You can Download Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Book Solutions Guide Pdf, Tamilnadu State Board help you to revise the complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science History Solutions Chapter 2 Ancient Civilisations

Ancient Civilisations Textual Exercise

I. Choose the correct answer.

9th Social Guide Question 1.
The earliest signs to denote words through pictures ……………
(a) Logographic
(b) Pictographic
(c) Ideographic
(d) Stratigraphic
Answer:
(b) Pictographic

Ancient Civilizations 9th Class Question 2.
The preservation process of dead body in ancient Egypt ……………
(a) Sarcophagus
(b) Hyksos
(c) Mummification
(d) Polytheism
Answer:
(c) Mummification

Ancient Civilizations 9th Class Question 3.
The Sumerian system of writing : ……………
(a) Pictographic
(b) Hieroglyphic
(c) Sonogram
(d) Cuneiform
Answer:
(b) Hieroglyphic

9 Social Guide Question 4.
The Harappans did not have the knowledge of ……………
(a) Gold and Elephant
(b) Horse and Iron
(c) Sheep and Silver
(d) Ox and Platinum
Answer:
(d) Ox and Platinum

9th Social Science Guide Question 5.
The Bronze image suggestive of the use of lost-wax process known to the Indus people.
(a) Jar
(b) Priest king
(c) Dancing girl
(d) Bird
Answer:
(c) Dancing girl

Ancient Civilizations Questions And Answers Question 6.
(i) The oldest civilisation in Mesopotamia belonged to the Akkadians.
(ii) The Chinese developed the Hieroglyphic system.
(iii) The Euphrates and Tigris drain into the Mannar Gulf.
(iv) Hammurabi, the king of Babylon was a great law maker. .
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (i) and (ii) are correct
(c) (iii) is correct
(d) (iv) is correct
Answer:
(d) (iv) is correct

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Book Answers Question 7.
(i) Yangtze River is known as Sorrow of China.
(ii) Wu-Ti constructed the Great Wall of China.
(iii) Chinese invented gun powder.
(iv) According to traditions Mfencius was the founder of Taoism.
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (ii) is correct
(c) (iii) is correct
(d) (iii) and (iv) are correct
Answer:
(c) (iii) is correct

Samacheer Kalvi Guru 9th Social Science Question 8.
What is the correct chronological order of four civilisations of Mesopotamia?
(a) Sumerians – Assyrians – Akkadians – Babylonians
(b) Babylonians – Sumerians – Assyrians – Akkadians
(c) Sumerians – Akkadians – Babylonians – Assyrians
(d) Babylonians – Assyrians – Akkadians – Sumerians
Answer:
(c) Sumerians – Akkadians – Babylonians – Assyrians

9th Social Science Guide Pdf Download Question 9.
Assertion (A): Assyrians of Mesopotamian civilisation were contemporaries of Indus civilisation.
Reason (R): The Documents of an Assyrian ruler refer to the ships from Meluha.
(a) A and R are correct and A explains R
(b) A and R are correct but A doesn’t explain R
(c) A is incorrect but R is correct
(d) Both A and R are incorrect
Answer:
(d) Both A and R are incorrect

II. Fill in the blanks.

1. ……………. is a massive lime stone image of a lion with a human head.
2. The early form of writing of the Egyptians is known as ……………
3. ……………. specifies the Laws related to various crimes in ancient Babylonia.
4. …………… was the master archive keeper of Chou state, according to traditions.
5. The …………… figurines and paintings on the pottery from the sites suggest the artistic skills of the Harappans.
Answers:
1. The Great Sphinx of Ghiza
2. Hieroglyphic
3. Hammurabi code
4. Lao Tze
5. terracotta

III. Find out the correct statement.

Social Guide For Class 9 Question 1.
(a) The Great Bath at Harappa is well-built with several adjacent rooms.
(b) The cuneiform inscriptions relate to the epic of Gilgamesh.
(c) The terracotta figurines and dancing girl made of copper suggest the artistic skills of Egyptians.
(d) The Mesopotamians devised a solar calendar system.
Answer:
(a) correct
(b) correct
(c) incorrect
(d) incorrect

9th Standard Social Guide Question 2.
(a) Amon was considered the king of god in ancient Egypt.
(b) The fortified Harappan city had the temples.
(c) The great sphinx is a pyramid-shaped monument found in ancient Mesopotamia.
(d) The invention of the potter’s wheel is Credited to the Egyptians.
Answer:
(a) correct
(b) incorrect
(c) incorrect
(d) incorrect

IV. Match the following.

9th Social Guide Samacheer Kalvi Chapter 2 Ancient Civilisations
Answer:
1. (e)
2. (a)
3. (d)
4. (b)
5. (c)

V. Answer the following briefly.

9th Std Social Science Guide Pdf Question 1.
The Egyptians excelled in art and architecture. Illustrate.
Answer:

  1. The Egyptians excelled in art and architecture. Their writing is also a form of art.
  2. Numerous sculptures, painting and carvings attest to the artistic skills of Egyptians.
  3. The Pyramids are massive monuments, built as tombs of mourning to the Pharaohs.
  4. The Great Sphinx of Giza is a massive limestone image of a lion with a human head.

9th Standard Social Science Guide Question 2.
State the salient features of the Ziggurats.
Answer:

  1. Ziggurats were pyramid – shaped monuments found in the ancient Mesopotamia (Modem Iraq).
  2. One of the most famous Ziggurats of the time is the one in the city of Ur.
  3. The Ziggurats were at the city centre on a platform and appeared like steep pyramids with staircases leading to the top.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Free Download Pdf Question 3.
Hammurabi Code is an important legal document. Explain.
Answer:

  1. Hammurabi Code is an important legal document that specifies the laws related to various crimes.
  2. It has 282 provisions specifying cases related to family rights, trade, slavery, taxes and wages. ‘
  3. It is carved on a stone, which portrays Hammurabi as receiving the code from the Sun god Shamash.
  4. It was a compilation of old laws based on retributive principles. .
  5. The ‘eye for eye’ and ‘tooth for tooth’ form of justice is used in the Hammurabi Code.

Indus Valley Civilization Samacheer Kalvi Question 4.
Write a note on the Great Wall of China.
Answer:

  • The Great Wall of China, one of the wonders of the world, was a massive effort undertaken for the protection of China from the Mongols.
  • In 220 BCE, under Qin Shi Huang, earlier fortifications were connected by walls as a form of defence against invasions.
  • It was built from third century BCE until 17th century CE.
  • It ran for over 20,000 kilometres covering the hills and plains, from the border of Korea in the east to the Ordos Desert in the west.

VI. Answer all the questions given under each caption.

1. Early Civilizations:
Social Science Class 9 Guide Question 1.
What is meant by civilization?
Answer:
(a) Civilisation is seen as an advanced, organised way of life.
(b) It instilled a way of life that could be considered as an adaptation to particular environmental and cultural contents.

Social 9th Guide Question 2.
Name the important early Civilizations.
Answer:
The Egyptian, Mesopotamian, the Chinese and the Indus were the important Civilisations.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Book Pdf Question 3.
What supported the livelihood of a large number of people?
Answer:
The surplus food production by the farmers in the fertile regions supported the livelihood of. a large number of people.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Book Answers Question 4.
What happened when civilization began to take shape?
Answer:
As civilizations began to take shape, huge buildings were built, the art of writing developed and science and technology contributed to the betterment of society.

2. Features of Egyptian Civilization:
Question 1.
Who built the pyramids and why?
Answer:
The pyramids are massive monuments built by Egyptians as tombs of mourning to the Pharaohs. The Great Pyramids near Cairo are known as the Gizza Pyramids.

Question 2.
What is the process of mummification?
Answer:
(a) The Egyptians had the tradition of preserving the dead bodies using Natron salt;, a combination of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate.
(b) The preservation process is called mummification.
(c) After 40 days when the salt absorbed all the moisture, the body was filled with sawdust and wrapped in strips of linen clothes and covered with fabric. The body was stored in a stone coffin called sarcophagus.

Question 3.
What is the belief system of ancient Egyptians?
Answer:
(a) The Egyptians believed in life after death.
(b) Egyptian practiced polytheism. They worshipped many Gods.

Question 4.
What is the importance of great sphinx?
Answer:
The Great sphinx of Giza is a massive limestone image of a lion with a human head.
It is dated to the time of Pharaoh Khaffe. It is one of the largest sculptures of the world and measures seventy three metres in length and twenty metres in height.

VII. Answer the following in detail.

Question 1.
Define the terms Hieroglyphics and Cuneiform with their main features.
Answer:
Hieroglyphics: Egyptians are well known for their writing system. Their form of writing is known as hieroglyphic. Hieroglyphic was used in the inscriptions on seals and other objects. The heretic, an another form of writing, was used for common purposes. This form of writing used a pictogram-based system. It was developed around 3000 BCE and many texts and books were written using this script.

The Egyptian writing system was deciphered by the French scholar, Francois Champollion (1822 CE). He used the Rosetta stone, a trilingual inscription, for deciphering the script. This inscription, which was written in Hieroglyphic, Demotic and Greek,- was taken to France by Napoleon and from there it was taken to England. Now this inscription is on display in the British Museum London.

Cuneiform: Cuneiform is the Sumerian writing system. The shape of the letter is in the form of wedge and hence it is called cuneiform. Evolving around 3000 BCE, it is one of the earliest scripts of the world. The epic of Gilgamesh was written in this script. They used this script for commercial transactions and writing letters and stories. The clay tablets contain loads of information on the Sumerian civilization.

Question 2.
To what extent is the Chinese influence reflected in the fields of philosophy and literature.
Answer:
(i) Chinese poets and philosophers such as Lao Tze, Confucius, Mencius, Mo Ti (Mot Zu) and Tao Chien (365-427 CE) contributed to the development of Chinese civilization. Sun-Tzu, a military strategist, wrote the work called Art of War.

(ii) The Spring and Autumn Annals is the official chronicle of the state at the time. The Yellow Emperor’s Canon of Medicine is considered China’s earliest written book on medicine. It was codified during the time of Han Dynasty.

(iii) Lao Tze (c. 604-521 BCE) was the master archive keeper of Chou state. He was the founder of Taoism. He argued that desire is the root cause of all evils.

(iv) Confucius (551 —497 BCE) was famous among the Chinese philosophers. He was a political reformer. His name means Kung the master.

(v) He insisted on cultivation of one’s own personal life. He said, “If personal life is cultivated, family life is regulated; and once family life is regulated, national life is regulated.

(vi) Mencius (372-289 BCE) was another well-known Chinese philosopher. He travelled throughout China and offered his counsel to the rulers.

Student Activities

Question 1.
Mark the areas of Bronze Age civilization on the world map.
Answer:
The Bronze Age period: 3300 – 1200 B.C.
The location: China
(i) The Congshan people of China lived from around 300 B.C. to 2400 B.C. in China
(ii) Around 2300 B.C. in Europe.
The teacher can help the students to locate the place on the world map.

Question 2.
Prepare a chart on the pyramids and the mummies.
Answer:
Prepare a chart on the Pyramids and the Mummies with guidelines from the Textbook and the Internet. Students can be divided into groups & prepare the charts on the Pyramids and Mummies.

Question 3.
Collect the pictures of the seals and the pottery of Indus people.
Answer:
Download the pictures & collect them.
Assignment with teacher’s guidance
(i) Prepare a hand out comparing the ancient world civilizations.
Reference: Textbook & Internet
(ii) Prepare a scrap book collecting pictures on Indus civilization from website.
Students can collect pictures on Indus Civilization and paste it in their scrap book.

Ancient Civilisations Additional Questions

I. Choose the correct answer.

Question 1.
……………… times were mostly egalitarian in nature.
(a) Mesolithic
(b) Neolithic
(c) Palaeolithic
(d) Iron Age
Answer:
(a) Mesolithic

Question 2.
……………… became intimately connected with the Sangam Age Tamitagam by the Sea route.
(a) Romans
(b) Persians
(c) Egyptians
(d) Greeks
Answer:
(c) Egyptians

Question 3.
…………… were the contemporaries of the people of Indus and Egyptian civilisation.
(a) The Egyptians
(b) The Sumerians
(c) The Romans
(d) The Indus people
Answer:
(b) The Sumerians

Question 4.
……………. did not give much attention to the life after death.
(a) The Sumerians
(b) The Babylonians
(c) The Egyptians
(d) The Chinese
Answer:
(a) The Sumerians

Question 5.
The yellow river is known as the sorrow of …………
(a) Egypt
(b) Rome
(c) China
(d) Iraq
Answer:
(c) China

Question 6.
(i) The Egyptian king was known as the Pharaoh.
(ii) The preserved dead body is called the mummy..
(iii) The Egyptians have no belief in life after death.
(iv) Paprus was used for making paper.
(a) (i) is incorrect
(b) (ii) is incorrect
(c) (iii) is correct
(d) (iv) is incorrect
Answer:
(c) (iii) is correct

Question 7.
(i) Egypt was called as the Gift of Nile
(ii) Egyptians practiced polytheism
(iii) Thoth is the God of death
(iv) Cuneiform is Egyptian way of writing
(a) (i) & (ii) are incorrect
(b) (iii) & (iv) are correct
(c) (iii) is correct
(d) (i) & (ii) are correct
Answer:
(d) (i) & (ii) are correct

Question 8.
Confucius was famous among the Chinese Philosophers.
(a) Lao Tze
(b) Confucius
(c) Mencius
(d) Sun Tzu
Answer:
(b) Confucius

II. Fill in the blanks.

1. The river Nile originates in ……………
2. The preserved dead body is called …………….
3. …………. was the God of writing and learning.
4. The city of Akkad later became the city of ……………. a commercial and cultural centre of largest Asia.
5. …………. is perhaps the oldest written epic on earth.
6. ………….. was the popular ruler of ten late (or) neo Assyrian Empire.
7. ………….. was the first military power in History.
8. Agriculture was the main occupation of the …………..
9. The ……………. refers to the large collection of terrcotta warrior images found in China.
10. The Indus Valley civilization is also known as ………….. civilisation.
11. The Indus people worshipped …………… trees.
12. The Harappans had close trade link with the ………………
Answers:
1. Lake Victoria
2. the mummy
3. Thoth
4. Babylon
5. The Epic of Gilgamesh
6. Ashurbanipal
7. Assyrian Empire
8. Mesopotamians
9. The Terracotta Army
10. Harappan
11. Pipal
12. Mesopotamians

III. Find out the correct statement.

Question 1.
(a) The oldest civilisation in Mesopotamia belonged to the Sumerians.
(b) The Sumerians believed to have originated from Central Asia.
(c) Sargon and his descendants ruled Mesopotamia for more than 200 years.
(d) The Akkadians dominated Sumeria briefly from 2500 BCE to 2450 BCE.
Answer:
(a) correct
(b) correct
(c) incorrect
(d) incorrect

Question 2.
(a) The Harappans used painted Pottery.
(b) The Harappans have no knowledge about weights and measures.
(c) The Indus people buried the dead.
(d) The Indus civilization completely disappeared.
Answer:
(a) correct
(b) incorrect
(c) correct
(d) incorrect

IV. Match the following.

Ancient Civilizations 9th Class Samacheer Kalvi Social Science History Solutions Chapter 2
Answer:
1. (d)
2. (a)
3. (e)
4. (b)
5. (c)

V. Answer the following briefly.

Question 1.
The term civilization is used to distinguish the Urban society from early forms of societies. Why?
Answer:

  • The Urban society practised crafts, engaged in trade and exchange, adopted science and technology and formed political organisation.
  • Hence the term civilisation is used to distinguish them from the early forms of societies.

Question 2.
What is Egyptian civilization known for?
As one of the oldest civilizations, the Egyptian civilisation is known for its monumental architecture, art, sciences and crafts at a very early age.

Question 3.
Mention the contributions of the Mesopotamian civilization.
Answer:

  1. The invention of the potter’s wheel is credited to the Sumerians.
  2. They developed the calender system of 360 days and divided a circle into 360 units.
  3. The Cuneiform system of writing was their contribution.
  4. The Hammurabi’s law code was another legacy of the Mesopotamians.

Question 4.
Write a short note on “Silk Road” in China.
Answer:

  1. The greatest of the Han emperors Wu Ti (Han Wu the Great, 141 to 87 BCE) sent Zhang Qian as emissary to the West in 138 BCE.
  2. It paved the way for the opening of the Silk Road in 130 BCE to encourage trade activities.
  3. Because of the Silk Road and the resultant trade connections, China benefitted immensely during the rule of Emperor Zhang.

Question 5.
The Indus civilisation is known as Harappan civilisation rather than Indus. Why?
Answer:

  • The Indus valley civiliSation is also known as the Harappan civilisation since Harappa was the first site to be discovered.
  • This civilisation is known as Harappan civilisation rather than Indus valley civilisation, since it extended beyond the Indus river valley.

VI. Answer all the questions given under each caption.

Question 1.
The Babylonians.
(i) Who were the Babylonians?
Answer:
The Semitic people called Amorites who moved from the Arabian desert into Mesopotamia, were known as Babylonians

(ii) Name the oldest written epic on earth. .
Answer:
The Epic of Gilgamesh is the oldest written epic on earth.

(iii) Who was a great law-maker?
Answer:
Hammurabi the sixth king of Babylon was a great law-maker.

(iv) What was the previous name of Babylon?
Answer:
The previous name of Babylon was the city of Akkad.

Question 2.
Indus civilisation.
(i) What is the other name of Indus civilisation?
Answer:
The Harappan civilisation.

(ii) What did the Harappans use for construction?
Answer:
The Harappans used baked and unbaked bricks and stones for construction.

(iii) What kind of potterys were used by the Harappans?
Answer:
The Harappans used painted potteries. Their potteries have a deep red slip and black paintings.

(iv) What was their belief for the dead?
Answer:
The Indus people buried the dead. Burials were done elaborately.

VII. Answer the following in detail.

Question 1.
How did the Egyptians excel in art and architecture? Explain.
Answer:

  1. The Egyptians excelled in art and architecture. Their writing is also, a form of art.
  2. Numerous sculptures, painting and carvings attest to the artistic skills of Egyptians.
  3. The pyramids are massive monuments built as tombs of mourning to the Pharaohs.
  4. The great pyramids near Cairo are known as the Giza Pyramids.
  5. Pyramids are considered to be one of the wonders of the world, and they were built between 2575 and 2465 BCE.
  6. These monuments display the engineering, architectural and human resource management skills of the Egyptians.
  7. The Great Sphinx of Giza is a massive limestone image of a lion with a human head.
  8. It is dated to the time of Pharaoh Khaffe. It is one of the largest sculptures of the world
    and measures seventy three metres in length and twenty metres in height.

Question 2.
Compare the Indus Civilization with Tamil Civilization.
Answer:
(i) The similarity of the graffiti found on the megalithic burial pots of South India with the Indus script and the identical place names of Tamil Nadu and Indus region of Pakistan are presented as arguments to establish the relationship between the Indus civilisation and Tamil culture.

(ii) Researchers like Father Henry Heras, Asko Parpola and Iravatham Mahadevan find similarity between the Indus script and the Dravidian/Tamil language.

(iii) Archaeological evidence points out that several groups of people have been living in Tamil Nadu and South India continuously from the Mesolithic period.

(iv) A few groups from the Indus region might have migrated into southern India.

(v) Some of the ideas and technologies of the Indus civilisations had reached South India in the Iron Age.

(vi) The camelian beads, shell bangles and bronze mirrors found in the Megalithic/Early Historic sites of Tami Nadu were first introduced by the people of the Indus civilisation. More research is needed to arrive at any definite conclusion in this matter.

(vii) The towns of ancient Tamilagam such as Arikkamedu, Uraiyur and Keezhadi that flourished are part of the second urbanisation of India and these towns are much different from the Indus cities. These towns emerged approximately 1,200 years after the decline of the Indus civilisation.

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