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Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 12th Commerce Solutions Chapter 1 Principles of Management

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Samacheer Kalvi 12th Commerce Principles of Management Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers

I. Choose the Correct Answer

12th Commerce Chapter 1 Question 1.
Management is what a _______ does?
(a) Manager
(b) Subordinate
(c) Supervisor
(d) Superior
Answer:
(a) Manager

12th Commerce 1st Lesson Question 2.
Management is an _______
(a) Art
(b) Science
(c) Art and Science
(d) Art or Science
Answer:
(c) Art and Science

12th Commerce Chapter 1 Question Answer Question 3.
Scientific management is developed by _______
(a) Fayol
(b) Taylor
(c) Mayo
(d) jacob
Answer:
(b) Taylor

12th Commerce Samacheer Kalvi Question 4.
Dividing the work into small tasks is known as _______
(a) Discipline
(b) Unity
(c) Division of work
(d) Equity
Answer:
(c) Division of work

12th Commerce 1st Chapter Question 5.
With a wider span, there will be _______ hierarchical levels..
(a) More
(b) Less
(c) Multiple
(d) Additional
Answer:
(b) Less

II. Very Short Answer Questions

12th Commerce 1st Chapter Question Answer Question 1.
What is Management?
Management is part and parcel of our day to day life. So management is goal oriented and it is an art of getting things done with and through others.

Commerce 12th Samacheer Kalvi Question 2.
List out the management tools.
Answer:
Tools of management have been developed such as, accounting, business law, psychology, statistics, econometrics, data processing, etc.

Samacheer Kalvi Guru 12th Commerce Question 3.
Who is a manager?
Answer:
A manager is a dynamic and life giving element in every business. Without efficient management it cannot be possible to secure the best allocation and utilisation of human, material and financial resources.

Samacheer Kalvi 12th Commerce Question 4.
State the meaning of Authority.
Answer:
Authority means the right of a superior to give the order to his subordinates. This is the issue of commands followed responsibility for their consequences.

Principles Of Management Exercise Question 5.
What do you mean by Span of management?
Answer:
The Span of Management refers to the number of subordinates who can be managed efficiently by a superior. Simply, the manager having the group of subordinates who report him directly is called as the span of management.

III. Short Answer Questions

12 Commerce Samacheer Kalvi Question 1.
Define the term management.
Answer:
“To manage is to forecast, to plan, to organise, to command, to co-ordinate and to control.” -Henry Fayol. It attempts to describe management in terms of what a manager does, and not what management is.

Samacheer Kalvi Commerce 12th Question 2.
Is management an Art or Science?
Answer:
Management is neither a science nor an art, but a combination of both requiring people holding managerial positions to apply the scientific management principles and displaying popular managerial skills to accomplish the organizational goals as efficiently and as quickly as possible so as to be competitive in the globalised environment of business.

Principle Of Management Exercise Question 3.
Differentiate Management from Administration.
Answer:

Basis for Comparison Management Administration
Meaning An organised way of managing people and things of a business organisation is called the management. The process of administrating an organisation by a group of people is known as the administration.
Authority Middle and lower level. Top level
Role Executive Decisive
Concerned
with
Policy Implementation. Policy formulation.
Area of operation It works under administration. It has .full control over the activities of the organisation.
Applicable
for
Profit making organisations, i.e. business organisations. Government offices, military clubs,business enterprises, hospitals, religious and educational organisations.

Commerce Samacheer Kalvi Question 4.
What are the principles of Taylor?
Answer:
Principles of scientific management propounded by Taylor are:

  1. Science, Not Rule of Thumb
  2. Harmony, Not Discord
  3. Mental Revolution
  4. Cooperation, Not individualism
  5. Development of each and every person to his or her greatest efficiency and prosperity.

Samacheer Kalvi 12th Commerce Book Question 5.
What determines the span of management?
Answer:
The Span of Management has two implications:

  1. Influences the complexities of the individual managers job.
  2. Determine the shape or configuration of the organisation.
  3. There is a wide and a narrow span of management.

IV. Long Answer Questions

Samacheer Kalvi 12th Commerce Solution Book Question 1.
Write about the contribution of Drucker to management.
Answer:
“Management is a multipurpose organ that manages a business and manages manager, and manages worker and work.”— Peter F. Drucker: The Practice of Management.
Drucker stresses three jobs of management:

  1. Managing a business;
  2. Managing manager; and
  3. Managing workers and work.

Even if one is omitted, It would not have management anymore and it also would not have a business enterprise or an industrial society. According to P. Drucker, the manager has” to balance and integrate three major jobs of a business enterprise as mentioned above.

Hence, a manager is a dynamic and life-giving element in every business. Without efficient management it cannot be possible to secure the best allocation and utilisation of human, ‘ material and financial resources.

Question 2.
Explain the management process in detail.
Answer:
The substance of management should be identified as a process. A process is something that what a person does in the context of his individual duties and responsibilities assigned by his or her immediate higher authority.
There are twin purposes of the management process:

  1. Maximum productivity or profitability
  2. Maximum human welfare and satisfaction.

There are five parts of management as a process:

  1. Co-ordination of resources: The manager of an enterprise must effectively coordinate all activities and resources of the organisation, namely, men, machines, materials and money, the fdur M’s of management.
  2. Management is a Process: The manager achieves proper coordination of resources by means of the managerial functions of planning, organising, staffing, directing (or leading and motivating) and controlling.
  3. Management is a Purposive Process: It is directed toward the achievement of predetennined goals or objectives. Without an objective, we have no destination to reach or a path to follow to arrive at our destination, i.e., a goal, both management and organisation must be purposive or goal-oriented.
  4. Management is a Social Process: It is the art of getting things done through other people.
  5. Management is a Cyclical Process: It represents planning-action-control-replanning cycle, i.e., an ongoing process to attain the planned goals.

Question 3.
Describe the principles of scientific management.
Answer:
Principles of scientific management propounded by Taylor are:
(i) Science, Not Rule of Thumb: Rule of Thumb means decisions taken by manager as per their personal judgments. According to Taylor, even a small production activity like loading iron sheets into box cars can be scientifically planned. This will help in saving time as well as human energy. Decisions should be based on scientific enquiry with cause and effect relationships.

(ii) Harmony, Not Discord: Taylor emphasized that there should be complete harmony between the workers and the management since if there is any conflict between the two, it will not be beneficial either for the workers or the management. Both the management and the workers should realize the importance of each other.

(iii) Mental Revolution: The technique of Mental Revolution involves a change in the attitude ‘ of workers and management towards each other. Both should realize the importance of each
other and should work with full cooperation. Management as well as the workers should aim to .increase the profits of the organisation.

(iv) Cooperation, Not Individualism: This principle is an extension of principle of ‘Harmony, ‘ . not discord’ and lays stress on mutual cooperation between workers and the management. Cooperation, mutual confidence, sense of goodwill should prevail among both, managers as well as workers. The intention is to replace internal competition with cooperation. Both ‘Management’ and ‘Workers’ should realize the importance of each other.

(v) Development of each and every person to his or her greatest efficiency and prosperity: Efficiency of any organisation also depends on the skills and capabilities of its employees to a great extent. Thus, providing training to the workers was considered essential in order to learn the best method developed through the use of scientific approach.

Question 4.
Explain the principles of modern management.
Answer:
The Father of Modem Management is Mr.Henry Fayol, and according to him there are 14 major principles of management which every manager has to practice for the success of the organization.

  1. Division of Work: According to this principle the whole work is divided into small tasks. This leads to specialization which increases the efficiency of labour.
  2. Authority and Responsibility: This is the issue of commands followed by responsibility for their consequences.
  3. Discipline: It is obedience, proper conduct in relation to others, respect of authority, etc. It is essential for the smooth functioning of all organizations.
  4. Unity of Command: This principle states that each subordinate should receive orders and be accountable to one and only one superior.
  5. Unity of Direction: All related activities should be put under one group, there should be one plan of action for them, and they should be under the control of one manager.
  6. Subordination of Individual Interest to Mutual Interest: The management must put aside personal considerations and put company objectives firstly.
  7. Remuneration: Workers must be paid sufficiently as this is a chief motivation of employees and therefore greatly influences productivity.
  8. The Degree of Centralization: The amount of power wielded with the central management depends on company size.
  9. Line of Authority/Scalar Chain: This refers to the chain of superiors ranging from top management to the lowest rank.
  10. Order: Social order ensures the fluid operation of a company through authoritative procedure.
  11. Equity: Employees must be treated kindly, and justice must be enacted to ensure a just workplace.
  12. Stability of Tenure of Personnel: Stability of tenure of personnel is a principle stating that in order for an organization to run smoothly, personnel (especially managerial personnel) must not frequently enter and exit the organization.
  13. Initiative: Using the initiative of employees can add strength and new ideas to an organization.
  14. Esprit de Corps/Team Spirit: This refers to the need of managers to ensure and develop morale in the Workplace; individually and communally.

Question 5.
Discuss the implications of span of management.
Answer:
The Span of Management has two implications:

  1. Influences the complexities of the individual manager’s job.
  2. Determine the shape or configuration of the Organization.

The span of management is related to the horizontal levels of the organization structure. There is a wide and a narrow span of management. With the wider span, there will be less hierarchical levels, and thus, the organizational structure would be flatter. Whereas, with the narrow span, the hierarchical levels increases, hence the organizational structure would be tall.

  1. Both these organizational structures have their advantages and the disadvantages. But however the tall organizational structure imposes more challenges.
  2. Since the span is narrow, which means less number of subordinates under one superior, requires more managers to be employed in the organization. Thus, it would be very expensive in terms of the salaries to be paid to each senior.
  3. With more levels in the hierarchy, the communication suffers drastically. It takes a lot of time to reach the appropriate points, and hence the actions get delayed.
  4. Lack of coordination and control because the operating staff is far. away from the top management.

Samacheer Kalvi 12th Commerce Principles of Management Additional Questions and Answers

A. Choose the Correct Answer

Question 1
_______ is a global and universal concept.
(a) Management
(b) Process
(c) Art
(d) Science
Answer:
(a) Management

Question 2.
Drucker stresses _______ jobs of management.
(a) three
(b) two
(c) four
(d) six
Answer:
(a) three

Question 3.
“To manage is to forecast, to plan, to organise, to command, to co-ordinate and to control.”said by _______
(a) Henry Fayol
(b) Peter F. Drucker
(c) Walker
(d) Carter
Answer:
(a) Henry Fayol

Question 4.
Which one is matched correctly?

Management Administration
(a) Executive (i) Decisive
(b) Policy Implementation (ii) Top level
(c) Middle and lower level (iii) Policy Formulation
(d) Under administration (iv) Profit making

Answer:
(a) Executive – (i) Decisive

Question 5.
Assertion (A): The process of administering an organisation by a group of people is known as the administration.
Reason (R): It has not full control over the activities of the organisation.
(a) Both are true
(b) (A) true but (R) is not correct
(c) Both are not true
(d) (A) is not correct but (R) is correct
Answer:
(b) (A) true but (R) is not correct

Question 6.
The father of Modem Management is _______
(a) F.W. Taylor
(b) Henry Fayol
(c) Peter F. Drucker
(d) Louis A. Allen
Answer:
(b) Henry Fayol

B. Fill in the blanks

1. Management is _______ and it is an art of getting things done with and through others.
2. The Span of Management is related to the _______ levels of organisation structure
Answer:
1. goal-oriented
2. Horizontal

II. Very Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
What are the twin purposes of the management process?
Answer:

  1. Maximum productivity or profitability and
  2. Maximum human welfare and satisfaction

Question 2.
What is Professional Association?
Answer:
The Business Management Associations in many countries to promote the spread of knowledge in all management areas and to build up the bright public image of managerial profession.

Question 3.
What is division of work?
Answer:
According to this principle, the whole work is divided into small tasks. The specialization of the workforce according to the skills of a person, creating specific personal and professional development within the labour force and therefore increasing productivity.

Question 4.
What is unity of command?
Answer:
This principle states that-each subordinate should receive orders and be accountable to one and only one superior. If an employee receives orders from more than one superior, it is likely to
create confusion and conflict.

Question 5.
What is Scalar chain or Line of Authority?
Answer:
This refers to the chain of superiors ranging from top management to the lowest rank. The principle suggests that there should be a clear line of authority from top to bottom linking all managers at all levels.

Question 6.
Write a note on Team Spirit.
Answer:
Team Spirit refers to the need of managers to ensure and develop morale in the workplace. Team spirit helps to finish the task on time.

Question 7.
What is Mental Revolution?
Answer:
The technique of Mental Revolution involves a change in the attitude of workers and management towards each other. Both should realize the importance of each other and should work with full cooperation.

III. Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Write any subsidiary functions of management.
Answer:
(i) Innovation: Innovation refers to the preparation of personnel and organisation to face the changes made in the business world. Continuous changes are being made in the business. Consumers are satisfied through innovation.
(ii) Representation: A manager has to act as representative of a company. Manager has dealings with customers, suppliers, government officials, banks, financial institutions, trade unions and the like. It is the duty of every manager to have good relation with others.

Question 2.
Who is a Professional Manager?
Answer:
“A professional manager is one who specialises in the work of planning, organising, leading and controlling the efforts of others and does so through systematic use of classified knowledge, a common vocabulary and principles and who subscribes to the standards of practice and code of ethics established by recognised body.” – Louis A. Allen.

IV. Long Answer Questions

Question 1.
What are the differences between Management and Administration?
Answer:

Basis for Comparison Management Administration
Meaning An organised way of managing people and things of a business organisation is called the management. The process of administrating an organisation by a group of people is known as the administration.
Authority Middle and lower level. Top level
Role Executive Decisive
Concerned with Policy Implementation. Policy formulation.
Area of operation It works under administration. It has full control over the activities of the organisation.
Applicable for Profit making organisations, i.e., business organisations. Government offices, military clubs, business enterprises, hospitals, religious and educational organisations.
Decides Who will do the work? And How will it be done? What should be done?
And When it should be done?“
Work Putting plans and policies into actions. Formulation of plans, framing policies and setting objectives.
Focus on Managing work Making best possible allocation of limited resources.
Key person Manager Administrator

For own thinking

Question 1.
Imagine yourself to be a manager and chart down the functions to be performed.
Answer:
If I am a manager of a company, I need to perform the following functions:
(a) Planning – mapping out exactly how to achieve a particular goal; creating a structure for daily tasks.
(b) Organizing – arranging the narrow goals from their broadest to most intricate form; assigning work as well as the required material to the team.
(c) Staffing – beefing up the team by recruiting, selecting, training, and developing employees.
(d) Leading – motivating, communicating, guiding, encouraging as well as assisting the team members.
(e) Controlling: Continuously checking results against goals and taking any corrective actions necessary to ensure success of the plan.

Question 2.
Formulate a new policy relating to timing of employees.
Answer:
It has always been a struggle for people to maintain work-life balance. Working excessive hours poses a danger to workers’ health and to their families. Earlier all the work was done manually. However, with the help of machinery and computers, in modem times certain industries don’t require as many working hours anymore. Technology has introduced new ways to increase productivity. More recently, the global trend leans toward a four-day work week (counting one work day as eight hours).

Even the ILO standards on working time provide the framework for regulated hours of work, daily and weekly rest periods, and annual holidays. These instruments ensure high productivity while safeguarding workers’ physical and mental health. If the workers earn enough to pay for their necessities, they may opt to spend more time at home or in leisure. Countries around the globe are already experimenting and implementing shorter work weeks in varying degrees. So, in my opinion, the new policy relating to timing of employees should be a four-day work week.

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