 9 Maths Solutions Chapter 4 Geometry Samacheer Kalvi
Construction :
(i) Draw the ∆PQR with the given measurements.
(ii) Construct the perpendicular bisector at any two sides (PQ and QR) and let them meet at S which is the circumcentre.
(iii) S as centre and SP = SQ = SR as radius, draw the circumcircle to pass through P, Q, R. Circumradius = 3.5 cm.

9th Standard Maths Exercise 4.6 Question 5.
Draw an equilateral triangle of sides 6.5 cm and locate its incentre. Also draw the incircle.
Samacheer Kalvi 9th Maths Chapter 4 Geometry Ex 4.6 5
Solution:
Side = 6.5 cm
9th Standard Maths Exercise 4.6 Chapter 4 Geometry Samacheer Kalvi
Construction :
Step 1 : Draw ∆ABC with AB = BC = CA = 6.5 cm
Step 2 : Construct angle bisectors of any two angles (A and B) and let them meet at I.I is the incentre of ∆ABC.
Step 3 : Draw perpendicular from I to any one of the side (AB) to meet AB at D.
Step 4 : With I as centre, ID as radius draw the circle. This circle touches all the sides of triangle internally.
Step 5 : Measure in radius. In radius = 1.9 cm.

Exercise 4.6 Class 9 Maths Question 6.
Draw a right triangle whose hypotenuse is 10 cm and one of the legs is 8 cm. Locate its incentre and also draw the incircle.
Solution:
hypotenuse = 10 cm
One of the legs = 8 cm
Exercise 4.6 Class 9 Maths Solutions Chapter 4 Geometry Samacheer Kalvi
Step 1 : Draw AABC with BC = 8 cm. AC = 10 cm with right angle at B.
Step 2 : Construct angle bisectors of any two angles (B and C) and let them meet at 1.1 is the incentre.
Step 3 : Draw perpendicular from I to any side of the triangle to meet BC at D.
Step 4 : With I as centre, ID as radius draw the incircle, which touches all the three sides of the triangle internally. In radius = 1.9 cm.

9th Maths Geometry Exercise 4.6 Solutions Question 7.
Draw ∆ABC given AB = 9 cm, ∠CAB = 115° and ∆ABC = 40°. Locate its incentre and also draw the incircle. (Note: You can check from the above examples that the incentre of any triangle is always in its interior).
Solution:
9th Maths Geometry Exercise 4.6 Solutions Samacheer Kalvi
Construction :
Step 1 : Draw ∆ABC with AB = 9 cm. ∠A = 115°,∠B = 40°.
Step 2 : Construct angle bisectors of any two angles (B and C). Let them meet at I.I is the incentre of ∆ABC.
Step 3 : Draw perpendicular from I to any side (BC) to meet BC at D.
Step 4 : Draw incircle, with I as centre and ID a radius. Measures the in radius.

9th Geometry 4.6 Question 8.
Construct ∆ABC in which AB = BC = 6 cm and B = 80° . Locate its incentre and draw the incircle.
Solution:
In ∆ABC, AB = BC = 6 cm, ∠B = 80°.
9th Geometry 4.6 Maths Solutions Chapter 4 Samacheer Kalvi
Construction :
Step 1 : Draw AABC with BC = 6 cm. AB = 6 cm, AB = 6 cm, and ∠B = 80°.
Step 2 : Construct the incentre I and ID is the in radius, as in the previous sums.
Step 3 : Draw incircle with I as centre and ID as radius. It touches all the three sides internally.
Step 4 : Measure in radius. In radius = 1.7

Samacheer Kalvi 9th English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 2 The Fun They Had

You can Download The Fun They Had Questions and Answers, Summary, Activity, Notes, Samacheer Kalvi 9th English Book Solutions Guide Pdf Supplementary Chapter 2 help you to revise complete Tamilnadu State Board New Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 9th English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 2 The Fun They Had

The Fun They Had Warm Up:

Here is an imaginary high school class depicted in a French postcard (1901-1910). Discuss what do you think have come true in the present century.
The Fun They Had Book Back Answers Samacheer Kalvi 9th English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 2
With the advancement in technology, schools will also have to take a change in their style of teaching-learning process. What we see in the picture reminds me of the language laboratory in school, which is used for enhancing English language as a skill. The given picture shows further advanced applications; like, using technology for entire classroom learning for all subjects. The teacher plays the role of either an inspector or an instructor in the classroom. Whether it is really admirable or not, we may have to wait and see.

Now, share your views about the changes that you and your classmates expect in your school and classroom in about 20-50 years.

In about 20-50 years, there won’t be any school. All children will be techno-savvy and learn things at their own pace. Credit system will be followed. Test or exam pressure will not be there because the students shall be taking the exam independently, as and when they like. Sports and games will be through play stations; co-curricular activities would be online. There is a possibility of mind reading – all telepathists would judge and evaluate the students’ knowledge only through mind reading and not through the usual percentage method.

The Fun They Had Textual Questions

A. Identify the character or speaker of the following lines.

  1. She was given test after test in geography. ……………………………
  2. He was a round little man with a red face and a whole box of tools with dials and wires. ……………………
  3. She had been hoping they would take the teacher away altogether. ……………………….
  4. They learned the same things, so they could help one another with the homework and talk about it. …………
  5. They had a special building and all the kids went there. ……………………….

Answers:

  1. Margie
  2. County Inspector
  3. Margie
  4. Students of the old school
  5. Tommy

B. Fill in the blanks with the clue given below to complete the paragraph

9th English The Fun They Had Samacheer Kalvi Solutions Supplementary Chapter 2

Tommy and Margie found something about the (1) ____________ of the past. Tommy found a (2) ____________ which has been printed on paper. The book was old and the pages were (3) ____________ At present, the (4) ____________ were moving on a television screen. The television had over (5) ____________ He had found the old book in the (6) ____________ of his house. While reading Tommy found that it was about the old schools. Margie hated school because she was having problems with learning (7) ____________ The mechanical teacher was black and large with a screen. Margie hated the slot where she had to insert her homework or (8) ____________ Margie did not understand how a (9)____________ could be a teacher and how the students were taught the (10) ____________ Then it was (11) ____________ for Margie and Tommy. Margie went to the schoolroom in her (12) ____________ where the mechanical teacher stood. She was thinking about the old school and how much fun the children had, (13) ____________ time together
Answers:

  1. schools
  2. real book
  3. yellow and crinkly
  4. words
  5. million of books
  6. attic
  7. geography
  8. test papers
  9. person
  10. same thing
  11. time
  12. house
  13. learning and spending

C. Bring out the difference between your school and Margie’s school in the given tabular column. An example is done for you.

The Fun They Had Summary In Tamil Samacheer Kalvi 9th English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 2The Fun They Had Samacheer Kalvi 9th English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 2

D. Complete the following statements based on your reading.

  1. The old book was found by ____________ .
  2. Margie was surprised to see the old book because ____________ .
  3. The mechanical teacher was giving Margie ____________ .
  4. Margie had to study always at the same time every day, because her mother said little girls ____________ .
  5. The geography sector in mechanical teacher was ____________ .

Answers:

  1. Tommy
  2. The words stood still, instead of moving
  3. test after test in geography
  4. learned letter, if they learned at regular hours
  5. geared a little too quickly

Think And Write:

E. On the basis of your reading and using your own ideas, answer the following in about 125 -150 words each.

The Fun They Had Book Back Answers Question 1.
Describe Margie’s mechanical teacher and her classroom in your own words.
Answer:
Tommy found the book on 17 May 2157. It was a very old book. The pages, were yellow and crinkly, and it was awfully funny to read the words that stood still instead of moving the way they were supposed to, on a screen. The mechanical teacher had been giving her test after test in geography and she had been doing worse and worse until her mother had shaken her head sorrowfully and sent for the county inspector.

9th English The Fun They Had Question 2.
Why did Margie hate her school? What was she thinking about at the end of the story?
Answer:
The part Margie hated most was the slot where she had to put homework and test papers. The geography sector was geared a little too quickly. She had been hoping that they would take the teacher away altogether. She was thinking about the old schools where the teacher told boys and girls things and gave them homework and asked them questions. The students had a special building and all the kids went there. All the kids learned the same thing.

The Fun They Had Summary In Tamil Question 3.
What was strange about the ‘book’? Why did Margie find it strange?
Answer:
The pages of the ‘book’ were yellow and crinkly. It was awfully funny to read words that stood still, unlike moving on a screen. When Margie turned back to the previous page, the page had the same words on it, when she read it the first time. All these things were strange for Margie, as she used to read only telebooks through computer screen, without any knowledge of a real book.

The Fun They Had Samacheer Kalvi Additional Questions

The Fun They Had 9th Standard Question 1.
In spite of all comforts and luxuries in today’s world, our grandparents still cherish their own time when life was quite tough. Give your own views regarding this in 80-100 words.
Answer:
Our grandparents lived during the years of 1950s to 1970s. At that time life was very simple yet tough. They had time to explore the surroundings and the world. They had parks to play with less pollution around them. Mechanical gadgets were there but were used only for necessary activities. There were rivers where they could go for picnics and treks without the fear of getting any allergy.

The school was more of a fun place where they would meet their friends. They studied but were not competing against each other. For them togetherness was important rather than competition. In today’s world we are competing against our friends. We have all the facilities of life but we do not have time for our family and friends. We like to play but on computers and play stations rather than with our siblings and friends.

The Fun They Had Questions Answers Question 2.
Machines can’t replace human beings. Explain with reference to the lesson ‘The Fun They Had’.
Answer:
A teacher has to not only teach and explain things but also has to understand the mindset of the students. A computer instructor will only be able to deliver the lesson but will not be able to understand the problems of the students. A teacher emotionally connects to the students to make them comfortable but this is not the case with a mechanical teacher.

Teaching can be best done by a person because then only will they be able to pass on the correct values and lessons to the students. Though smart classrooms are introduced, teachers are not replaced by machines. In the morning sessions, usually classes are very active. Teachers do full-fledged teaching. Afternoon sessions include activity-based jobs. Only teachers can have such kind of understanding of children’s psychology. Affirmatively we can say teachers can’t be replaced.

The Fun They Had by Isaac Asimov About The Author:

Isaac Asimov (1920 – 1992) was an American writer, known for his work of science fiction and ‘popular science’. He was a professor of Biochemistry at Boston University. Along with Robert A. Heinlein and Arthur C. Clarke, Asimov was considered one of the “Big Three” science fiction writers during his lifetime. He edited more than 500 books and approximately 90,000 letters and postcards. Asimov’s most famous work is the “Foundation” series. He also wrote mysteries and fantasy, as much as nonfiction.

The Fun They Had Summary:

Isaac Asimov was known for his work of science fiction. ‘The Fun they had’ is an ideal example of his fictitious stories. On 17th May 2157, Tommy, a thirteen-year-old boy finds a ‘real book’ in the attic of his house. His friend Margie, an eleven-year-old girl mentions this incident in her diary.

Surprised and astonished to see a ‘real book’, they both take a look at it together. The book has been printed on paper. It is really old and its pages are yellow and cranky. In the year 2157, this kind of books doesn’t exist anymore. In this time, words are moving on a television screen. This television contains over a million books. That is the reason why Tommy thinks that they are much better.

While reading the old book, Tommy says that it is about school! But not about their type of school; it is about school centuries ago. Margie hates school and cannot understand why someone would write about it. She is having problem with learning geography from her ‘mechanical teacher’, which is black, large and has a screen on it. It teaches the students, gives them exercises and asks them questions, all in a special room in their own house. It can also calculate the marks in no time.

Margie hates papers. Once, the geography sector of her mechanical teacher was geared too quickly, so that her marks got worse and worse. The country inspector had to rebuild it and it took him about an hour to set things right.

Tommy and Margie find out that students back then had a human as a teacher who taught the girls and boys, gave them homework and asked them questions. School was a special kind of building where the children went to. The children of same age gathered in a class and were taught by a teacher.

At first, Margie does not understand how a person could be a teacher and how all the students were taught the same thing, because her mother says that education must fit each child’s mind. But nevertheless, in her opinion, these schools are funny and she wants to read more about it.

Then it is time for Margie and Tommy for their school. Margie goes to the schoolroom in her house where the mechanical teacher stands. It is already on because the lessons are always at regular hours. Margie keeps thinking about the old school system and how much fun the children must have had back then, learning and spending time together.

The Fun They Had Glossary:

The Fun They Had 9th Standard Samacheer Kalvi English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 2

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Coordinate Geometry Ex 5.3

You can Download Samacheer Kalvi 9th Maths Book Solutions Guide Pdf, Tamilnadu State Board help you to revise the complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 9th Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Coordinate Geometry Ex 5.3

9th Maths Exercise 5.3 Solution Question 1.
Find the mid-points of the line segment joining the points
(i) (-2, 3) and (-6, -5)
(ii) (8, -2) and (-8, 0)
(iii) (a, b) and (a + 2b, 2a – b)
(iv) \(\left(\frac{1}{2},-\frac{3}{7}\right)\) and \(\left(\frac{3}{2}, \frac{-11}{7}\right)\)
Solution:
9th Maths Exercise 5.3 Solution Chapter 5 Coordinate Geometry Samacheer Kalvi
9th Maths Exercise 5.3 Solutions Chapter 5 Coordinate Geometry Samacheer Kalvi

9th Maths Exercise 5.3 Question 2.
The centre of a circle is (-4, 2). If one end of the diameter of the circle is (-3, 7) then find the other end.
Solution:
9th Maths Exercise 5.3 Samacheer Kalvi Chapter 5 Coordinate Geometry
∴ The other end is (-5, -3)

9th Maths Exercise 5.3 Samacheer Kalvi Question 3.
If the mid-point (x, y) of the line joining (3, 4) and (p, 7) lies on 2x + 2y + 1 = 0, then
what will be the value of p?
Solution:
9th Maths 5.3 Solutions Chapter 5 Coordinate Geometry Samacheer Kalvi

9th Maths 5.3 Question 4.
The midpoint of the sides of a triangle are (2, 4), (-2, 3) and (5, 2). Find the coordinates of the vertices of the triangle.
Solution:
Ex 5.3 Class 9 Samacheer Kalvi Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Coordinate Geometry
Coordinate Geometry Class 9 Exercise 5.3 Chapter 5 Samacheer Kalvi
Class 9 Maths Exercise 5.3 Solution Chapter 5 Coordinate Geometry Samacheer Kalvi
Ex 5.3 Class 9 Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Coordinate Geometry Samacheer Kalvi

Ex 5.3 Class 9 Samacheer Question 5.
O(0, 0) is the centre of a circle whose one chord is AB, where the points A and B are (8, 6) and (10, 0) respectively. OD is the perpendicular from the centre to the chord AB. Find the coordinates of the mid-point of OD.
Solution:
Class 9th Maths Chapter 5 Exercise 5.3 Coordinate Geometry Samacheer Kalvi

Coordinate Geometry Class 9 Exercise 5.3 Question 6.
The points A (-5, 4), B (-1, -2) and C(5, 2) are the vertices of an isosceles right¬angled triangle where the right angle is at B. Find the coordinates of D so that ABCD is a square.
Solution:
9th Class Math Exercise 5.3 Solution Chapter 5 Coordinate Geometry Samacheer Kalvi

Class 9 Maths Exercise 5.3 Solution Question 7.
The points A(-3, 6), B(0, 7) and C(1, 9) are the mid points of the sides DE, EF and FD of a triangle DEF. Show that the quadrilateral ABCD is a parallelogram.
Solution:
In a parallelogram diagonals bisect each other and diagonals are not equal.
Samacheer Kalvi 9th Maths Chapter 5 Coordinate Geometry Ex 5.3 11
Samacheer Kalvi 9th Maths Chapter 5 Coordinate Geometry Ex 5.3 12
Exercise 5.3 Class 9 Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Coordinate Geometry Samacheer Kalvi

Exercise 5.3 Class 10 Samacheer Kalvi Question 8.
A (-3, 2), B (3, 2) and C(-3, -2)are the vertices of the right triangle, right angled at A. Show that the mid point of the hypotenuse is equidistant from the vertices.
Solution:
9th Class Maths Exercise 5.3 Solution Chapter 5 Coordinate Geometry Samacheer Kalvi
Hence proved