Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.3

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Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.3

Queston 1.
Explain why Rolle’s theorem is not applicable to the following functions in the respective intervals.
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.3 1
Solution:
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.3 2
f(x) is not continuous at x = 0. So Rolle’s Theorem is not applicable.

(ii) f (x) = tan x
f(x) is not continuous at x = \(\frac{\pi}{2}\). So Rolle’s Theorem is not applicable..

(iii) f(x) = x – 2 log x
f(x) = x – 2 log x
f(2) = 2 – 2 log 2 = 2 – log 4
f(7) = 7 – 2 log 7 = 7 – log 49
f(2) ≠ f(7)
So Rolle’s theorem is not applicable.

Question 2.
Using the Rolle’s theorem, determine the values of x at which the tangent is parallel to the x-axis for the following functions:
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.3 3
Solution:
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.3 4
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.3 5

Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.3

Question 3.
Explain why Lagrange’s mean value theorem is not applicable to the following functions in the respective intervals :
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.3 6
Solution:
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.3 7
The function is not continuous at x = 0. So Lagrange’s mean value theorem is not applicable in the given interval.

(ii) f(x) =|3x + 1|, x ∈ [-1, 3]
The function is not differentiable at x = \(\frac{-1}{3}\). So Lagrange’s mean value theorem is not applicable in the given interval.

Question 4.
Using the Lagrange’s mean value theorem determine the values of x at which the tangent is parallel to the secant line at the end points of the given interval:
(i) f(x) = x3 – 3x + 2, x ∈ [-2, 2]
(ii) f(x) = (x – 2)(x – 7), x ∈ [3, 11]
Solution:
(i) f(x) = x3 – 3x + 2
Here a = -2, b = 2
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.3 8
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.3 9

Question 5.
Show that the value in the conclusion of the mean value theorem for
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.3 10
Solution:
(i) Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.3 11
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.3 12
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.3 13

Question 6.
A race car driver is racing at 20th km. If his speed never exceeds 150 km/hr, what is the maximum distance he can cover in the next two hours.
Solution:
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.3 133
Here the interval is [0, 2] and f(0) = 20, f(2) = ?
f(b) – f(a) ≤ (b – a)f’c)
here f (a) = 20
⇒ f(b) – 20 ≤ 150(2 – 0)
⇒ f(b) ≤ 320
(i.e) f(2) = 320 km.

Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.3

Question 7.
Suppose that for a function f(x), f'(x) ≤ 1 for all 1 ≤ x ≤ 4. Show that f(4) – f(1) ≤ 3.
Solution:
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.3 14

Question 8.
Does there exist a differentiable function f(x) such that f(0) = -1, f(2) = 4 and f'(x) ≤ 2 for all x. Justify your answer.
Solution:
f(0) = -1, f(2) = 4, f(x) ≤ 2
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.3 15
Here a = 0, b = 2
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.3 16
So this is not possible

Question 9.
Show that there lies a point on the curve Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.3 134 where tangent drawn is parallel to the x – axis.
Solution:
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.3 135
⇒ There lies a point in [-3,0], where tangent is parallel to x axis.

Question 10.
Using mean value theorem prove that for, a > 0, b > 0, |e-a – e-b| < |a – b|
Solution:
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.3 18

Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.3 Additional Questions Solved

Question 1.
Verify Rolle’s theorem for the following:
(i) f(x) = x3 – 3x + 3, 0 ≤ x ≤ 1
(ii) f(x) = tan x, 0 ≤ x ≤ π
(iii) f(x) = | x |, – 1 ≤ x ≤ 1
(iv) f (x) = sin2 x, 0 ≤ x ≤ π
(v) f(x) = ex sin x, 0 ≤ x ≤ π
(vi) f(x) = x(x – 1) (x – 2), 0 ≤ x ≤ 2
Solution:
(i) f(x) = x3 – 3x + 3, 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. f is continuous on [0, 1] and differentiable in (0, 1)
f(0) = 3 and f(1) = 1 ∴ f(a) ≠ f(b)
∴ Rolle’s theorem, does not hold, since f(a) = f(b) is not satisfied.
Also note that f’ (x) = 3x2 – 3 = 0 ⇒ x2 = 1 ⇒ x = ±1
There exists no point c ∈ (0, 1) satisfying f’ (c) = 0.

(ii) f(x) = tan x, 0 ≤ x ≤ π.
f ‘(x) is not continuous in [0, π] as tan x tends to + ∞ at x = \(\frac{\pi}{2}\),
∴ Rolle’s theorem is not applicable.

(iii) f (x) = | x |, -1 ≤ x ≤ 1
f is continuous in [-1, 1] but not differentiable in (-1, 1) since f'(0) does not exist.
∴ Rolle’s theorem is not applicable.

(iv) f (x) = sin2x, 0 ≤ x ≤ π
f is continuous in [0, π] and differentiable in (0, π). f(0) = f(π) = 0
(i.e.,) f satisfies hypothesis of Rolle’s theorem.
f’ (x) = 2 sin x cos x = sin 2x
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.3 19

(v) f(x) = ex, sin x, 0 ≤ x ≤ π
ex and sin x are continuous for all x, therefore the product ex sin x is continuous in 0 ≤ x ≤ π.
f’ (x) = ex sin x + ex cos x = ex (sin x + cos x) exist in 0 < x < π ⇒ f'(x) is differentiable in (0, π)
f (0) = e° sin 0 = 0
f (π) = eπ sin π = 0
∴ f satisfies hypothesis of Rolle’s theorem.
Thus there exists c ∈ (0, π) satisfying f'(c) = 0 ⇒ ec (sin c + cos c) = 0
⇒ ec = 0 or sin c + cos c = 0
⇒ ec = 0 ⇒ c = -∞ which is not meaningful here.
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.3 20

(vi) f(x) = x (x – 1) (x – 2), 0 ≤ x ≤ 2
f is not continuous in [0, 2] and differentiable in (0, 2)
f(0) = 0 = f(2), satisfying hypothesis of Rolle’s theorem.
Now f'(x) = (x – 1) (x – 2) + x(x – 2) + x(x – 1) = 0
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.3 21
Note: There could exist more than one such ‘c’ appearing in the statement of Rolle’s theorem.

Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.3

Question 2.
Suppose that f(0) = -3 and f'(x) ≤ 5 for all values of x, how large can f(2) possibly be?
Solution:
Since by hypothesis f is differentiable, f is continuous everywhere. We can apply Lagrange’s Law of the mean on the interval [0, 2], There exist atleast one ‘c’ ∈ (0, 2) such that
f(2) – f(0) = f'(c)(2 – 0)
f(2) = f(0) + 2f'(c) = -3 + 2f'(c)
Given that f'(x) ≤ 5 for all x.
In particular we know that f'(c) ≤ 5. Multiplying both sides of the inequality by 2, we have
2f'(c) ≤ 10
f(2) = -3 + 2f'(c) < -3 + 10 = 7
i.e., the largest possible value of f(2) is 7.

Question 3.
Using Rolle’s theorem find the points on the curves = x2 +1, -2 ≤ x ≤ 2 where the tangent is parallel to X-axis
Solution:
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.3 22
a = -2,
b = 2
f(x) = x2 + 1
f(a) = f(-2) = 4 + 1 = 5
f(b) = f(2) = 4 + 1 = 5
So, f(a) = f(b)
f'(x) = 2x
f'(x) = 0 ⇒ 2x = 0
x = 0 where 0 ∈ (-2, 2)
at x = 0, y = 0 + 1 = 1
So, the point is (0, 1) at (0, 1) the tangent drawn is parallel to X-axis

Question 4.
Find ‘C’ of Lagrange’s mean value theorem for the function f(x) = 2x3 + x2 – x – 1, [0, 2]
Solution:
f(x) = 2x3 + x2 – x – 1
a = 0,
b = 2
f(a) = f(0) = -1
f(b) = f(2) = 2(8) = 4 – 2 – 1 = 16 + 4 – 2 – 1 = 17
By Lagrange’s mean value theorem, we get a constant c ∈ (a, b) such that
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.3 23

Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.3

Question 5.
Find ‘C’ of Lagrange’s mean value theorem for the function f(x) = x3 + x2 – 3x in [1, 3]
Solution:
f(x) = x3 + x2 – 3x
a = 1,
b=3
f(a) = f(1) = 1 – 5 – 3 = -7
f(b) = f(3) = 27 – 5(9) – 3(3)
= 27 – 45 – 9 = -27
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.3 24
f'(x) = 3x2 – 10x – 3
f'(x) = 3c2 – 10c – 3
From (1) and (2),
3c2 – 10c – 3 = -10
3c2 – 10c – 3 + 10 = 0
3c2 – 10c + 7 = 0
3c2 – 3c – 7c + 7 = 0
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.3 25
So, Lagrange’s mean value theorem is true with c = \(\frac{7}{3}\)

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Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.4

You can Download Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Book Solutions Guide Pdf, Tamilnadu State Board help you to revise the complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.4

Question 1.
Write the Maclaurin series expansion of the following functions:
(i) ex
(ii) sin x
(iii) cos x
(iv) log (1 – x); -1 ≤ x < 1
(v) tan-1 (x) ; -1 ≤ x ≤ 1
(vi) cos2 x
Solution:
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.4 1
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.4 2
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.4 3
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.4 4

Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.4

(vi) f(x) = cos2 x
f(0) = 1
f'(x) = 2 cos x (- sin x) = – sin 2x
f'(0) = 0
f”(x) = (-cos 2x)(2)
f”(0) = -2
f”'(x) = -2[- sin 2x](2) = 4 sin 2x
f”'(0) = 0
f4 (x) = 4(cos 2x)(2) = 8 cos 2x
f4 (0) = 8
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.4 5

Question 2.
Write down the Taylor series expansion, of the function log x about x = 1 upto three non-zero terms for x > 0.
Solution:
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.4 6

Question 3.
Expand sin x in ascending powers x – \(\frac{\pi}{4}\) upto three non-zero terms.
Solution:
f (x) = sin x
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.4 7
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.4 8

Question 4.
Expand the polynomial f(x) = x2 – 3x + 2 in powers of x – 1
Solution:
f(x) = x2 – 3x + 2 = (x – 1) (x – 2)
f(1) = 0
f'(x) = 2x – 3 ; f'(1) = -1
f”(x) = 2 ; f”(1) = 2
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.4 9

Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.4 Additional Problems

Question 1.
The Taylor’s series expansion of f(x) = sin x about x = \(\frac{\pi}{2}\) is obtained by the following way.
Solution:
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.4 10

Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.4

Question 2.
Obtain the Maclaurin’s series expansion for the following functions.
(i) ex
(ii) sin2 x
(iii) \(\frac{1}{1+x}\)
Solution:
(i)
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.4 12
(ii)
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.4 13
(iii)
Samacheer Kalvi 12th Maths Solutions Chapter 7 Applications of Differential Calculus Ex 7.4 14

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Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 5 English Medium

Students can Download Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 5 English Medium Pdf, Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Papers helps you to revise the complete Tamilnadu State Board New Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

TN State Board 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 5 English Medium

General Instructions:

  1. The question paper comprises of four parts.
  2. You are to attempt all the parts. An internal choice of questions is provided wherever applicable.
  3. All questions of Part I, II, III and IV are to be attempted separately.
  4. Question numbers 1 to 15 in Part I are Multiple Choice Questions of one mark each.
    These are to be answered by choosing the most suitable answer from the given four alternatives and writing the option code and the corresponding answer
  5. Question numbers 16 to 24 in Part II are two-mark questions. These are to be answered in about one or two sentences.
  6. Question numbers 25 to 33 in Part III are three-mark questions. These are to be answered in about three to five short sentences.
  7. Question numbers 34 to 38 in Part IV are five-mark questions. These are to be answered in detail Draw diagrams wherever necessary.

Time: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 70

PART – I

All questions are compulsory. [15 × 1 = 15]

Choose the most appropriate answer from the given four ‘alternatives and write the option code with the corresponding answer.

Question 1.
Bundling two values together into one can be considered as
(a) Pair
(b) Triplet
(c) Single
(d) Quadrat
Answer:
(a) Pair

Question 2.
The kind of scope of the variable ‘a’ used in the pseudo code given below
(i) Disp():
(ii) a: = 7
(iii) print a
(iv) Disp()
(a) Local
(b) Global
(c) Enclosed
(d) Built-in
Answer:
(b) Global

Question 3.
Big Q is the reverse of…………
(a) Big O
(b) Big 0
(c) Big A
(d) Big S
Answer:
(a) Big O

Question 4.
Extension of Python files is………..
(a) .Pyt
(b) .txt
(c) .Pdm
(d) .Py
Answer:
(d) .Py

Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 5 English Medium

Question 5.
The output of the Segment
for i in range (10, 0, 2)
print (i)
(a) 10 8 6 420
(b) 10 8 6 4 2
(c) 0 2 4 6 8 10
(d) Error
Answer:
(d) Error

Question 6.
The bin() function returns a binary string prefixed with:
(a) 0
(b) 1
(c) 0b
(d) lb
Answer:
(c) 0b

Question 7.
The positive and negative index value of’P’ in the string Strl = ‘COMPUTER’ are
(a) 3, -4
(b) 4, -4
(c) 3, -5
(d) 4, -5
Answer:
(c) 3, -5

Question 8.
Which of the following set operation includes all the elements that are in two sets but not the one that are common to two sets?
(a) Symmetric difference
(b) Difference
(c) Intersection
(d) Union
Answer:
(a) Symmetric difference

Question 9.
A variable prefixed with double underscore is
(a) private
(b) public
(c) protected
(d) static
Answer:
(a) private

Question 10.
The data model developed by IBM is
(a) hierarchical
(b) relational
(c) network
(d) ER
Answer:
(a) hierarchical

Question 11.
The SQL command to make a database as current active database is
(a) CURRENT
(b) USE
(c) DATABASE
(d) NEW
Answer:
(b) USE

Question 12.
The expansion of CRLF is…………..
(a) Control Return and Line Feed
(b) Carriage Return and Form Feed
(c) Control Router and Line Feed
(d) Carriage Return and Line Feed
Answer:
(d) Carriage Return and Line Feed

Question 13.
The function call statement of the segment………….
if_name_ == ‘_main_’:
main(sys.argv[1:])
is
(a) main(sys.argv[l:])
(b) _name_
(c) _main_
(d) argv
Answer:
(b) _name_

Question 14.
Which is not a SQL clause?
(a) GROUP BY
(b) ORDER BY
(c) HAVING
(d) CONDITION
Answer:
(d) CONDITION

Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 5 English Medium

Question 15.
To make a bar chart with Matplotlib, which function should be used?
(a) plt.bar()
(b) plt.chart()
(c) pip.bar()
(d) pip.chart()
Answer:
(a) plt.bar()

PART – II

Answer any six questions. Question No. 21 is compulsory. [6 x 2 = 12]

Question 16.
What do you mean by Namespaces?
Answer:
Namespaces are containers for mapping names of variables to objects.

Question 17.
What is searching? Write its types.
Answer:
A search algorithm is the step-by-step procedure used to locate specific data among a collection of data. Types of searching algorithms are:

  1. Linear search
  2. Binary search
  3. Hash search
  4. Binary Tree search

Question 18.
Define Operator and Operand.
Answer:
In computer programming languages operators are special symbols which represent computations, conditional matching etc. The value of an operator used is called operands. Operators are categorized as Arithmetic, Relational, Logical, Assignment etc. Value and variables when used with operator are known as operands.

Question 19.
What are the types of looping supported by Python?
Answer:
Python provides two types of looping constructs:
while loop:
In the ‘while loop’, the condition is any valid Boolean expression returning True or False. The else part of while is optional part of while.

for loop:
‘for loop’ is the most comfortable loop. It is also an entry check loop. The condition is checked in the beginning and the body of the loop(statements-block 1) is executed if it is only True otherwise the loop is not executed.

Question 20.
What is the use of the operator += in python string operation?
Answer:
Adding more strings at the end of an existing string is known as append (+=). The operator += is used to append a new string with an existing string.
Example:
>>> strl = “Welcome to”
>>> strl += “Leam Python”
>>> print (strl)
Welcome to Learn Python

Question 21.
What will be the output of the following snippet?
alpha = list(range(65, 70))
for x in alpha:
print(chr(x), end=’\t’)
Answer:
Output:
A B C D E

Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 5 English Medium

Question 22.
What is the use of WHERE clause in SQL?
Answer:
The WHERE clause in the SELECT command specifies the criteria for getting the desired result. The general form of SELECT command with WHERE Clause is:
SELECT[,,….] FROM WHERE condition>;
The relational operators like =, <, <=, >, >=, <> can be used to compare two values in the SELECT command used with WHERE clause. The logical operaors OR, AND and NOT can also be used to connect search conditions in the WHERE clause. For example:
SELECT Admno, Name, Age, Place FROM Student WHERE (Age>=18 AND Place = “Delhi”);

Question 23.
What are the steps involved in file operation of Python?
Answer:
When you want to read from or write to a file ,you need to open it. Once the reading is over it needs to be closed. So that, resources that are tied with the file are freed. Hence, in Python, a file operation takes place in the following order.
Step 1 → Open a file
Step 2 → Perform Read or write operation
Step 3 → Close the file

Question 24.
Distinguish compiler and interpreter.
Answer:

Compiler Interpreter
1. It converts the whole program at a time line by line execution of the source code
2. It is faster It is slow
3. Error detection is difficult, e.g., C++ It is easy. e.g., Python

PART – III

Answer any six questions. Question No. 29 is compulsory. [6 x 3 = 18]

Question 25.
Why strlen is called pure function?
Answer:
strlen (s) is called each time and strlen needs to iterate over the whole of ‘s’. If the compiler is smart enough to work out that strlen is a pure function and that ‘s’ is not updated in the loop, then it can remove the redundant extra calls to strlen and make the loop to execute only one time. This function reads external memory but does not change it, and the value returned derives from the external memory accessed.

Question 26.
Which strategy is used for program designing? Define the strategy.
Answer:
We are using here a powerful strategy for designing programs: ‘wishful thinking’.
Wishful Thinking is the formation of beliefs and making decisions according to what might be pleasing to imagine instead of by appealing to reality.

Question 27.
Which jump statement is used as placeholder? Why?
Answer:
pass statement is generally used as a placeholder. When we have a loop or function that is to be implemented in the future and not now, we cannot develop such functions or loops with empty body segment because the interpreter would raise an error. So, to avoid this we can use pass statement to construct a body that does nothing.

Question 28.
What are the points to be noted while defining a function?
Answer:

  1. Function blocks begin with the keyword “def ” followed by function name and parenthesis ().
  2. Any input parameters or arguments should be placed within these parentheses when you define a function.
  3. The code block always comes after a colon (:) and is indented.
  4. The statement “return [expression]” exits a function, optionally passing back an expression to the caller. A “return” with no arguments is the same as return None.

Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 5 English Medium

Question 29.
Write a Python program to display the given pattern
COMPUTER
COMPUTE
COM PUT
COMPU
COMP
COM
CO
C
Answer:
Program:
strl = “COMPUTER”
index = len(strl)
for i in strl:
print(strl[: index])
index – = 1

Question 30.
What is the output of the following program?
class Greeting:
def_init_(self, name):
self._name = name
def displayf self):
print (“Good Morning”, self._name)
obj = Greeting(‘Tamil Nadu’)
obj.displayO
Answer:
Output: Tamil Nadu Good Morning

Question 31.
Explain Cartesian product with a suitable example.
Answer:
PRODUCT OR CARTESIAN PRODUCT (Symbol: X)
Cross -product is a way of combining two relations. The resulting relation contains, both relations being combined.
A × B means A times B, where the relation A and B have different attributes.
This type of operation is helpful to merge columns from two relations.
Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 5 English Medium 1

Question 32.
Write a short note on (i) fetchallf) (ii) fetchonef) (iii) fetchmany
Answer:
cursor.fetchall() -fetchall ()method is to fetch all rows from the database table.
cursor. fetchoneQ – The fetchone () method returns the next row of a query result set or None in case there is no row left.
cursor, fetchmany() method that returns the next number of rows (n) of the result set

Question 33.
Write a Python code to display the following chart.
Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 5 English Medium 2
Answer:
Import matplotlib.pyplot as pit
x = [1, 2, 3,4, 5, 7,8]
y = [1,2.5, 4, 5, 6, 7, 7]
plt.plot([1, 2, 3, 4])
plt.show()

PART – IV

Answer all the following questions. [5 x 5 = 25]

Question 34 (a).
Write any five benefits in using modular programming.
Answer:
The benefits of using modular programming include

  1. Less code to be written.
  2. A single procedure can be developed for reuse, eliminating the need to retype the code many times.
  3. Programs can be designed more easily because a small team deals with only a small part of the entire code.
  4. Modular programming allows many programmers to collaborate on the same application.
  5. The code is stored across multiple files.
  6. Code is short, simple and easy to understand.
  7. Errors can easily be identified, as they are localized to a subroutine or function.
  8. The same code can be used in many applications.
  9. The scoping of variables can easily be controlled.

Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 5 English Medium

(OR)

(b) Explain input() and print() functions of Python with example.
Answer:
Input() function:
In Python, input() function is used to accept data as input at run time. The syntax for input() function is,
Variable = input (“prompt string”)
Where, prompt string in the syntax is a statement or message to the user, to know what input can be given.
If a prompt string is used, it is displayed on the monitor; the user can provide expected data from the input device. The input() takes whatever is typed from the keyboard and stores the entered data in the given variable. If prompt string is not given in input() no message is displayed on the screen, thus, the user will not know what is to be typed as input.
Example 1:
input() with prompt string
>>> city = input (“Enter Your City: ”)
Enter Your City: Madurai
>>> print (“I am from“, city)
I am from Madurai

Example 2:
input() without prompt string
>>> city = input()
Rajarajan
>>> print (I am from”, city)
I am from Rajarajan

The print() function:
In Python, the print() function is used to display result on the screen. The syntax for print() is as follows:
Example:
print (“string to be displayed as output ”)
print (variable)
print (“String to be displayed as output ”, variable)
print (“String 1 ”, variable, “String 2”, variable, “String 3”………. )

Example:
>>> print (“Welcome to Python Programming”)
Welcome to Python Programming
>>> x = 5
>>> y = 6
>>> z = x + y
>>> print (z)
11
>>> print (“The sum = ”, z)
The sum = 11
>>> print (“The sum of ”, x, “ and ”, y, “ is ”, z)
The sum of 5 and 6 is 11

The print () evaluates the expression before printing it on the monitor. The print () displays an entire statement which is specified within print (). Comma (,) is used as a separator in print () to print more than one item.

Question 35 (a).
Write a detail note on for loop in Python.
Answer:
for loop
for loop is the most comfortable loop. It is also an entry check loop. The condition is checked in the beginning and the body of the loop(statements-block 1) is executed if it is only True otherwise the loop is not executed.
Syntax:
for counter_variable in sequence:
statements block 1
# optional block
[else:
statements block 2]
The counter_variable mentioned in the syntax is similar to the control variable that we used in the for loop of C++ and the sequence refers to the initial, final and increment value. Usually in Python, for loop uses the range() function in the sequence to specify the initial, final and increment values. range() generates a list of values starting from start till stop-1.

The syntax of range() is as follows:
range (start, stop, [step])
Where,
start – refers to the initial value
stop – refers to the final value
step – refers to increment value, this is optional part.

Examples for range()
range (1, 30, 1) will start the range of values from 1 and end at 29
range (2, 30, 2) will.start the range of values from 2 and end at 28
range (30, 3, -3) will start the range of values from 30 and end at 6
range (20) will consider this value 20 as the end value(or upper limit) and starts the range count from 0 to 19 (remember always range() will work till stop -1 value only)
Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 5 English Medium 3

#program to illustrate the use of for loop – to print single digit even number
for i in range (2, 10, 2):
print (i, end = ‘ ‘)
Output:
2 4 6 8

Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 5 English Medium

[OR]

(b) Explain the different types of functions in Python with example.
Answer:
Types of Functions
Basically, we can divide functions into the following types:

  1. User-defined Functions
  2. Built-in Functions
  3. Lambda Functions
  4. Recursion Functions
Functions Description
User-defined functions Functions defined by the users themselves.
Built-in functions Functions that are inbuilt with in Python.
Lambda functions Functions that are anonymous un-named function.
Recursion functions Functions that calls itself is known as recursive.

1. Syntax for User defined function
def < function_name ([parameter 1, parameter2 …… ])> :

return
Example:
def hello():
print (“hello – Python”)
return

Advantages of User-defined Functions:

  1. Functions help us to divide a program into modules. This makes the code easier to manage.
  2. It implements code reuse. Every time you need to execute a sequence of statements, all you need to do is to call the function.
  3. Functions, allows us to change functionality easily, and different programmers can work on different functions.

2. Anonymous Functions
In Python, anonymous function is a function that is defined without a name. While normal functions are defined using the def keyword, in Python anonymous functions are defined using the lambda keyword. Hence, anonymous functions are also called as lambda functions.
The use of lambda or anonymous function:

  1. Lambda function is mostly used for creating small and one-time anonymous function.
  2. Lambda functions are mainly used in combination with the functions like filter(), map() and reduce().

Syntax of Anonymous Functions:
The syntax for anonymous functions is as follows:
lambda [argument(s)]:expression
Example:
sum = lambda argl, arg2: argl + arg2
print (‘The Sum is :’, sum(30,40))
print (‘The Sum is :’, sum(-30,40))
Output:
The Sum is : 70
The Sum is : 10
The above lambda function that adds argument argl with argument arg2 and stores the result in the variable sum. The result is displayed using the print().

3. Functions using libraries
Built-in and Mathematical functions
Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 5 English Medium 4

4. Recursive functions
When a function calls itself is known as recursion. Recursion works like loop but sometimes it makes more sense to use recursion than loop. You can convert any loop to recursion.
Example:
def fact(n):
if n = = 0:
return 1
else:
return n * fact (n – 1)
print (fact (0))
print (fact (5))
Output:
1
120

Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 5 English Medium

Question 36 (a).
Explain about the find() function in Python with example.
Answer:
Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 5 English Medium 5

(OR)

(b) Compare remove(), pop() and clear() function in Python.
Answer:
The remove( ) function can also be used to delete one or more elements if the index value is not known. Apart from remove() function, pop() function can also be used to delete an element using the given index value. pop() function deletes and returns the last element of a list if the index is not given.
The function clear() is used to delete all the elements in list, it deletes only the elements and retains the list. Remember that, the del statement deletes entire list.
Syntax:
List.remove(element)
# to delete a particular element
List.pop(index of an element)
List, clear ()
Example:
>>> MyList = [12, 89, 34,’Kannan’, ‘Gowrisankar’, ‘Lenin’]
>>> print(MyList)
[12, 89, 34, ‘Kannan’, ‘Gowrisankar’, ‘Lenin’]
>>> MyList.remove(89)
>>> print(MyList)
[12, 34, ‘Kannan’, ‘Gowrisankar’, ‘Lenin’]
In the above example, MyList has been created with three integer and three string elements, the following print statement shows all the elements available in the list. In the statement.
>>> MyList.remove(89), deletes the element 89 from the list and the print statement shows the remaining elements.
Example:
>>> MyList.pop(l)
34
>>> print(MyList)
[12, ‘Kannan’, ‘Gowrisankar’, ‘Lenin’]
In the above code, pop() function is used to delete a particular element using its index value, as soon as the element is deleted, the pop() function shows the element which is deleted. pop() function is used to delete only one element from a list. Remember that, del statement deletes multiple elements.
Example:
>>> MyList.clear()
>>> print(MyList)
[]
In the above code, clear() function removes only the elements and retains the list. When you try to print the list which is already cleared, an empty square bracket is displayed without any elements, which means the list is empty.

Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 5 English Medium

Question 37 (a).
Explain the components of DBMS.
Answer:
Components of DBMS:
Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 5 English Medium 6
The Database Management System can be divided into five major components as follows:

  1. Hardware
  2. Software
  3. Data
  4. Procedures/Methods
  5. Database Access Languages

1. Hardware: The computer, hard disk, I/O channels for data, and any other physical component involved in storage of data.
2. Software: This main component is a program that controls everything. The DBMS software is capable of understanding the Database Access Languages and interprets into database commands for execution.
3. Data: It is that resource for which DBMS is designed. DBMS creation is to store and utilize data.
4. Procedures/Methods: They are general instructions to use a database management system such as installation of DBMS, manage databases to take backups, report generation, etc.
5. DataBase Access Languages: They are the languages used to write commands to access, insert, update and delete data stored in any database.

[OR]

(b) What are the components of SOL? Write the commands in each.
Answer:
Components of SQL
SQL commands are divided into five categories:
Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 5 English Medium 7
a. Data Definition Language
The Data Definition Language (DDL) consist of SQL statements used to define the database structure or schema. It simply deals with descriptions of the database schema and is used to create and modify the structure of database objects in databases.
SQL commands which comes under Data Definition Language are:

Create To create tables in the database.
Alter Alters the structure of the database.
Drop Delete tables from database.
Truncate Remove all records from a table, also release the space occupied by those records.

b. Data Manipulation Language
A Data Manipulation Language (DML) is a computer programming language used for adding (inserting), removing (deleting), and modifying (updating) data in a database.
SQL commands which comes under Data Manipulation Language are :

Insert Inserts data into a table
Update Updates the existing data within a table.
Delete Deletes all records from a table, but not the space occupied by them.

c. Data Control Language:
A Data Control Language (DCL) is used for controlling privileges in the database SQL commands: GRANT, REVOKE

d. Transactional Control Language;
Transactional control language (TCL) is used to manage transactions i.e. changes made to the data in the database.
SQL commands: COMMIT, ROLLBACK, SAVEPOINT.

e. Data Query Language
The Data Query Language (DQL) have commands to query or retrieve data from the database. SQL commands: SELECT.

Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 5 English Medium

Question 38 (a).
Explain the following operators in Relational Algebra with suitable example
1. Union, (∪) 20 Intersection (∩)
UNION (Symbol :∪)
It includes all tuples that are in tables A or in B. It also eliminates duplicates. Set A Union Set B would be expressed as A ∪ B
Example 2
Consider the following tables
Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 5 English Medium 8
INTERSECTION (symbol: ∩) A ∩ B
Defines a relation consisting of a set of all tuple that are in both in A and B. However, A and B must be union-compatible.
Example 5 (using Table B)

Table A ∩ B
Studno Name
csl Kannan
cs3 Lenin

[OR]

(b) Draw the output for the following data visualization plot.
import matplotlib.pyplot as pit
plt.bar([1, 3, 5, 7, 9],[5, 2, 7, 8, 2], label=”Example one”)
plt.bar([2, 4, 6, 8, 10],[8, 6, 2, 5, 6], label=”Example two”, color=’g’)
plt.legendO
plt.xlabel(‘bar number’)
plt.ylabel(‘bar height’)
plt.title(‘Epic Graph\nAnother Line! Whoa’)
plt.show()
Answer:
Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 5 English Medium 9

Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 5 English Medium

Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 2 English Medium

Students can Download Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 2 English Medium Pdf, Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Papers helps you to revise the complete Tamilnadu State Board New Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

TN State Board 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 2 English Medium

General Instructions:

  1. The question paper comprises of four parts.
  2. You are to attempt all the parts. An internal choice of questions is provided wherever applicable.
  3. All questions of Part I, II, III and IV are to be attempted separately.
  4. Question numbers 1 to 15 in Part I are Multiple Choice Questions of one mark each.
    These are to be answered by choosing the most suitable answer from the given four alternatives and writing the option code and the corresponding answer
  5. Question numbers 16 to 24 in Part II are two-mark questions. These are to be answered in about one or two sentences.
  6. Question numbers 25 to 33 in Part III are three-mark questions. These are to be answered in about three to five short sentences.
  7. Question numbers 34 to 38 in Part IV are five-mark questions. These are to be answered in detail Draw diagrams wherever necessary.

Time: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 70

PART – I

Choose the correct answer. Answer all the questions: [15 x 1 = 15]

Question 1.
The members that are accessible from within the class and are also available to its subclasses is called……….
(a) public
(b) protected
(c) secured
(d) private
Answer:
(b) protected

Question 2.
Built in scopes are called as scope.
(a) private
(b) public
(c) protected
(d) module
Answer:
(d) module

Question 3.
The complexity of Bubble sort is…………
(a) θ (n2)
(b) θ (n(logn)2)
(c) θ (n)
(d) θ (2n)
Answer:
(a) θ (n2)

Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 2 English Medium

Question 4.
How many integer data types are there?
(a) 2
(b) 3
(c) 4
(d) 5
Answer:
(b) 3

Question 5.
Branching statements are otherwise called as………..
(a) alternative
(b) Iterative
(c) loop
(d) sequential
Answer:
(a) alternative

Question 6.
……….. functions are anonymous un-named functions.
(a) User defined
(b) Built-in
(c) Lambda
(d) Recursive
Answer:
(c) Lambda

Question 7.
The code block always comes after……..
(a) ;
(b) +
(c) =
(d) :
Answer:
(d) :

Question 8.
Which one of the following is the membership operator?
(a) is
(b) at
(c) to
(d) in
Answer:
(d) in

Question 9.
Which operator is used to join two tuples?
(a) –
(b) _
(c) +
(d) +:
Answer:
(c) +

Question 10.
A table is otherwise called as…………
(a) tuple
(b) relation
(c) attribute
(d) degree
Answer:
(b) relation

Question 11.
Who developed ER model?
(a) Chen
(b) E F Codd
(c) Chend
(d) Chand
Answer:
(a) Chen

Question 12.
The latest SQL was released in………
(a) 1987
(b) 1992
(c) 2008
(d) 2012
Answer:
(c) 2008

Question 13.
How many ways are there to read the CSV files?
(a) 2
(b) 1
(c) 3
(d) 4
Answer:
(a) 2

Question 14.
CSV files cannot be opened with………
(A) notepad
(b) MS Excel
(c) Open office
(d) html
Answer:
(d) html

Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 2 English Medium

Question 15.
getopt mode is given by………..
(a) ;
(b) =
(c) #
(d) :
Answer:
(d) :

PART – II

Answer any six questions. Question No. 21 is compulsory. [6 x 2 = 12]

Question 16.
List the characteristics of an algorithm.
Answer:
Input, Output, Finiteness, Definiteness, Effectiveness, Correctness, Simplicity, Unambiguous, Feasibility, Portable and Independent.

Question 17.
What are the escape sequences for Backslash, Newline, Tab, Single quotes.
Answer:

  1. Backslash – \\
  2. New line – \n
  3. Tab – \t
  4. Single quotes – \’

Question 18.
Define composition.
Answer:
The value returned by a function may be used as an argument for another function in a nested manner. This is called composition.

Question 19.
Name the different types of functions.
Answer:

  1. User-defined Functions
  2. Built-in Functions
  3. Lambda Functions
  4. Recursion Functions

Question 20.
Write note on center function, center (width, fillchar)
Answer:
Returns a string with the original string centered to a total of width columns and filled with fillchar in columns that do not have characters.

Question 21.
Write a program to create a list of numbers in the range 1 to 20. Then delete all the numbers from the list that are divisible by 3.
num = []
for x in range(1 21):
num.append(x)
print(“The list of numbers from 1 to 20 =”, num)
for index, i in enumerate(num):
if (i % 3 = 0)
del num[index]
print (“The list after deleting numbers”, num)
Output:
The list of numbers from 1 to 20 = [1, 2, 3, 4… 20]
The list after deleting numbers [l, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 17, 19, 20]

Question 22.
Write note on dictionary comprehensions.
Answer:
In Python, comprehension is another way of creating dictionary. The following is the syntax of creating such dictionary.
Syntax
Diet = {expression for variable in sequence [if condition]}

Question 23.
What is data consistency?
Answer:
On live data, it is being continuously updated and added, maintaining the consistency of data can become a challenge. But DBMS handles it by itself. Data Consistency means that data values are the same at all instances of a database.

Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 2 English Medium

Question 24.
Define database.
Answer:
Database is a repository collection of related data organized in a way that data can be easily accessed, managed and updated. Database can be a software or hardware based, with one sole purpose of storing data.

PART – III

Answer any six questions. Question No. 29 is compulsory. [6 x 3 = 18]

Question 25.
Define constructors and selectors functions.
Answer:

  1. Constructors are functions that build the abstract data type.
  2. Selectors are functions that retrieve information from the data type.

Question 26.
What are the steps to do Dynamic programming?
Answer:

  1. The given problem will be divided into smaller overlapping sub-problems.
  2. An optimum solution for the given problem can be achieved by using result of smaller sub-problem.
  3. Dynamic algorithms uses Memoization.

Question 27.
Write note on delimiters.
Answer:
Python uses the symbols and symbol combinations as delimiters in expressions, lists, dictionaries and strings. Following are the delimiters.
Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 2 English Medium 1

Question 28.
Write note on Nested loop structure.
Answer:
A loop placed within another loop is called as nested loop structure. One can place a while within another while; for within another for; for within while and while within for to construct such nested loops.
Following is an example to illustrate the use of for loop to print the following pattern
1
12
123
1234
12345

Question 29.
Write a program to display the sum of natural numbers upto n.
Answer:
n = input (“Enter any number”)
sum = 0
for i in range (i, n+1):
sum = sum + i
print “sum = “, sum
Output:
Enter any number 5
sum = 15

Question 30
Differentiate list and dictionary.
Answer:

list dictionary
1. List is an ordered set of elements. A dictionary is a data structure that is used for matching one element (Key) with another (Value).
2. The index values can be used to access a particular element. In dictionary key represents index. Remember that, key may be a number of a string.
3. Lists are used to look up a value. A dictionary is used to take one value and look up another value.

Question 31.
Explain the commands which comes under TCL.
Answer:
SQL command which come under Transfer Control Language are:

  1. Commit Saves any transaction into the database permanently.
  2. Roll back Restores the database to last commit state.
  3. Save point Temporarily save a transaction so that you can rollback.

Question 32.
Differentiate Python from C++.
Answer:
Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 2 English Medium 2

Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 2 English Medium

Question 33.
Give the Pseudo code for Bubble sort algorithm.
Answer:
Pseudo code

  1. Start with the first element i.e., index = 0, compare the current element with the next element of the array.
  2. If the current element is greater than the next element of the array, swap them.
  3. If the current element is less than the next or right side of the element, move to the next element. Go to Step 1 and repeat until end of the index is reached.

PART – IV

Answer all the questions. [5 x 5 = 25]

Question 34 (a).
Explain the rules to be followed to format data in a CSV file.
Answer:
Rules to be followed to format data in a CSV file
1. Each record (row of data) is to be located on a separate line, delimited by a line break by pressing enter key.
For example: ↵
xxx, yyy ↵
↵ denotes enter Key to be pressed

2. The last record in the file may or may not have an ending line break.
For example:
ppp, qqq ↵
yyy, xxx

3. There may be an optional header line appearing as the first line of the file with the same format as normal record lines. The header will contain names corresponding to the fields in the file and should contain the same number of fields as the records in the rest of the file.
For example: field_namel, field_name2, field_name3 ↵
aaa,bbb,ccc ↵
zzz, yyy, xxx CRLF (Carriage Return and Line Feed)

4. Within the header and each record, there may be one or more fields, separated by commas. Spaces are considered part of a field and should not be ignored. The last field in the record must not be followed by a comma. For example: Red , Blue

5. Each field may or may not be enclosed in double quotes. If fields are not enclosed with double quotes, then double quotes may not appear inside the fields.
For example:
Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 2 English Medium 3

6. Fields containing line breaks (CRLF), double quotes, and commas should be enclosed in double-quotes.
For example:
Red, ”, “, Blue CRLF # comma itself is a field value. So it is enclosed with double quotes Red, Blue , Green.

7. If double-quotes are used to enclose fields, then a double-quote appearing inside a field ‘ must be preceded with another double quote.
For example:
“Red, ” “Blue”, “Green”, # since double quotes is a field value it is enclosed with another double quotes,, White

[OR]

(b) Write a program to add a prefix text to all the lines in a string.
Answer:
import textwrap
text =
‘”Strings are immutable. Slice is a
substring of a main string. Stride is a third argument in slicing operation'”
text_without_lndentation = textwrap.dedent(text)
wrapped = textwrap.fill(text_without_Indentation, width = 50)
print(textwrap.indent(wrapped, ‘*’)
print()
Output:

  1. Strings are immutable. Slice is a
  2. substring of a main string. Stride
  3. is a third argument in slicing operation.

Question 35 (a).
Explain the purpose of range with an example.
Answer:
The range( ) is a function used to generate a series of values in Python. Using range( ) function, you can create list with series of values. The range() function has three arguments.

Syntax of range () function:
range (start value, end value, step value)
where,
start value – beginning value of series. Zero is the default beginning value.
end value – upper limit of series. Python takes the ending value as upper limit – 1.
step value – It is an optional argument, which is used to generate different interval of values.
Example:
Generating whole numbers upto 10
for x in range (1, 11):
print(x)
Output
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 2 English Medium

[OR]

(b) Explain the various processing skills of SQL.
Answer:
The various processing skills of SQL are :

  1. Data Definition Language (DDL) : The SQL DDL provides commands for defining relation schemes (structure), deleting relations, creating indexes and modifying relation schemes.
  2. data Manipulation Language (DML) : The SQL DML includes commands to insert, delete, and modify tuples in the database.
  3. Embedded Data Manipulation Language : The embedded form of SQL is used in high level programming languages.
  4. View Definition : The SQL also includes commands for defining views of tables.
  5. Authorization : The SQL includes commands for access rights to relations and views of tables.
  6. Integrity : The SQL provides forms for integrity checking using condition.
  7. Transaction control : The SQL includes commands for file transactions and control over transaction processing.

Question 36 (a).
Explain various set operations.
Answer:
As we leamt in mathematics, the python is also supports the set operations such as Union, Intersection, difference and Symmetric difference.

(i) Union: It includes all elements from two or more sets
In python, the operator | is used to union of two sets. The function union() is also used to join two sets in python.
Example:
Program to Join (Union) two sets using union operator
Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 2 English Medium 4
set_A = {2, 4, 6, 8}
set_B = {‘A’, ‘B’, ‘C, ‘D’}
U_set = set_A| set_B
print(U_set)
Output:
{2, 4, 6, 8, ‘A’, ‘D’, ‘C, ’B’}

(ii) Intersection: It includes the common elements in two sets.
The operator & is used to intersect two sets in python. The function intersection ) is also used to intersect two sets in python.
Example:
Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 2 English Medium 5
Program to insect two sets using intersection operator
set_A = {‘A’, 2, 4, ‘D’}
set_B = {‘A’, ‘B’, ‘C’, ‘D’}
print(set_A & set_B)
Output:
{‘A’, ‘D’}

(iii) Difference: It includes all elements that are in first set (say set A) but not in the second set (say set B)
The minus (-) operator is used to difference set operation in python.
The function difference() is also used to difference operation.
Example:
Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 2 English Medium 6
Program to difference of two sets using minus operator
set_A = {’A’, 2, 4, ’D’}
set_B = {‘A’, ’B’, ‘C’, ’D’}
print(set_A – set_B)
Output:
{2, 4}

(iv) Symmetric difference: It includes all the elements that are in two sets (say sets A and B) but not the one that are common to two sets.
The caret (^) operator is used to symmetric difference set operation in python. The function symmetric_difference() is also used to do the same operation.
Example:
Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 2 English Medium 7
Program to symmetric difference of two sets using caret operator
set_A = {‘A’, 2, 4, ‘D’}
set_B = {‘A’, ‘B’, ’C’, ‘D’}
print(set_A ^ set_B)
Output:
{2, 4, ’B’, ‘C’}

Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 2 English Medium

[OR|

(b) Write a program that accept a string from the user and display the same after removing vowels from it.
Answer:
def rem_vowels(s):
temp_str = ”
for i in s:
if i in “aAeEiIoOuU”:
pass
else:
temp_str+ = i
print (“The string without vowels: “, temp str)
strl= input (“Enter a String: “)
rem_vowels (strl)
Output:
Enter a String: Mathematical foundations of Computer Science The string without vowels: Mthmtcl fndtns f Cmptr Scnc

Question 37 (a).
Write a program to display all records using fetchall().
Answer:
The fetchall() method is used to fetch all rows from the database table
import sqlite3
connection = sqlite3.connect(“Academy, db”)
cursor = connection.cursor()
cursor.execute(“SELECT * FROM student”)
print(“fetchall:”)
result = cursor.fetchall()
for r in result:
print(r)
Output:
fetchall:
(1, ‘Akshay’, ‘B’, ‘M’, 87.8, ’2001-12-12′)
(2, ‘Aravind’, ’A’, ‘M’, 92.5, ‘2000-08-17’)
(3, ‘BASKAR’,’C’, ‘M’, 75.2, ‘1998-05-17’)
(4, ‘SAJINT, ‘A’, ‘F’, 95.6, ‘2002-11-01’)
(5, ‘VARUN’,’B’, ‘M’, 80.6,’2001-03-14′)
(6, ‘PRIYA’, ‘A’, ‘F’, 98.6, ‘2002-01-01’)
(7, ‘TARUN’, ‘D’, ‘M’, 62.3, ‘1999-02-01’)

[OR]

(b) Write a C++ program using user defined function to find cube of a number.
Answer:
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
// Function declaration
int cube(int num);
int main()
{
int num;
int c;
cout <<“Enter any number: “<<endl;
cin>>num;
c = cube(num);
cout<<“Cube of” <<num<<” is “<<c;
return 0;
}
//Function to find cube of any number
int cube(int num)
{
return (num * num * num);
}
// Save this file as cubefile.cpp
#Now select File→New in Notepad and type the Python program
# Save the File as fun.py
# Program that compiles and executes a .cpp file
# Python fun.py -i c:\pyprg\cube_file.cpp
import sys, os, getopt
def main (argv):
cppfile = ”
exefile = ”
opts, args = getopt.getopt(argv, “i:”,[‘ifile=’])
for o, a in opts:
if o in (“-i”, “–ifile”):
cpp_file = a + ‘.cpp’
exe_file = a + ‘.exe’
run (cpp_file, exe_file)
def run (cpp_file, exe_file):
print(“Compiling” + cpp file)
os.system (‘g++ ‘ + cpp_file +’ -o ‘ + exe_file)
print (“Running ” + exe_file)
print(“———-“)
print
os.system(exe_file)
print
if_name_ == ‘_main_’:
main(sys.argv[l:])
Output of the above program
Compiling c:\pyprg\cube_file.cpp
Running c:\pyprg\cube_file.exe
————–
Enter any number:
5
Cube of 5 is 125

Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 2 English Medium

Question 38 (a).
Explain reverse Indexing in list using python program.
Answer:
Python enables reverse or negative indexing for the list elements. Thus, python lists index in opposite order. The python sets -1 as the index value for the last element in list and -2 for the preceding element and so on. This is called as Reverse Indexing.
Example:
Marks = [10, 23, 41, 75]
i = -1
while i > = -4:
print (Marks[i])
i = i + -l
Output
75
41
23
10

[OR]

(b) Explain sort function in list with examples.
Answer:
Sorts the element in list
Both arguments are optional
1. If reverse is set as True, list sorting is in descending order.
2. Ascending is default.
3. Key=myFunc; “myFunc” – the name of the user defined function that specifies the sorting criteria.
MyList = [‘Thilothamma’, ‘Tharani’, ‘Anitha’, ‘SaiSree’, ‘Lavanya’]
MyList.sort( )
print (MyList)
MyList.sort(reverse = True)
print (MyList)
Output:.
[‘Anitha’, ‘Lavanya’, ‘SaiSree’, ‘Tharani’, ‘Thilothamma’]
[‘Thilothamma’, ‘Tharani’, ‘SaiSree’, ‘Lavanya’, ‘Anitha’]

Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 2 English Medium

Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 5 English Medium

Students can Download Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 5 English Medium Pdf, Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Papers helps you to revise the complete Tamilnadu State Board New Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

TN State Board 12th Economics Model Question Paper 5 English Medium

General Instructions:

  1. The question paper comprises of four parts.
  2. You are to attempt all the parts. An internal choice of questions is provided wherever applicable.
  3. All questions of Part I, II, III and IV are to be attempted separately.
  4. Question numbers 1 to 20 in Part I are Multiple Choice Questions of one mark each.
    These are to be answered by choosing the most suitable answer from the given four alternatives and writing the option code and the corresponding answer
  5. Question numbers 21 to 30 in Part II are two-mark questions. These are to be answered in about one or two sentences.
  6. Question numbers 31 to 40 in Part III are three-mark questions. These are to be answered in above three to five short sentences.
  7. Question numbers 41 to 47 in Part IV are five-mark questions. These are to be answered in detail Draw diagrams wherever necessary.

Time: 3.00 Hours
Maximum Marks: 90

PART – I

Choose the correct answer. Answer all the questions: [20 × 1 = 20]

Question 1.
Identify the flow variable.
(a) money supply
(b) assets
(c) income
(d) foreign exchange reserves
Answer:
(c) income

Question 2.
Economic planning is an important feature of Economy………..
(a) Mixed
(b) Capitalism
(c) Socialism
(d) Traditional
Answer:
(a) Mixed

Question 3.
The financial year in India is…………
(a) April 1 to March 31
(b) March 1 to April 30
(c) March 1 to March 16
(d) January I to December 31
Answer:
(a) April 1 to March 31

Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 5 English Medium

Question 4.
Match the following and choose the correct answer by using codes given below:
Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 5 English Medium 1
Code:
Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 5 English Medium 2
Answer:
(b) A-2, B-3, C-1, D-4

Question 5.
Aggregate supply is equal to…………
(a) C + I + G
(b) C + S + G + (x – m)
(c) C + S + T + (x – m)
(d) C + S + T + Rf
Answer:
(d) C + S + T + Rf

Question 6.
……….. means that persons who are willing to work and able to work must have employment or a job.
(a) Full employment
(b) Unemployment
(c) Educational unemployment
(d) Seasonal unemployment
Answer:
(a) Full employment

Question 7.
The average propensity to consume is measured by
(a) C/Y
(b) C × Y
(c) Y/C
(d) C + Y
Answer:
(a) C/Y

Question 8.
Additional investment that is independent of income is called…………
(a) Autonomous Investment
(b) Autonomous Consumption
(c) Average Investment
(d) Marginal Investment
Answer:
(a) Autonomous Investment

Question 9.
Money is ……….
(a) acceptable only when it has intrinsic value
(b) constant in purchasing power
(c) the most liquid of all assets
(d) needed for allocation of resources
Answer:
(c) the most liquid of all assets

Question 10.
Match the following and choose the correct answer by using codes given below:
Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 5 English Medium 3
Code:
Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 5 English Medium 4
Answer:
(a) A-3, B-2, C-1, D-4

Question 11.
NABARD was set up in…………
(a) July 1962
(b) July 1972
(c) July 1982
(d) July 1992
Answer:
(c) July 1982

Question 12.
Open Market operations enable the ………….. to reduce the money supply in the economy.
(a) Commercial bank
(b) SBI
(c) ICICI
(d) RBI
Answer:
(d) RBI

Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 5 English Medium

Question 13.
Exchange rate for currencies is determined by supply and demand under the system of…………
(a) Fixed exchange rate
(b) Flexible exchange rate
(c) Constant
(d) Government regulated
Answer:
(b) Flexible exchange rate

Question 14.
Which of the following is correctly matched:
(a) David Ricardo – Factor Endowment Theory
(b) Eli Heckscher – British Economist
(c) Marshall – Swedish Economist
(d) Adam Smith – Theory of Absolute cost advantage
Answer:
(d) Adam Smith – Theory of Absolute cost advantage

Question 15.
Which of the following is not the member of SAARC?
(a) Pakistan
(b) Sri Lanka
(c) Bhutan
(d) China
Answer:
(d) China

Question 16.
Objectives of WTO are……..
(i) To ensure reduction of tariff and other barriers.
(ii) Low level of standard of living.
(a) Both (i) and (ii) are true
(b) Both (i) and (ii) are false
(c) (i) is true but (ii) is false
(d) (i) is false but (ii) is true
Answer:
(c) (i) is true but (ii) is false

Question 17.
The direct tax has the following merits except……….
(a) equity
(b) convenient
(c) certainty
(d) civic consciousness
Answer:
(b) convenient

Question 18.
The major contributor of Carbon monoxide is……….
(a) Automobiles
(b) Industrial process
(c) Stationary fuel combustion
(d) None of the above
Answer:
(a) Automobiles

Question 19.
Sarvodaya Plan was advocated by
(a) Mahatma Gandhi
(b) J.P. Narayan
(c) S. N Agarwal
(d) M.N. Roy
Answer:
(b) J.P. Narayan

Question 20.
To restructure the planning process into a bottom-up model is called
(a) Decentralized planning
(b) Scenario planning
(c) Partial planning
(d) Comprehensive planning
Answer:
(a) Decentralized planning

PART – II

Answer any seven question in which Question No. 30 is compulsory. [7 x 2 = 14]

Question 21.
What is meant by an ‘Economy’?
Answer:
An economy is referred to any system or area where economic activities are carried out. Each economy has its own character. Accordingly, the functions or activities also vary. An economy, the fundamental economic activities are production and consumption.

Question 22.
Define GDP deflator.
Answer:
GDP deflator is an index of price changes of goods and services included in GDP. It is a price index which is calculated by dividing the nominal GDP in a given year by the real GDP for the same year and multiplying it by 100.
GDP deflator = \(\frac{nominal GDP}{real GDP}\) × 100

Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 5 English Medium

Question 23.
Write the headlines of difficulties in Measuring National Income.
Answer:
Difficulties in Measuring National Income:

  1. Transfer payments
  2. Difficulties in assessing depreciation allowance
  3. Unpaid services
  4. Income from illegal activities
  5. Production for self-consumption and changing price
  6. Capital Gains
  7. Statistical problems

Question 24.
What are the components of aggregate supply?
Answer:
Aggregate supply has the following components:

  1. Aggregate (desired) consumption expenditure (C)
  2. Aggregate (desired) private savings (S)
  3. Net tax payments (T) (Total tax payment to be received by the government minus transfer payments, subsidy and interest payments to be incurred by the government) and
  4. Personal (desired) transfer payments to the foreigners (Rf) (eg. Donations to international relief efforts)

Question 25.
What do you mean by propensity to consume?
Answer:
The consumption function or propensity to consume refers to income consumption relationship. It is a “functional relationship between two aggregates viz., total consumption and gross national income.”
Symbolically, the relationship is represented as C = f (Y)
Where, C = Consumption; Y = Income; f = Function

Thus the consumption function indicates a functional relationship between C and Y, where C is the dependent variable and Y is the independent variable, i.e., C is determined by Y. This relationship is based on the ceteris paribus (other things being same) assumption, as only income consumption relationship is considered and all possible influences on consumption are held constant.

Question 26.
Write Fisher’s Quantity Theory of money equation.
Answer:
The general form of equation given by Fisher is MV = PT. Fisher points out that in a country during any given period of time, the total quantity of money (MV) will be equal to the total value of all goods and services bought and sold (PT)
MV = PT

Question 27.
What are the credit control measures?
Answer:
Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 5 English Medium 5

Question 28.
Specify any two affiliates of World Bank Group.
Answer:
Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 5 English Medium 6

Question 29.
Specify the meaning of seed ball.
Answer:

  1. A seed ball (or seed bomb) is a seed that has been wrapped in soil materials, usually a mixture of clay and compost, and then dried.
  2. Essentially, the seed is ‘pre-planted’ and can be sown by depositing the seed ball anywhere suitable for the species, keeping the seed safely until the proper germination window arises.
  3. Seed balls are an easy and sustainable way to cultivate plants that provide a larger window of time when the sowing can occur.

Question 30.
What is GNP?
Answer:
Gross National Product (GNP):
GNP is the total market value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a particular year, plus income earned by its citizens (including income of those located abroad), minus income of non-residents located in that country.

GNP is one measure of the economic condition of a country, under the assumption that a higher GNP leads to a higher quality of living, all other things being equal.

Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 5 English Medium

PART – III

Answer any seven question in which Question No. 40 is compulsory. [7 x 3 = 21]

Question 31.
Describe the different types of economic systems.
Answer:
There are three major types of economic systems. They are:
Capitalistic Economy (Capitalism):

  1. Capitalistic economy is also termed as a free economy (Laissez faire, in Latin) or market
    economy where the role of the government is minimum and market determines the economic activities.
  2. The means of production in a capitalistic economy are privately owned.
  3. Manufacturers produce goods and services with profit motive.
  4. The private individual has the freedom to undertake any occupation and develop any skill.
  5. The USA, West Germany, Australia and Japan are the best examples for capitalistic economies.
  6. However, they do undertake large social welfare measures to safeguard the downtrodden people from the market forces.

Question 32.
Classify the concepts of Macro Economics.
Answer:
The important concepts used in macro economics are presented below:
Stock and Flow Variables: Variables used in economic analysis are classified as stock and flow. Both stock and flow variables may increase or decrease with time.

Stock refers to a quantity of a commodity measured at a point of time. In macro economics, money supply, unemployment level, foreign exchange reserves, capital etc are examples of stock variables.

Flow variables are measured over a period of time. National Income, imports, exports, consumption, production, investment etc are examples of flow variables.

Economic Models A model is a simplified representation of real situation. Economists use models to describe economic activities, their relationships and their behaviour. A model is an explanation of how the economy, or part of the economy, works. Most economic models are built with mathematics, graphs and equations, and attempt to explain relationships between economic variables. The commonly used economic models are the supply-demand models and circular flow models and Smith models.

Question 33.
Write briefly about national income and welfare.
Answer:
National Income and Welfare:
National Income is considered as an indicator of the economic wellbeing of a country. The per capita income as an index of economic welfare suffers from limitations which are stated below:

  1. The economic welfare depends upon the composition of goods and services provided. The greater the proportion of capital goods over consumer goods, the improvement in economic welfare will be lesser.
  2. Higher GDP with greater environmental hazards such as air, water and soil pollution will be little economic welfare.
  3. The production of war goods will show the increase in national output but not welfare.
  4. An increase in per capita income may be due to employment of women and children or forcing workers to work for long hours. But it will not promote economic welfare.

Question 34.
What do you mean by aggregate demand? Mention its components.
Answer:
The aggregate demand is the amount of money which entrepreneurs expect to get by selling the output produced by the number of labourers employed. Therefore, it is the expected income or revenue from the sale of output at different levels of employment.
Aggregate demand has the following four components:

  1. Consumption demand
  2. Investment demand
  3. Government expenditure and
  4. Net Export (export – import)

Question 35.
Differentiate autonomous and induced investment.
Answer:

SI.No Autonomous Investment Induced Investment
1 Independent Planned
2 Income inelastic Income elastic
3 Welfare motive Profit Motive

Question 36.
Explain the Trade cycle Depression.
Answer:
Depression:

  1. During depression the level of economic activity becomes extremely low.
  2. Firms incur losses and closure of business becomes a common feature and the ultimate result is unemployment.
  3. Interest prices, profits and wages are low.
  4. The agricultural class and wage earners would be worst hit.
  5. Banking institutions will be reluctant to advance loans to businessmen.
  6. Depression is the worst phase of the business cycle.
  7. Extreme point of depression is called as “trough”, because it is a deep point in business cycle.
  8. Any person fell down in deeps could not come out from that without other’s help.
  9. Similarly, an economy fell down in trough could not come out from this without external help.
  10. Keynes advocated that autonomous investment of the government alone can help the economy to come out from the depression.

Question 37.
Explain the Net Barter Terms of Trade.
Answer:
1. Net Barter Terms of Trade:
This type was developed by Taussig in 1927. The ratio between the prices of exports and of imports is called the “net barter terms of trade’. It is named by Viner as the ‘commodity terms of trade’.
It is expressed as:
Tn = (Px /Pm) × 100 Where,
Tn = Net Barter Terms of Trade
Px = Index number of export prices
Pm = Index number of import prices
This is used to measure the gain from international trade. If ‘Tn’ is greater than 100, then it is a favourable terms of trade which will mean that for a rupee of export, more of imports can be received by a country.

Question 38.
What is Multilateral Agreement?
Answer:

  1. Multilateral trade agreement: It is a multi national legal or trade agreements between countries. It is an agreement between more than two countries but not many.
  2. The various agreements implemented by the WTO such as TRIPS, TRIMS, GATS, AoA, MFA have been discussed.

Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 5 English Medium

Question 39.
What is primary deficit?
Answer:
Primary Deficit:
Primary deficit is equal to fiscal deficit minus interest payments. It shows the real burden of the government and it does not include the interest burden on loans taken in the past. Thus, primary deficit reflects borrowing requirement of the government exclusive of interest payments.
Primary Deficit (PD) = Fiscal deficit (PD) – Interest Payment (IP)

Question 40.
Explain different types of air pollution.
Answer:
Types of Air pollution:

  1. Indoor Air Pollution: It refers to toxic contaminants that we encounter in our daily lives in our homes, schools and workplaces. For example, cooking and heating with solid fuels on open fires or traditional stoves results in high levels of indoor air pollution.
  2. Outdoor Air Pollution: It refers to ambient air. The common sources of outdoor air pollution are caused by combustion processes from motor vehicles, solid fuel burning and industry.

PART – IV

Answer all the questions. [7 × 5 = 35]

Question 41 (a).
Compare the features of capitalism and socialism.
Answer:
Features of Socialism:

  1. Public Ownership of Means of Production: All resources are owned by the government. It means that all the factors of production are nationalized and managed by the public authority.
  2. Central Planning: Planning is an integral part of a socialistic economy. In this system, all decisions are undertaken by the central planning authority.
  3. Maximum Social Benefit: Social welfare is the guiding principle behind all economic ‘ activities. Investments are planned in such a way that the benefits are distributed to the society at large.
  4. Non-existence of Competition: Under the socialist economic system there is absence of competition in the market. The state has full control over production and distribution of goods and services. The consumers will have a limited choice.
  5. Absence of Price Mechanism: The pricing system works under the control and regulation of the central planning authority.
  6. Equality of Income: Another essential feature of socialism is the removal and reduction of economic inequalities. Under socialism private property and the law of inheritance do not exist.

[OR]

(b) What are the difficulties involved in the measurement of national income?
Answer:
Difficulties in Measuring National Income:

  1. In India, a special conceptual problem is posed by the existence of a large, unorganised and non-monetised subsistence sector where the barter system still prevails for transacting goods and services.
  2. Here, a proper valuation of output is very difficult.

Transfer payments:

  1. Government makes payments in the form of pensions, unemployment allowance, subsidies, etc. These are government expenditure.
  2. But they are not included in the national income.
  3. Because they are paid without adding anything to the production processes.
  4. During a year, Interest on national debt is also considered transfer payments because it is paid by the government to individuals and firms on their past savings without any productive work.

Difficulties in assessing depreciation allowance:

  1. The deduction of depreciation allowances, accidental damages, repair and replacement charges from the national income is not an easy task.
  2. It requires high degree of judgment to assess the depreciation allowance and other charges.

Unpaid services:

  1. A housewife renders a number of useful services like preparation of meals, serving, tailoring, mending, washing, cleaning, bringing up children, etc.
  2. She is not paid for them and her services are not directly included in national income.

Income from illegal activities:

  1. Income earned through illegal activities like gambling, smuggling, illicit extraction of liquor, etc., is not included in national income.
  2. Such activities have value and satisfy the wants of the people but they are not considered as productive from the point of view of society.

Production for self-consumption and changing price:

  1. Farmers keep a large portion of food and other goods produced on the farm for self consumption.
  2. The problem is whether that part of the produce which is not sold in the market can be included in national income or not.

Capital Gains:

  1. The problem also arises with regard to capital gains.
  2. Capital gains arise when a capital asset such as a house, other property, stocks or shares, etc. is sold at higher price than was paid for it at the time of purchase.
  3. Capital gains are excluded from national income.

Statistical problems:

  1. There are statistical problems, too. Great care is required to avoid double counting. Statistical data may not be perfectly reliable, when they are compiled from numerous sources.
  2. Skill and efficiency of the statistical staff and cooperation of people at large are also equally important in estimating national income.

Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 5 English Medium

Question 42 (a).
Explain the differences between classical theory and Keynes theory.
Answer:
Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 5 English Medium 7

[OR]

(b) Explain the features of Keynesianism.
Answer:

  1. Short-run equilibrium
  2. Saving is a vice
  3. The function of money is a medium of exchange on the one side and a store of value on the other side.
  4. Macro approach to national problems
  5. State intervention is advocated.
  6. Applicable to all situations – full employment and less than full employment.
  7. Capitalism has inherent contradictions.
  8. Budgeting should be adjusted to the requirements of economy.
  9. The equality between saving and investment is advanced through changes in income.
  10. Rate of interest is determined by the demand for and supply of money.
  11. Rate of interest is a flow.
  12. Demand creates its own supply.
  13. Rate of interest is a reward for parting with liquidity.

Question 43 (a).
What are the differences between MEC and MEI?
Answer:
Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 5 English Medium 8

Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 5 English Medium

[OR]

(b) Describe the phases of Trade cycle.
Answer:
Phases of Trade Cycle:
The four different phases of trade cycle is referred to as

  1. Boom
  2. Recession
  3. Depression and
  4. Recovery.

These are illustrated in the figure.
Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 5 English Medium 9
Phases of Trade Cycle The Economic Cycle
1. Boom or Prosperity Phase:

  • The full employment and the movement of the economy beyond full employment is characterized as boom period.
  • During this period, there is hectic activity in economy.
  • Money wages rise, profits increase and interest rates go up.
  • The demand for bank credit increases and there is all-round optimism.

2. Recession:

  • The turning point from boom condition is called recession.
  • This happens at higher rate, than what was earlier.
  • Generally, the failure of a company or bank bursts the boom and brings a phase of recession.
  • Investments are drastically reduced, production comes down and income and profits decline.
  • There is panic in the stock market and business activities show signs of dullness.
  • Liquidity preference of the people rises and money market becomes tight.

3. Depression:

  • During depression the level of economic activity becomes extremely low.
  • Firms incur losses and closure of business becomes a common feature and the ultimate result is unemployment.
  • Interest prices, profits and wages are low. The agricultural class and wage earners would be worst hit.
  • Banking institutions will be reluctant to advance loans to businessmen.
  • Depression is the worst phase of the business cycle.
  • Extreme point of depression is called as “trough”, because it is a deep point in business cycle.

4. Recovery:

  • After a period of depression, recovery sets in.
  • This is the turning point from depression to revival towards upswing.
  • It begins with the revival of demand for capital goods.
  • Autonomous investments boost the activity.
  • The demand slowly picks up and in due course the activity is directed towards the upswing with more production, profit, income, wages and employment.
  • Recovery may be initiated by innovation or investment or by government expenditure (autonomous investment).

Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 5 English Medium

Question 44 (a).
What are the functions of NABARD?
Answer:
Functions of NABARD:
NABARD has inherited its apex role from RBI i.e, it is performing all the functions performed by RBI with regard to agricultural credit.
(i) NABARD acts as a refinancing institution for all kinds of production and investment credit to agriculture, small-scale industries, cottage and village industries, handicrafts and rural crafts and real artisans and other allied economic activities with a view to promoting integrated rural development.

(ii) NABARD gives long-term loans (upto 20 Years) to State Government to enable them to subscribe to the share capital of co-operative credit societies.

(iii) NABARD gives long-term loans to any institution approved by the Central Government or contribute to the share capital or invests in securities of any institution concerned with agriculture and rural development.

(iv) NABARD has the responsibility of co-ordinating the activities of Central and State Governments, the Planning Commission (now NITI Aayog) and other all India and State level institutions entrusted with the development of small scale industries, village and cottage industries, rural crafts, industries in the tiny and decentralized sectors, etc.

(v) It maintains a Research and Development Fund to promote research in agriculture and rural development

[OR]

(b) Discuss the various types of disequilibrium in the balance of payments.
Answer:
Types BOP Disequilibrium:
There are three main types of BOP Disequilibrium, which are discussed below.

  1. Cyclical Disequilibrium,
  2. Secular Disequilibrium,
  3. Structural Disequilibrium.

1. Cyclical Disequilibrium: Cyclical disequilibrium occurs because of two reasons. First, two countries may be passing through different phases of business cycle. Secondly, the elasticities of demand may differ between countries.

2. Secular Disequilibrium: The secular or long-run disequilibrium in BOP occurs because of long-run and deep seated changes in an economy as it advances from one stage of growth to another. In the initial stages of development, domestic investment exceeds domestic savings and imports exceed exports, as it happens in India since 1951.

3. Structural Disequilibrium: Structural changes in the economy may also cause balance of payments disequilibrium. Such structural changes include development of alternative sources of supply, development of better substitutes, exhaustion of productive resources or changes in transport routes and costs.

Question 45 (a).
Explain the objectives of IMF.
Answer:
Objectives Of IMF:

  1. To promote international monetary cooperation among the member nations.
  2. To facilitate faster and balanced growth of international trade.
  3. To ensure exchange rate stability by curbing competitive exchange depreciations.
  4. To eliminate or reduce exchange controls imposed by member nations.
  5. To establish multilateral trade and payment system in respect of current transactions instead of bilateral trade agreements.
  6. To promote the flow of capital from developed to developing nations.
  7. To solve the problem of international liquidity.

[OR]

(b) Explain the scope of public finance.
Answer:
Scope of Public Finance:
The subject ‘Public Finance’ includes five major sub-divisions, viz., Public Revenue, Public Expenditure, Public Debt, Financial Administration and Fiscal Policy.
Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 5 English Medium 10
(i) Public Revenue:
Public revenue deals with the methods of raising public revenue such as tax and non-tax, the principles of taxation, rates of taxation, impact, incidence and shifting of taxes and their effects.

(ii) Public Expenditure:
This part studies the fundamental principles that govern the Government expenditure, effects of public expenditure and control of public expenditure.

(iii) Public Debt:
Public debt deals with the methods of raising loans from internal and external sources. The burden, effects and redemption of public debt fall under this head.

(iv) Financial Administration:

  1. This part deals with the study of the different aspects of public budget.
  2. The budget is the Annual master financial plan of the Government.
  3. The various objectives and steps in preparing a public budget, passing or sanctioning, allocation evaluation and auditing fall within financial administration.

(v) Fiscal Policy:
Taxes, subsidies, public debt and public expenditure are the instruments of fiscal policy.

Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 5 English Medium

Question 46 (a).
Mention the Comparison of Direct and Indirect taxes.
Answer:
Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 5 English Medium 11

[OR]

(b) Write the limitations of statistics.
Answer:
Statistics with all its wide application in every sphere of human activity has its own limitations. Some of them are given below.
(i) Statistics is not suitable to the study of qualitative phenomenon: Since statistics is basically a science and deals with a set of numerical data. It is applicable to the study of quantitative measurements. As a matter of fact, qualitative aspects like empowerment, leadership, honesty, poverty, intelligence etc., cannot be expressed numerically and statistical analysis cannot be directly applied on these qualitative phenomena.

(ii) Statistical laws are not exact: It is well known that mathematical and.physical sciences are exact. But statistical laws are not exact and statistical laws are only approximations. Statistical conclusions are not universally true. They are true only on an average.

(iii) Statistics table may be misused: Statistics must be used only by experts; otherwise, statistical methods are the most dangerous tools on the hands of the inexpert. The use of statistical tools by the inexperienced and untrained persons might lead to wrong conclusions, (zv) Statistics is only one of the methods of studying a problem: Statistical method does not provide complete solution of the problems because problems are to be studied taking the background of the countries culture, philosophy, religion etc., into consideration. Thus the statistical study should be supplemented by other evidences.

Question 47 (a).
Explain the Environmental quality?
Answer:

  1. Environmental quality is a set of properties and characteristics of the environment either generalized or local, as they impinge on human beings and other organisms.
  2. It is a measure of the condition of an environment relative to the requirements of one or more species and to any human need. Environmental quality has been continuously declining due to capitalistic mode of functioning.
  3. Environment is a pure public good that can be consumed simultaneously by everyone and from which no one can be excluded.
  4. A pure public good is one for which consumption is non-revival and from which it is impossible to exclude a consumer.
  5. Pure public goods pose a freerider problem.
  6. As a result, resources are depleted.
  7. The contribution of the nature to GDP as well as depletion of natural resources are not accounted in the present system of National Income Enumeration.

Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 5 English Medium

[OR]

(b) What are the approaches to Economic Development?
Answer:
There are two main approaches to the concept of development viz

  1. the traditional approach and
  2. the new welfare oriented approach.

1. Traditional Approach:

  • The traditional approach defines development strictly in economic terms.
  • The increase in GNP is accompanied by decline in share of agriculture in output and employment while those of manufacturing and service sectors increase.
  • It emphasizes the importance of industrialization.
  • It was assumed that growth in GNP per capita would trickle down to people at the bottom.

2. New Welfare oriented Approach:

  • During 1970s, economic development was redefined in terms of reduction of poverty, ‘inequality’ and unemployment within the context of a growing economy.
  • In this phase, ‘Redistribution with Growth’ became the popular slogan.
  • To quote Michael P. Todaro, “Development must, therefore, be conceived as a multidimensional process involving major changes in social structures, popular attitudes and national institutions as well as the acceleration of growth, the reduction of inequality and the eradication of absolute poverty”.

Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 4 English Medium

Students can Download Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 4 English Medium Pdf, Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Papers helps you to revise the complete Tamilnadu State Board New Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

TN State Board 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 4 English Medium

General Instructions:

  1. The question paper comprises of four parts.
  2. You are to attempt all the parts. An internal choice of questions is provided wherever applicable.
  3. All questions of Part I, II, III and IV are to be attempted separately.
  4. Question numbers 1 to 15 in Part I are Multiple Choice Questions of one mark each.
    These are to be answered by choosing the most suitable answer from the given four alternatives and writing the option code and the corresponding answer
  5. Question numbers 16 to 24 in Part II are two-mark questions. These are to be answered in about one or two sentences.
  6. Question numbers 25 to 33 in Part III are three-mark questions. These are to be answered in about three to five short sentences.
  7. Question numbers 34 to 38 in Part IV are five-mark questions. These are to be answered in detail Draw diagrams wherever necessary.

Time: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 70

PART – I

Choose the correct answer. Answer all the questions [15 x 1 = 15]

Question 1.
If the function is not a recursive one, then is used.
(a) abc
(b) gcd
(c) let
(d) let rec
Answer:
(c) let

Question 2.
The process of providing only the essentials and hiding the details is called
(a) modularity
(b) structure
(c) tuple
(d) abstraction
Answer:
(d) abstraction

Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 4 English Medium

Question 3.
All members in a python class are by default.
(a) private
(b) public
(c) protected
(d) local
Answer:
(b) public

Question 4.
………… is a simple sorting algorithm.
(a) binary
(b) bubble
(c) selection
(d) insertion
Answer:
(b) bubble

Question 5.
………… is an example for octal integers.
(a) 102
(b) 08
(c) 0432
(d) 0 × 43
Answer:
(c) 0432

Question 6.
Which of the following operator is used for concatenation?
(a) +
(b) &
(c) *
(d) =
Answer:
(c) *

Question 7.
…………… function returns the sum of values in a list.
(a) sum
(b) total
(c) tot
(d) ε
Answer:
(a) sum

Question 8.
GIS stands for…………
(a) Geographic Information System
(b) Grap Individual System
(c) Graph Information System
(d) Global Information System
Answer:
(a) Geographic Information System

Question 9.
The default sorting order is…………..
(a) top
(b) bottom
(c) ascending
(d) descending
Answer:
(c) ascending

Question 10.
getopt mode is given by………..
(a) ;
(b) =
(c) #
(d) :
Answer:
(d) :

Question 11.
Which operators are used to fitter records based on more than one condition?
(a) AND
(b) NOT
(c) OR
(d) a & c
Answer:
(d) a & c

Question 12.
Which key is used to run the module?
(a) F6
(b) F4
(c) F3
(d) F5
Answer:
(d) F5

Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 4 English Medium

Question 13.
……… is used to add the elements in the list.
(a) add
(b) insert
(c) append
(d) update
Answer:
(c) append

Question 14.
The clause used to sort data in a database ..
(a) sort by
(b) order by
(c) group by
(d) select
Answer:
(b) order by

Question 15.
Which of the following method is used as destructor?
(a) _init_( )
(b) _dest-( )
(c) _rem_( )
(d) _del_( )
Answer:
(d) _del_( )

PART – II

Answer any six questions. Question No. 21 is compulsory. [6 x 2 = 12]

Question 16.
What are the two types of parameter passing?
Answer:

  1. Parameter without type
  2. Parameter with type

Question 17.
What is mapping?
Answer:
The process of binding a variable name with an object is called mapping. = (equal to sign) is used in programming languages to map the variable and object.

Question 18.
Write note on delimiters.
Answer:
Python uses the symbols and symbol combinations as delimiters in expressions, lists, dictionaries and strings. Following are the delimiters.
Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 4 English Medium 1

Question 19.
Write note on range () in loop.
Answer:
Usually in Python, for loop uses the range() function in the sequence to specify the initial, final and increment values. range() generates a list of values starting from start till stop-1.

Question 20.
What are the two methods of passing arguments in variable length arguments?
Answer:
In Variable Length arguments we can pass the arguments using two methods.

  1. Non keyword variable arguments
  2. Keyword variable arguments

Question 21.
Write program to remove duplicates from a list.
Answer:
Method 1:
mylist = [2, 4, 6, 8, 8, 4, 10]
myset = set(mylist)
print(myset)
Output:
{2, 4, 6, 8, 10}

Method II:
def remove(duplicate):
final_list=[]
for num in duplicate:
if num not in final list:
finallist.append(num)
return final_list
duplicate = [2, 4, 10, 20, 5, 2, 20, 4]
print(remove(duplicate))
Output:
[2, 4, 10, 20, 5]

Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 4 English Medium

Question 22.
List some examples of RDBMS.
Answer:
SQL server, Oracle, mysql, MariaDB, SQLite.

Question 23.
Write note on drop table command.
Answer:
Drop table command is used to remove a table from the database.
DROP TABLE Student;

Question 24.
Write note on scripting language.
Answer:
A scripting language is a programming language designed for integrating and communicating with other programming languages. Some of the most widely used scripting languages are JavaScript, VBScript, PHP, Perl, Python, Ruby, ASP and Tel.

PART – III

Answer any six questions. Question No. 29 is compulsory. [6 x 3 = 18]

Question 25.
Give the syntax for getopt module.
Answer:
The syntax for this method
<opts>, <args>= getopt.getopt( argv, options, [long_options])
Here is the detail of the parameters –
Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 4 English Medium 2

Question 26.
Differentiate Concrete data type and abstract data type.

Concrete data type Abstract data type
A concrete data type is a data type whose representation is known Abstract data type the representation of a data type is unknown
Concrete data types or structures (CDT’s) are direct implementations of a relatively simple concept. Abstract Data Types (ADT’s) offer a high level view (and use) of a concept independent of its implementation.

Question 27.
Write note on Asymptotic notation.
Answer:
Asymptotic Notations:
Asymptotic Notations are languages that uses meaningful statements about time and space complexity.
1. Big O: Big O is often used to describe the worst-case of an algorithm.

2. Big Ω: Big Omega is the reverse Big O, if Big O is used to describe the upper bound (worst – case) of a asymptotic function, Big Omega is used to describe the lower bound (best-case).

3. Big Θ: When an algorithm has a complexity with lower bound = upper bound, say that an algorithm has a complexity O (n log n) and Ω (n log n), it’s actually has the complexity Θ (n log n), which means the running time of that algorithm always falls in n log n in the best-case and worst-case.

Question 28.
What are string literals? Explain.
Answer:
String Literals
In Python a string literal is a sequence of characters surrounded by quotes. Python supports single, double and triple quotes for a string. A character literal is a single character surrounded by single or double quotes. The value with triple-quote ”’ ”’ is used to give multi-line string literal.
strings = “This is Python”
char = “C”
multiline_str = ‘”This is a multiline string with more than one line code.”‘

Question 29.
Write a program to display Fibonacci Series 0 1 1 2 3 5………….. (upto n terms)
Answer:
nterms = int(input(“How many terms?”))
n1 = 0
n2 = 1
count = 2
# check if the number of terms is valid
if nterms <= 0:
print(“please enter a positive integer”)
elif nterms ==1:
print(“Fibonacci sequence :”)
print (n1)
else:
print(“Fibonacci sequence : “)
print (n1, “, “, n2, end = “,”)
while count < nterms:
nth = n1 + n2
print(nth, end = ‘,’)
n1 = n2
n2 = nth
count + = 1
Output:
How many terms? 10
Fibonacci sequence:
0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34

Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 4 English Medium

Question 30.
Write the different types of function?
Answer:

  1. User-defined Functions
  2. Built-in Functions
  3. Lambda Functions
  4. Recursion Functions

Question 31.
Write a note on pow( ) function.
Answer:
pow ()
Description: Returns the computation of ab i.e. (a**b ) a raised to the power of b.
Syntax : pow (a, b)
Example:
a = 5
b = 2
c = 3.0
print (pow (a,b))
print (pow (a,c))
print (pow (a+b, 3))
Output:
25
125.0
343

Question 32.
Write a note on Return Statement.
Answer:

  1. The return statement causes your function to exit and returns a value to its caller. The point of functions in general is to take inputs and return something.
  2. The return statement is used when a function is ready to return a value to its caller. So, only . one return statement is executed at run time even though the function contains multiple return statements.
  3. Any number of ‘return’ statements are allowed in a function definition but only one of them is executed at run time.

Question 33.
Explain Intersection with example.
Answer:
Intersection (symbol: ∩) A ∩ B
Defines a relation consisting of a set of all tuple that are in both in A and B. However, A and B must be union-compatible.
Example:

Table A ∩ B
Studno Name
csl Kannan
cs3 Lenin

PART – IV

Answer all the questions. [5 × 5 = 25]

Question 34 (a).
Explain various types of variable scope.
Answer:
There are 4 types of Variable Scope, let’s discuss them one by one:
Local Scope:
Local scope refers to variables defined in current function. Always, a function will first look up for a variable name in its local scope. Only if it does not find it there, the outer scopes are checked.
Look at this example
Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 4 English Medium 3
On execution of the above code the variable a displays the value 7, because it is defined and available in the local scope.

Global Scope:
A variable which is declared outside of all the functions in a program is known as global variable. This means, global variable can be accessed inside or outside of all the functions in a program.
Consider the following example
Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 4 English Medium 4
On execution of the above code the variable a which is defined inside the function displays the value 7 for the function call Disp() and then it displays 10, because a is defined in global scope.

Enclosed Scope:
All programming languages permit functions to be nested. A function (method) with in another function is called nested function. A variable which is declared inside a function which contains another function definition with in it, the inner function can also access the variable of the outer function. This scope is called enclosed scope.

When a compiler or interpreter search for a variable in a program, it first search Local, and then search Enclosing scopes.
Consider the following example.
Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 4 English Medium 5
In the above example Disp 1 () is defined with in Disp (). The variable ‘a’ defined in Disp () can be even used by Disp 1 () because it is also a member of Disp ().

Built-in Scope:
Finally, we discuss about the widest scope. The built-in scope has all the names that are pre-loaded into the program scope when we start the compiler or interpreter. Any variable or module which is defined in the library functions of a programming language has Built-in or module scope. They are loaded as soon as the library files are imported to the program.
Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 4 English Medium 6
Normally only Functions or modules come along with the software, as packages. Therefore they will come under Built in scope.

Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 4 English Medium

[OR]

(b) Explain pure functions with example.
Answer:
Pure functions are functions which will give exact result when the same arguments are passed. For example the mathematical function sin (0) always results 0. This means that every time you call the function with the same arguments, you will always get the same result. A function can be a pure function provided it should not have any external variable which will alter the behaviour of that variable. Let us see an example:
Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 4 English Medium 7
The above function square is a pure function because it will not give different results for same input.
There are various theoretical advantages of having pure functions. One advantage is that if a function is pure, then if it is called several times with the same arguments, the compiler only needs to actually call the function once. Lt’s see an example:
Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 4 English Medium 8
If it is compiled, strlen (s) is called each time and strlen needs to iterate over the whole of ‘s’. If the compiler is smart enough to work out that strlen is a pure function and that ‘s’ is not updated in the loop, then it can remove the redundant extra calls to strlen and make the loop to execute only one time. From these what we can understand, strlen is a pure function because the function takes one variable as a parameter, and accesses it to find its length. This function reads external memory but does not change it, and the value returned derives from the external memory accessed.

Question 35 (a).
Explain selection sort.
Answer:
The selection sort is a simple sorting algorithm that improves on the performance of bubble sort by making only one exchange for every pass through the list. This algorithm will first find the smallest elements in array and swap it with the element in the first position of an array, then it will find the second smallest element and swap that element with the element in the second position, and it will continue until the entire array is sorted in respective order. This algorithm repeatedly selects the next-smallest element and swaps in into the right place for every pass. Hence it is called selection sort.

Pseudo code:

  1. Start from the first element i.e., index-0, we search the smallest element in the array, and replace it with the element in the first position.
  2. Now we move on to the second element position, and look for smallest element present in the sub-array, from starting index to till the last index of sub – array.
  3. Now replace the second smallest identified in step-2 at the second position in the or original array, or also called first position in the sub array.
  4. This is repeated, until the array is completely sorted.

Let’s consider an array with values {13, 16, 11, 18, 14, 15}
Below, we have a pictorial representation of how selection sort will sort the given array.
Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 4 English Medium 9
In the first pass, the smallest element will be 11, so it will be placed at the first position. After that, next smallest element will be searched from an array. Now we will get 13 as the smallest, so it will be then placed at the second position.

Then leaving the first element, next smallest element will be searched, from the remaining elements. We will get 13 as the smallest, so it will be then placed at the second position.

Then leaving 11 and 13 because they are at the correct position, we will search for the next smallest element from the rest of the elements and put it at third position and keep doing this until array is sorted. Finally we will get the sorted array end of the pass as shown above diagram.

[OR]

(b) Explain operators in python.
Answer:
Operators:
In computer programming languages operators are special symbols which represent computations, conditional matching etc. The value of an operator used is called operands. Operators are categorized as Arithmetic, Relational, Logical, Assignment etc. Value and variables when used with operator are known as operands.
(i) Arithmetic operators:
An arithmetic operator is a mathematical operator that takes two operands and performs a calculation on them. They are used for simple arithmetic. Most computer languages contain a set of such operators that can be used within equations to perform different types of sequential calculations.
Python supports the following Arithmetic operators.
Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 4 English Medium 10
Program To test Arithmetic Operators:
#Demo Program to test Arithmetic Operators
a = 100
b = 10
print (“The Sum = “, a + b)
print (“The Difference = “, a – b)
print (“The Product. = “, a * b)
print (“The Quotient = “, a / b)
print (“The Remainder = “, a % 30)
print (“The Exponent = “, a ** 2)
print (“The Floor Division =”, a // 30)
#ProgramEnd
Output:
The Sum = 110
The Difference = 90
The Product = 1000
The Quotient = 10.0
The Remainder = 10
The Exponent = 10000
The Floor Division = 3

(ii) Relational or Comparative operators
A Relational operator is also called as Comparative operator which checks the relationship between two operands. If the relation is true, it returns True; otherwise it returns False.
Python supports following relational operators
Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 4 English Medium 11
Program To test Relational Operators:
#Demo Program to test Relational Operators
a = int (input(“Enter a Value for A:”))
b = int (input(“Enter a Value for B:”))
print (“A = “, a ,” and B = “, b)
print (“The a==b = “, a == b)
print (“The a > b = “, a > b)
print (“The a < b = “, a < b)
print (“The a >= b = “, a >= b)
print (“The a <= b = “, a <= 0)
print (“The a != b = “, a!=b)
#Program End
Output:
Enter a Value for A: 35
Enter a Value for B:56
A = 35 and B = 56
The a==b = False
The a > b = False
The a < b = True
The a >= b = False
The a <= b = False
The a != b = True

Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 4 English Medium

(iii) Logical operators
In python, Logical operators are used to perform logical operations on the given relational expressions. There are three logical operators they are and, or and not.
Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 4 English Medium 12

(iv) Assignment operators:
In Python, = is a simple assignment operator to assign values to variable. Let a = 5 and b = 10 assigns the value 5 to a and 10 to b these two assignment statement can also be given as a, b = 5, 10 that assigns the value 5 and 10 on the right to the variables a and b respectively. There are various compound operators in Python like +=, -=, *=, /=, %=, **= and //= are also available.
Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 4 English Medium 13
Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 4 English Medium 14

(v) Conditional operator:
Ternary operator is also known as conditional operator that evaluate something based on a condition being true or false. It simply allows testing a condition in a single line replacing the multiline if-else making the code compact.
The Syntax conditional operator is,
Variable Name = [on_true] if [Test expression] else [on_false]
Example:
min = 50 if 49 < 50 else 70 # min = 50 min = 50 if 49 > 50 else 70 # min = 70

Program to test Conditional (Ternary) Operator:
# Program to demonstrate conditional operator.
a, b = 30, 20
# Copy value of a in min if a < b else copy b
min = a if a < b else b print (“The Minimum of A and B is “,min) # End of the Program Output: The Minimum of A and B is 20

Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 4 English Medium

Question 36 (a).
Write a python script with SQL to display the name and grade of students who have born in the year 2001. Answer:
Querying a Date Column In this example we are going to display the name and grade of students who have born in the -year 2001
Example: import sqlite3
connection = sqlite3.connect (“Academy.db”)
cursor = connection.cursor ( )
cursor.execute(“SELECT Rollno,sname FROM student
WHERE(Birth_date >= 2001-01-01′ AND Birth_date <= ‘2001-12-01’)”)
result = cursor.fetchall( )
print(*result,sep=”\n”)
Output:
(5, ‘VARUN’)

[OR]

(b) Write a python program to display-
1
1 2
1 2 3
1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4 5
Answer:
Program to illustrate the use nested loop -for within while loop
i = 1
while (i <= 6): for j in range (1, i): print (j,end=’\t’) print (end-\n’) i + = 1
Output
1
1 2
1 2 3
1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4 5

Question 37 (a).
Explain the following built in functions.
(a) id ()
(b) Chr ()
(c) round ()
(d) type ()
(e) pow ()
Answer:
Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 4 English Medium 15
Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 4 English Medium 16

Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 4 English Medium

[OR]

(b) Explain how to delete elements from a list.
Answer:
Deleting elements from a list There are two ways to delete an element from a list viz. del statement and remove() function, del statement is used to delete known elements whereas remove() function is used to delete elements of a list if its index is unknown. The del statement can also be used to delete entire list.
Syntax:
del List [index of an element]
# to delete a particular element
del List [index from : index to]
# to delete multiple elements
del List
# to delete entire list
Example:
>>> MySubjects = [‘Tamil’, ‘Hindi’, ‘Telugu’, ‘Maths’]
>>> print (MySubjects)
[‘Tamil’, ‘Hindi’, ‘Telugu’, ’Maths’]
>>> del MySubjects[1]
>>> print (MySubjects)
[‘Tamil’, ‘Telugu’, ‘Maths’]

In the above example, the list MySubjects has been created with four elements, print statement shows all the elements of the list. In >>> del MySubjects[1] statement, deletes an element whose index value is 1 and the following print shows the remaining elements of the list.
Example:
>>> del MySubjects [1 :3]
>>> print(My Subjects)
[‘Tamil’]

In the above codes, >>> del MySubjects [1 : 3] deletes the second and third elements from the list. The upper limit of index is specified within square brackets, will be taken as -1 by the python.

Question 38 (a).
Explain various data model.
Answer:

  1. A data model describes how the data can be represented and accessed from a software after complete implementation
  2. It is a simple abstraction of complex real world data gathering environment.
  3. The main purpose of data model is to give an idea as how the final system or software will look like after development is completed.

Types of Data Model
Following are the different types of a Data Model

  1. Hierarchical Model
  2. Relational Model
  3. Network Database Model
  4. Entity Relationship Model
  5. Object Model

1. Hierarchical Model:
Hierarchical model was developed by IBM as Information Management System.
Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 4 English Medium 17
In Hierarchical model, data is represented as a simple tree like structure form. This model represents a one-to-many relationship i.e. parent – child relationship.

One child can have only one parent but one parent can have many children. This model is mainly used in IBM Main Frame computers.

2. Relational Model:
The Relational Database model was first proposed by E.F. Codd in 1970 . Now a days, it is the most widespread data model used for database applications around the world.

The basic structure of data in relational model is tables (relations). All the information’s related to a particular type is stored in rows of that table. Hence tables are also known as relations in a relational model. A relation key is an attribute which uniquely identifies a particular tuple (row in a relation (table)).
Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 4 English Medium 18

Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 4 English Medium

3. Network Model:
Network database model is an extended form of hierarchical data model. The difference between hierarchical and Network data model is:

  • In hierarchical model, a child record has only one parent node,
  • In a Network model, a child may have many parent nodes. It represents the data in many to – many relationships.

This model is easier and faster to access the data
Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 4 English Medium 19
School represents the parent node
Library, Office and Staff room is a child to school (parent node)
Student is a child to library, office and staff room (one to many relationship)

4. Entity Relationship Model.
In this database model, relationship are created by dividing the object into entity and its characteristics into attributes.
Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 4 English Medium 20
It was developed by Chen in 1976. This model is useful in developing a conceptual design for the database. It is very simple and easy to design logical view of data. The developer can easily understand the system by looking at ER model constructed.

Rectangle represents the entities. E.g. Doctor and Patient
Ellipse represents the attributes E.g. D-id, D-name, P-id, P-name. Attributes describes the characteristics and each entity becomes a major part of the data stored in the database. Diamond represents the relationship in ER diagrams
E.g. Doctor diagnosis the Patient.

5. Object Model
Object model stores the data in the form of objects, attributes and methods, classes and Inheritance. This model handles more complex applications, such as Geographic information System (GIS), scientific experiments, engineering design and manufacturing. It is ‘ used in file Management System. It represents real world objects, attributes and behaviors. It provides a clear modular structure. It is easy to maintain and modify the existing code.
Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 4 English Medium 21
An example of the Object model is Shape,
Circle, Rectangle and Triangle are all objects in this model.

  • Circle has the attribute radius.
  • Rectangle has the attributes length and breadth.
  • Triangle has the attributes base and height.
  • The objects Circle, Rectangle and Triangle inherit from the object Shape.

[OR]

(b) Explain creating a New Normal CSV file with syntex and program.
Answer:
Creating A New Normal CSV File
When you have a set of data that you would like to store inside a CSV file, it’s time to do the opposite and use the write function.
The csv.writer() method returns a writer object which converts the user’s data into delimited strings on the given file-like object. The writerow() method writes a row of data into the specified file.
Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 4 English Medium 22

Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 4 English Medium
You can create a normal CSV file using writer() method of csv module having default delimiter comma (,)
Here’s an example.
The following Python program converts a List of data to a CSV file called “Pupil.csv” that uses, (comma) as a value separator.
Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 4 English Medium 23
When you open the “Pupil.csv” file with a text editor, it will show the content as follows.
Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 4 English Medium 24
In this program, csv.writer() method converts all the data in the list “csvData” to strings and create the content as file like object. The writerows () method writes all the data in to the new CSV file “Pupil.csv”.

Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 4 English Medium

Students can Download Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 4 English Medium Pdf, Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Papers helps you to revise the complete Tamilnadu State Board New Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

TN State Board 12th Economics Model Question Paper 4 English Medium

General Instructions:

  1. The question paper comprises of four parts.
  2. You are to attempt all the parts. An internal choice of questions is provided wherever applicable.
  3. All questions of Part I, II, III and IV are to be attempted separately.
  4. Question numbers 1 to 20 in Part I are Multiple Choice Questions of one mark each.
    These are to be answered by choosing the most suitable answer from the given four alternatives and writing the option code and the corresponding answer
  5. Question numbers 21 to 30 in Part II are two-mark questions. These are to be answered in about one or two sentences.
  6. Question numbers 31 to 40 in Part III are three-mark questions. These are to be answered in above three to five short sentences.
  7. Question numbers 41 to 47 in Part IV are five-mark questions. These are to be answered in detail Draw diagrams wherever necessary.

Time: 3.00 Hours
Maximum Marks: 90

PART – I

Choose the correct answer. Answer all the questions: [20 × 1 = 20]

Question 1.
Economic system representing equality in distribution is………..
(a) Capitalism
(b) Globalism
(c)Mixedism
(d) Socialism
Answer:
(d) Socialism

Question 2.
Which is the largest figure?
(a) Disposable income
(b) Personal income
(c) NNP
(d) GNP
Answer:
(d) GNP

Question 3.
Match the following and choose the correct answer by using codes given below:
Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 4 English Medium 1
Code:
Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 4 English Medium 2
Answer:
(a) A-2, B-4, C-1, D-3

Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 4 English Medium

Question 4.
Classical theory advocates………..
(a) Balanced budget
(b) unbalanced budget
(c) Surplus budget
(d) deficit Budget
Answer:
(a) Balanced budget

Question 5.
Pick the odd one out.
Types of unemployment
(a) Cyclical unemployment
(b) seasonal unemployment
(c) Frictional unemployment
(d) nature unemployment
Answer:
(d) nature unemployment

Question 6.
The term MEC was introduced by
(a) Adam Smith
(b) J.M. Keynes
(c) Ricardo
(d) Malthus
Answer:
(b) J.M. Keynes

Question 7.
Match the following and choose the answer by using codes given below:
Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 4 English Medium 3
Code:
Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 4 English Medium 4
Answer:
(b) A-2, B-4, C-1, D-3

Question 8.
The RBI Headquarters is located at
(a) Delhi
(b) Chennai
(c) Mumbai
(d) Bengaluru
Answer:
(c) Mumbai

Question 9.
The direct exchange of goods for goods is known as
(a) Money exchange
(b) Money transfer
(c) Barter System
(d) Barter goods
Answer:
(c) Barter System

Question 10.
Monetary policy is formulated by
(a) Co-operative banks
(b) Commercial banks
(c) Central Bank
(d) Foreign banks
Answer:
(c) Central Bank

Question 11.
Assertion (A): Credit creation leads to increase in production.
Reason (R): Credit creation means the multiplication of loans and advances.
(a) Both ‘A’ and ‘R’ are true and ‘R’ is the correct explanation to ‘A’
(b) Both ‘A’ and ‘R’ are true but ‘R’ is not the correct explanation to ‘A’
(c) ‘A’ is true but ‘R’ is false
(d) ‘A’ is false but ‘R’ is true
Answer:
(a) Both ‘A’ and ‘R’ are true and ‘R’ is the correct explanation to ‘A’

Question 12.
Which of the following is correctly matched:
(a) FDI – Foreign Direct Investment
(b) FOREX – Foreign Export
(c) UDC – Under Development Consumption
(d) MNC – Multi National Country
Answer:
(a) FDI – Foreign Direct Investment

Question 13.
State whether the statement is true or false.
Major Functions of the ASEAN
(i) It fosters co-operations in many areas including agriculture.
(ii) It paves way for market and investment opportunities for the all nations.
(а) Both (i) and (ii) are true
(b) Both (i) and (ii) are false
(c) (i) is true but (ii) is false
(d) (i) is false but (ii) is true
Answer:
(b) Both (i) and (ii) are false

Question 14.
………… is the duty of the state to make provisions for education, social security, social insurance, health and sanitation.
(a) Social Welfare
(b) Infrastructure
(c) Social Justice
(d) Macro Economic Policy
Answer:
(a) Social Welfare

Question 15.
Acid rain is one of the consequences of………….
(a) Water Pollution
(b) Land pollution
(c) Noise pollution
(d) Air pollution
Answer:
(a) Water Pollution

Question 16.
Soil pollution is another form of pollution.
(a) Land
(b) Fertilizer
(c) Chemical
(d) Medicinal
Answer:
(a) Land

Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 4 English Medium

Question 17.
State whether the statement is true or false.
(i) Environmental economics is a different branch of economics that recognizes the value of both the environment and economic activity.
(ii) Environmental Economics involves theoretical and empirical studies of the economic effects.
(a) Both (i) and (ii) are true
(b) Both (i) and (ii) are false
(c) (i) is true but (ii) is false
(d) (i) is false but (ii) is true
Answer:
(a) Both (i) and (ii) are true

Question 18.
Short-term plan is also known as……….
(a) Controlling Plans
(b) De-controlling Plans
(c) Rolling Plans
(d) De-rolling Plans
Answer:
(a) Controlling Plans

Question 19
…………. to central and state governments on policy and programmes.
(a) Internal consultancy
(b) Interface consultancy
(c) Conflict consultancy
(d) Monitoring consultancy
Answer:
(a) Internal consultancy

Question 20.
Econometrics is the integration of
(a) Economics and Statistics
(b) Economics and Mathematics
(c) Economics, Mathematics and Statistics
(d) None of the above
Answer:
(c) Economics, Mathematics and Statistics

PART – II

Answer any seven question in which Question No. 30 is compulsory. [7 x 2 = 14]

Question 21.
Define the term ‘Inflation’.
Answer:
Inflation refers to steady increase in general price level. Estimating the general price level by constructing various price index numbers such as wholesale Price. Index, Consumer Price Index, etc, are needed.

Question 22.
Why is self consumption difficult in measuring national income?
Answer:
Farmers keep a large portion of food and other goods produced on the farm for self consumption. The problem is whether that part of the produce which is not sold in the market can be included in national income or not.

Question 23.
Define “Marginal propensity to consume”.
Answer:
Marginal Propensity to Consume is the additional consumption due to an additional unit of income.

Question 24.
Define Multiplier.
Answer:
The multiplier is defined as the ratio of the change in national income to change in investment. If AI stands for increase in investment and ΔY stands for resultant increase in income, the multiplier K = ΔY/ΔI.
Since ΔY results from AI, the multiplier is called investment multiplier.

Question 25.
What is Stagflation?
Answer:
Stagflation is a combination of stagnant economic growth, high unemployment and high inflation.

Question 26.
Define Central bank.
Answer:
A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state’s currency, money supply, and interest rates. Central banks also usually oversee the commercial banking system of their respective countries.

Question 27.
Define RBI Rural credit.
Answer:
Reserve Bank of India and Rural Credit: In a developing economy like India, the Central bank of the country cannot confine itself to the monetary regulation only, and it is expected that it should take part in development function in all sectors especially in the agriculture and industry.

Question 28.
What is Free trade area?
Answer:
A free trade area is the region encompassing a trade bloc whose member countries have signed a free-trade agreement (FTA). Such agreements involve cooperation between at least two countries to reduce trade barriers, e.g. SAFTA, EFTA.

Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 4 English Medium

Question 29.
Write some of the tax revenue sources.
Answer:
Some of the tax revenue sources are

  1. Income tax
  2. Corporate tax
  3. Sales tax
  4. Surcharge and
  5. Cess

Question 30.
Mention the countries where per capita carbon dioxide emission is the highest in the world.
Answer:

  1. United States of America – (USA)
  2.  European Union – (EU)
  3. Japan
  4. Russian Federation
  5. United Arab Emirates (UAE)
  6.  Saudi Arabia
  7. China

PART- III

Answer any seven question in which Question No. 40 is compulsory. [7 x 3 = 21]

Question 31.
Distinguish between Capitalism and Globalism.
Answer:

Capitalism Globalism
The system where the means of production are privately owned and market determines the economic activities. An economic system where the economic activities of a nation are inter connected and inter dependent on each other nation.

Question 32.
Write a short note on per capita income.
Answer:
Per Capita Income

  1. The average income of a person of a country in a particular year is called Per Capita Income.
  2. Per capita income is obtained by dividing national income by population.
    Per capita income = \(\frac{National Income}{Population}\)

Question 33.
Explain Keynes’ theory in the form of flow chart.
Answer:
Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 4 English Medium 5

Question 34.
Define Accelerator.
Answer:
“The accelerator coefficient is the ratio between induced investment and an initial change in consumption.” Assuming the expenditure of ’50 crores on consumption goods, if industries lead to an investment of 100 crores in investment goods industries, we can say that the accelerator is 2.
Accelerator = \(\frac{100}{Δy}\) = 2

Question 35.
Specify the functions of IFCI.
Answer:

  1. Long-term loans; both in rupees and foreign currencies.
  2. Underwriting of equity, preference and debenture issues.
  3. Subscribing to equity, preference and debenture issues.
  4. Guaranteeing the deferred payments in respect of machinery imported from abroad or purchased in India; and
  5. Guaranteeing of loans raised in foreign currency from foreign financial institutions.

Question 36.
What are the ARDC – objectives?
Answer:
Objectives of the ARDO

  1. To provide necessary funds by way of refinance to eligible institutions such as the Central Land Development Banks, State Co-operative Banks, and Scheduled banks.
  2. To subscribe to the debentures floated by the Central Land Development banks, State Co-operative Banks, and Scheduled banks, provided they were approved by the RBI.

Question 37.
Define Terms of Trade.
Answer:
Terms of Trade:

  1. The gains from international trade depend upon the terms of trade which refers to the ratio of export prices to import prices.
  2. It is the rate at which the goods of one country are exchanged for goods of another country.
  3. It is expressed as the relation between export prices and import prices.
  4. Terms of trade improves when average price of exports is higher than average price of imports.

Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 4 English Medium

Question 38.
Write the World Bank’s Lending Procedure?
Answer:

  1. Loans out of its own fund
  2. Loans out of borrowed capital and
  3. Loans through Bank’s guarantee

Question 39.
What are the remedial measures to control noise pollution?
Answer:
Remedial measures to control Noise Pollution

  1. Use of noise barriers
  2. Newer roadway for surface transport
  3. Traffic control
  4. Regulating times for heavy vehicles
  5. Installations of noise barriers in the workplace
  6. Regulation of Loudspeakers

Question 40.
Distinguish between functional and structural planning.
Answer:

Functional planning Structural planning
Functional planning refers to that planning which seeks to remove economic difficulties by directing all the planning activities within the existing economic and social structure. The structural planning refers to a good deal of changes in the socio-economic framework of the country. This type of planning is adopted mostly in under developed countries.

PART – IV

Answer all the questions. [7 x 5 = 35]

Question 41 (a).
Briefly explain the two sector circular flow model.
Answer:
Circular Flow of Income in a Two-Sector Economy:
There are only two sectors namely, household sector and firm sector.
(i) Household Sector:

  • The household sector is the sole buyer of goods and services, and the sole supplier of factors of production, i.e., land, labour, capital and organisation.
  • It spends its entire income on the purchase of goods and services produced by other business sector.
  • The household sector receives income from firm sector by providing the factors of production owned by it.

(ii) Firms:

  • The firm sector generates its revenue by selling goods and services to the household sector.
  • It hires the factors of production, i.e., land, labour, capital and organisation, owned by the household sector.
  • The firm sector sells the entire output to households.
  • In a two-sector economy, production and sales are equal and there will be a circular flow of income and goods.
  • The outer circle represents real flow (factors and goods) and the inner circle represents the monetary flow (factor prices and commodity prices).
  • Real flow indicates the factor services flow from household sector to the business sector, and goods and services flow from business sector to the household.
  • The basic identities of the two-sector economy are as under:
    Y = C + I
    Where
    Y is Income; C is Consumption; I is investment.

Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 4 English Medium

[OR]

(b) List out the uses of national income.
Answer:
The following are some of the concepts used in measuring national income.
GDP:

  1. GDP is the total market value of final goods and services produced within the country during a year.
  2. This is calculated at market prices and is known as GDP at market prices. Thus GDP by expenditure method at market prices = C + I + G + (X – M)
    Where C – Consumption goods, I – Investment goods, G – Government purchases; (X – M) is net export which can be positive or negative.

Net National Product (NNP) (at Market price):

  1. Net National Product refers to the value of the net output of the economy during the year.
  2. NNP is obtained by deducting the value of depreciation, or replacement allowance of the capital assets from the GNP. It is expressed as,
    NNP = GNP – depreciation allowance.

NNP at Factor cost:

  1. NNP refers to the market value of output.
  2. NNP at factor cost is the total of income payment made to factors of production.

Personal Income:
Personal income is the total income received by the individuals of a country from all sources before payment of direct taxes in a year.

Per Capita Income:

  1. The average income of a person of a country in a particular year is called Per Capita Income.
  2. Per capita income is obtained by dividing national income by population.
    Per capita income = \(\frac{National Income}{Population}\)

Disposable Income:

  1. Disposable Income is also known as Disposable personal income.
  2. It is the individuals income after the payment of income tax.
  3. This is the amount available for households for consumption.

Real Income:
Nominal income is national income expressed in terms of a general price level of a particular year in other words, real income is the buying power of nominal income.

GDP deflator:

  1. GDP deflator is an index of price changes of goods and services included in GDP.
  2. It is a price index which is calculated by dividing the nominal GDP in a given year by the real GDP for the same year and multiplying it by 100.

Question 42 (a).
According to classical theory of employment, how wage reduction solves the problem of unemployment? Diagrammatically explain.
Answer:
The classical theory of employment assumes that the economy operates at the level of foil employment without inflation in the long period. It also assumes that wages and prices of goods are flexible and the competitive market exists in the economy (laissez-faire economy). According to the classical theory of employment, foil employment condition can be achieved by cutting down the wage rate. Unemployment would be eliminated when wages are determined by the mechanism of economy itself. The following figure shows the relationship between wage rate and employment:
Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 4 English Medium 6
In the figure, when the wage rate is OW, then the employment is ON. As the wage rate is reduced to OW1 then the employment has increased to ON1 Prof. Pigou has taken this theory as base for developing the solution of unemployment problem.

[OR]

(b) Explain the differences between classical theory and Keynes theory.
Answer:
Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 4 English Medium 7

Question 43 (a).
Explain the operation of the Accelerator.
Answer:
Operation of the Acceleration Principle

  1. Let us consider a simple example. The operation of the accelerator may be illustrated as follows.
  2. Let us suppose that in order to produce 1000 consumer goods, 100 machines are required.
  3. Also suppose that working life of a machine is 10 years.
  4. This means that every year 10 machines have to be replaced in order to maintain the constant flow of 1000 consumer goods. This might be called replacement demand.
  5. Suppose that demand for consumer goods rises by 10 percent (i.e. from 1000 to 1100).
  6. This results in increase in demand for 10 more machines.
  7. So that total demand for machines is 20. (10 for replacement and 10 for meeting increased demand).
  8. It may be noted here a 10 percent increase in demand for consumer goods causes a-100 percent increase in demand for machines (from 10 to 20).
  9. So we can conclude even a mild change in demand for consumer goods will lead to wide change in investment.

Diagrammatic illustration:
Operation of Accelerator.
Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 4 English Medium 8

  1. SS is the saving curve. II is the investment curve. At point E1 the economy is in equilibrium with OY1, income. Saving and investment are equal at OL2. Now, investment is increased from OI2 to OI4.
  2. This increases income from OY1 to OY3, the equilibrium point being E3 If the increase in investment by I2, I4 is purely exogenous, then the increase in income by Y1, Y3 would have been due to the multiplier effect.
  3. But in this diagram it is assumed that exogenous investment is only by I213 and induced investment is by I314.
  4. Therefore, increase in income by Y1Y2 is due to the multiplier effect and the increase in income by Y2 Y3 is due to the accelerator effect.

Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 4 English Medium

[OR]

(b) Briefly explain the Leakages of Multiplier.
Answer:
Leakages of multiplier:

  1. The multiplier assumes that those who earn income are likely to spend a proportion of their additional income on consumption.
  2. But in practice, people tend to spend their additional income on other items. Such expenses are known as leakages.

Payment towards past debts:
If a portion of the additional income is used for repayment of old loan, the MPC is reduced and as a result the value of multiplier is cut.

Purchase of existing wealth:

  1. If income is used in purchase of existing wealth such as land, building and shares money is circulated among people and never enters into the consumption stream.
  2. As a result the value of multiplier is affected.

Import of goods and services:

  1. Income spent on imports of goods or services flows out of the country and has little chance to return to income stream in the country.
  2. Thus imports reduce the value of multiplier.

Non availability of consumer goods:

  1. The multiplier theory assumes instantaneous supply of consumer goods following demand.
  2. But there is often a time lag.
  3. During this gap (D > S) inflation is likely to rise.
  4. This reduces the consumption expenditure and there by multiplier value.

Full employment situation:

  1. Under conditions of full employment, resources are almost fully employed.
  2. So, additional investment will lead to inflation only, rather than generation of additional real income.

Question 44 (a).
Illustrate Fisher’s Quantity theory of money.
Answer:
Fisher’s Quantity Theory of Money: The quantity theory of money is a very old theory. It was first propounded in 1588 by an Italian economist, Davanzatti. But, the credit for popularizing this theory in recent years rightly belongs to the well-known American economist, Irving Fisher who published his book, ‘The Purchasing Power of Money” in 1911. He gave it a quantitative form in terms of his famous “Equation of Exchange”.
The general form of equation given by Fisher is
MV = PT

1. Fisher points out that in a country during any given period of time, the total quantity of money (MV) will be equal to the total value of all goods and services bought and sold (PT).
MV = PT
Supply of Money = Demand for Money.

2. This equation is referred to as “Cash Transaction Equation”.
Where M = Money Supply/quantity of Money
V = Velocity of Money
P = Price level
T = Volume of Transaction.
It is expressed as P = MV / T which implies that the quantity of money determines the price level and the price level in its turn varies directly with the quantity of money, provided ‘V’ and ‘T’ remain constant.

4. According to Marshall, peoples desire to hold money (the coefficient, K) is more powerful in determination of money, rather than quantity of money (M). So, peoples desire to hold money is a determinant of value of money.

5. The above equation considers only currency money. But, in a modem economy, bank’s demand deposits or credit money and its velocity play a vital part in business. Therefore, Fisher extended his original equation of exchange to include bank deposits Mj and its velocity Vr The revised equation was:
PT = MV + M1V1
P = \(\frac{MV + M1V1}{T}\)

6. From the revised equation, it is evident, that the price level is determined by (a) the quantity of money in circulation ‘M’ (b) the velocity of circulation of money ‘V’ (c) the volume of bank credit money M1, (d) the velocity of circulation of credit money V1, and the volume of trade (T)
Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 4 English Medium 9
Quantity of Money:
1. Figure (A) shows the effect of changes in the quantity of money on the price level. When the quantity of money is OM, the price level is OP. When the quantity of money is doubled to 0M2, the price level is also doubled to 0P2. Further, when the quantity of money is increased four-fold to 0M4, the price level also increases by four times to 0P4. This relationship is expressed by the curve OP =/(M) from the origin at 45°.

2. Figure (B), shows the inverse relation between the quantity of money and the value of money, where the value of money is taken on the vertical axis. When the quantity of money is 0M1 the value of money is 01 / Pr But with the doubling of the quantity of money to 0M2, the value of money becomes one-half of what it was before, (01 / P2). But, with the quantity of money increasing by four-fold to 0M4, the value of money is reduced by 01 / P4. This inverse relationship between the quantity of money and the value of money is shown by downward sloping curve 1 / 0P = f(M).

Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 4 English Medium

[OR]

(b) Explain the Measures of control inflation.
Answer:
Measures to Control Inflation:
Keynes and Milton Friedman together suggested three measures to prevent and control of inflation.

  1.  Monetary measures,
  2. Fiscal measures (J.M. Keynes) and (in) Other measures.

1. Monetary Measures:
These measures are adopted by the Central Bank of the country. They are

  • Increase in Bank rate
  • Sale of Government Securities in the Open Market
  • Higher Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) and Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR)
  • Consumer Credit Control and
  • Higher margin requirements
  • Higher Repo Rate and Reverse Repo Rate.

2.  Fiscal Measures:

  • Fiscal policy is now recognized as an important instrument to tackle an inflationary situation.
  • The major anti-inflationary fiscal measures are the following: Reduction of Government Expenditure and Public Borrowing and Enhancing taxation.

3. Other Measures:
These measures can be divided broadly into short-term and long-term measures.
(a) Short-term measures can be in regard to public distribution of scarce essential commodities through fair price shops (Rationing). In India whenever shortage of basic goods has been felt, the government has resorted to import so that inflation may not get triggered.

(b) Long-term measures will require accelerating economic growth especially of the wage goods which have a direct bearing on the general price and the cost of living. Some restrictions on present consumption may help in improving saving and investment which may be necessary for accelerating the rate of economic growth in the long run.

Question 45 (a).
Explain the types of exchange rate systems and types of exchange rates?
Answer:
Types of Exchange Rate Systems
Broadly, there are two major exchange rate systems, namely,
(1) fixed (or pegged) exchange rate system and
(2) flexible (or floating) exchange rate system. Managed Floating Exchange Rate system also prevails in some countries (like India).
1. Fixed Exchange Rates
Countries following the fixed exchange rate (also known as stable exchange rate and pegged exchange rate) system agree to keep their currencies at a fixed rate as determined by the Government. Under the gold standard, the value of currencies was fixed in terms of gold.

2. Flexible Exchange Rates
Under the flexible exchange rate (also known as floating exchange rate) system, exchange rates are freely determined in an open market by market forces of demand and supply.

Types of Exchange Rates
Exchange rates are also in the form of (a) Nominal exchange rate (b) Real exchange rate (c) Nominal Effective Exchange Rate (NEER) and (d) Real Effective Exchange Rate (REER)
If 1 US Dollar = Rs 75,
Nominal exchange rate = 75/1 =75.
This is the bilateral nominal exchange rate. ePf
Real Exchange rate = \(\frac{eP_f}{P}\)
P = Price levels in India
Pf = Price levels in abroad (say US)
e = nominal exchange rate.
If a pen costs Rs 50 in India and it costs 5
USD in the US,
Real Exchange Rate = \(\frac{75×5}{50}\) = 7.5
If real exchange rate is equal to 1, the currencies are at purchasing power parity.
It the price of the pen in US is 0.66 USD,
then the real exchange rate = \(\frac{0.66×75}{50}\)
then it could be said that the USD and Indian rupee are at purchasing power parity.
NEER and REER are not explained here.
Interested students and teachers can search for them.

Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 4 English Medium

[OR]

(b) Bring out the objectives of IBRD.
Answer:
Objectives of World Bank

  1. Reconstruction and Development
  2. Encouragement to Capital Investment
  3. Encouragement to International Trade
  4. Establishment of Peace-time Economy
  5. Environmental Protection

The following are the objectives of the World Bank:

  1. To help member countries for economic reconstruction and development.
  2. To stimulate long-run capital investment for restoring Balance of Payments (BoP) equilibrium and thereby ensure balanced development of international trade among the member nations.
  3. To provide guarantees for loans meant for infrastructural and industrial projects of member nations.
  4. To help war ravaged economies transform into peace economies.
  5. To supplement foreign private investment by direct loans out of its own funds for productive purposes.

Question 46 (a).
Describe canons of Taxation.
Answer:
According to Adam Smith, there are four canons or maxims of taxation. They are as follows: Canons of Taxation:

  1. Economical
  2. Equitable
  3. Convenient
  4. Certain
  5. (Efficient and Flexible)

1. Canon of Ability:

  • The Government should impose tax in such a way that the people have to pay taxes according to their ability.
  • In such case a rich person should pay more tax compared to a middle class person or a poor person.

2. Canon of Certainty:

  • The Government must ensure that there is no uncertainty regarding the rate of tax or the time of payment.
  • If the Government collects taxes arbitrarily, then these will adversely affect the efficiency of the people and their working ability too.

3. Canon of Convenience:

  • The method of tax collection and the timing of the tax payment should suit the convenience of the people.
  • The Government should make convenient arrangement for all the tax payers to pay the taxes without difficulty.

4. Canon of Economy:

  • The Government has to spend money for collecting taxes, for example, salaries are given to the persons who are responsible for collecting taxes.
  • The taxes, where collection costs are more are considered as bad taxes.
  • Hence, according to Smith, the Government should impose only those taxes whose collection costs are very less and cheap.

[OR]

(b) Specify the meaning of material balance principle.
Answer:
The relationship between the economy and the environment is generally explained in the form of a “Material Balance Model” developed by AlenKneese and R.V. Ayres.
The model considers the total economic process as a physically balanced flow between inputs and outputs.
Inputs are bestowed with physical property of energy which is received from the environment.
Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 4 English Medium 10
The interdependence of economics and environment.
The first law of thermodynamics, i.e. the law of conservation of matter and energy, emphasizes that in any production system “what goes in must come out”. This is known as the Material Balance Approach or Material Balance Principle.

Moreover, all resources extracted from the environment eventually become unwanted wastes and pollutants. Production of output by firms from inputs resulting in discharge of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes. Similarly, waste results from consumption activities by households. In its simple form the Material Balance Approach can be put in form equation.
Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 4 English Medium 11

Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 4 English Medium

Question 47 (a).
Elucidate major causes of vicious circle of poverty with diagram.
Answer:
Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 4 English Medium 12

  1. There are circular relationships known as the ‘vicious circles of poverty’ that tend to perpetuate the low level of development in Less Developed Countries (LDCs).
  2. Nurkse explains the idea in these words: “It implies a circular constellation of forces tending to act and react upon one another in such a way as to keep a poor country in a state of poverty.
  3. For example, a poor man may not have enough to eat; being underfed, his health may be weak; being physically weak, his working capacity is low, which means that he is poor, which in turn means that he will not have enough to eat and so on.
  4. A situation of this sort relating to a country as a whole can be summed up in the proposition: “A county is poor because the country is poor”.
  5. The vicious circle of poverty operates both on the demand side and the supply side.
  6. On the supply side, the low level of real income means low savings.
  7. The low level of saving leads to low investment and to deficiency of capital.
  8. The deficiency of capital, in turn, leads to low levels of productivity and back to low income. Thus the vicious circle is complete from the supply side.
  9. The demand-side of the vicious circle is that the low level of real income leads to a low level of demand which, in turn, leads to a low rate of investment and hence back to deficiency of capital, low productivity and low income.

[OR]

(b) State and explain the different kinds of Correlation.
Answer:
Type I: Based on the direction of change of variables

  1. Correlation is classified into two types as Positive correlation and Negative Correlation based on the direction of change of the variables.
  2. Positive Correlation: The correlation is said to be positive if the values of two variables move in the same direction.

Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 4 English Medium 13
Ex 1: If income and Expenditure of a Household may be increasing or decreasing simultaneously. If so, there is positive correlation. Ex. Y = a + bx
Negative Correlation: The Correlation is said to be negative when the values of variables move in the opposite directions. Ex. Y = a – bx
Ex 1: Price and demand for a commodity move in the opposite direction.

Type II: Based upon the number of variables studied
There are three types based upon the number of variables studied as
(a) Simple Correlation
(b) Multiple Correlation
(c) Partial Correlation

Simple Correlation: If only two variables are taken for study then it is said to be simple correlation. Ex. Y = a + bx

Multiple Correlations: If three or more than three variables are studied simultaneously, then it is termed as multiple correlation.
Ex: Determinants of Quantity demanded
Qd = f(P, Pc, Ps, t, y)
Where Qd stands for Quantity demanded,/stands for function.
P is the price of the goods,
Pc is the price of competitive goods
Ps is the price of substituting goods
t is the taste and preference
y is the income.

Partial Correlation: If there are more than two variables but only two variables are considered keeping the other variables constant, then the correlation is said to be Partial Correlation.

Type III: Based upon the constancy of the ratio of change between the variables
Correlation is divided into two types as linear correlation and Non-Linear, correlation based upon the Constancy of the ratio of change between the variables.

Linear Correlation: Correlation is said to be linear when the amount of change in one variable tends to bear a constant ratio to the amount of change in the other.
Ex. Y = a + bx

Non Linear: The correlation would be non-linear if the amount of change in one variable does not bear a constant ratio to the amount of change in the other variables.
Ex. Y = a + bx²

Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 4 English Medium

Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 3 English Medium

Students can Download Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 3 English Medium Pdf, Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Papers helps you to revise the complete Tamilnadu State Board New Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

TN State Board 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 3 English Medium

General Instructions:

  1. The question paper comprises of four parts.
  2. You are to attempt all the parts. An internal choice of questions is provided wherever applicable.
  3. All questions of Part I, II, III and IV are to be attempted separately.
  4. Question numbers 1 to 15 in Part I are Multiple Choice Questions of one mark each.
    These are to be answered by choosing the most suitable answer from the given four alternatives and writing the option code and the corresponding answer
  5. Question numbers 16 to 24 in Part II are two-mark questions. These are to be answered in about one or two sentences.
  6. Question numbers 25 to 33 in Part III are three-mark questions. These are to be answered in about three to five short sentences.
  7. Question numbers 34 to 38 in Part IV are five-mark questions. These are to be answered in detail Draw diagrams wherever necessary.

Time: 3 Hours
Maximum Marks: 70

PART – I

Choose the correct answer. Answer all the questions [15 x 1 = 15]

Question 1.
………. function returns the smallest integer greater than or equal to x.
(a) sqrt
(b) flow
(c) floor
(d) ceil
Answer:
(d) ceil

Question 2.
……….. is used to indicate blocks of code in python.
(a) Spaces
(b) {}
(c) []
(d) <>
Answer:
(a) Spaces

Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 3 English Medium

Question 3.
Which amongst this is not a Jump Statement?
(a) for
(b) goto
(c) continue
(d) break
Answer:
(a) for

Question 4.
How many formats are there for format ()?
(a) 12
(b) 5
(c) 3
(d) 1
Answer:
(c) 3

Question 5.
Stings in python can be created using…………
{a) ” ”
(b) ’ ’
(c) ”’ ”’
(d) all of these
Answer:
(d) all of these

Question 6.
……….. function is used to generate a series of values in python.
(a) range
(b) series
(c) fill series
(d) auto fill
Answer:
(a) range

Question 7.
Duplicate row is. removed in………..
(a) α
(b) π
(c) x
(d) σ
Answer:
(b) π

Question 8.
Grant and Revoke commands comes under…………
(a) DML
(b) DCL
(c) DQL
(d) DDL
Answer:
(b) DCL

Question 9.
A CSV file is also called as………..file.
(a) flat
(b) 3D
(c) string
(d) random
Answer:
(a) flat

Question 10.
The module which allows you to interface with the Windows OS is…………
(a) OS module
(b) SYS module
(c) CSV module
(d) getopt module
Answer:
(a) OS module

Question 11.
The most commonly used command in SQL is…………
(a) cursor
(b) select
(c) execute
(d) commit
Answer:
(b) select

Question 12.
Which command is used to accept data during runtime in python?
(a) Insert ()
(b) Input ()
(c) create
(d) update ()
Answer:
(b) Input ()

Question 13.
The representation of information in a graphic format is…………
(a) chart
(b) graphics
(c) infographics
(d) graphs
Answer:
(c) infographics

Question 14.
What does name contains?
(a) clt filename
(b) main () name
(c) python filename
(d) OS module name
Answer:
(c) python filename

Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 3 English Medium

Question 15.
If the precision exceeds 64, then it is………….
(a) numeric
(b) real
(c) float
(d) decimal
Answer:
(c) float

PART – II

Answer any six questions. Question No. 21 is compulsory. [6 × 2 = 12]

Question 16.
Define Pseudo code.
Answer:

  1. Pseudo code is a mix of programming-language-like constructs and Plain English.
  2. Pseudo code is a notation similar to programming languages.
  3. Algorithms expressed in pseudo code are not intended to be executed by computers, but for communication among people.

Question 17.
What is searching? Write its types.
Answer:
A search algorithm is the step-by-step procedure used to locate specific data among a collection of data. Types of searching algorithms are

  1. Linear search
  2. Binary search
  3. Hash search
  4. Binary Tree search

Question 18.
Name the factors where the program execution time depends on.
Answer:
The program execution time depends on:

  1. Speed of the machine
  2. Compiler and other system Software tools
  3. Operating System
  4. Programming language used
  5. Volume of data required

Question 19.
Give any 6 keywords in python.
Answer:
false, class, none, continue, finally, return, is

Question 20.
Give the syntax of while loop.
Answer:
The syntax of while loop in Python has the following syntax:
Syntax:
while:
statements block 1 [else:
statements block2]

Question 21.
Write a program to display all 3 digit odd numbers.
Answer:
Odd Number (3 digits)
for a in range (100, 1000):
if a % 2 = 1:
print b
Output:
101, 103, 105,107 …… 997, 999

Question 22.
Write note on pass statement.
Answer:
pass statement in Python programming is a null statement, pass statement when executed by the interpreter it is completely ignored. Nothing happens when pass is executed, it results in no operation. pass statement can be used in ‘if’ clause as well as within loop construct, when you do not want any statements or commands within that block to be executed.

Question 23.
Define default arguments.
Answer:
In Python the default argument is an argument that takes a default value if no value is provided in the function call. The following example uses default arguments, that prints default salary when no argument is passed, def printinfo (sal = 3500):

Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 3 English Medium

Question 24.
Write a python program to find the length of the string.
Answer:
str = input(“Enter a string: “) print (len(str))
Output:
Enter a string: HELLO
5

PART – III

Answer any six questions. Question No. 29 is compulsory. [6 x 3 = 18]

Question 25.
Differentiate List and Dictionary.
Answer:

  1. List is an ordered set of elements. But, a dictionary is a data structure that is used for matching one element (Key) with another (Value).
  2. The index values can be used to access a particular element. But, in dictionary key represents index. Remember that, key may be a number of a string.
  3. Lists are used to look up a value whereas a dictionary is used to take one value and look up another value.

Question 26.
What is normalization?
Answer:

  1. Normalization is a process of organizing the data in the database to avoid data redundancy and to improve data integrity.
  2. Database normalization was first proposed by Dr. Edgar F Codd as an integral part of RDBMS.
    These rules are known as E F Codd Rules.

Question 27.
What are the advantages of DBMS?
Answer:
Advantages of DBMS

  1. Segregation of application program
  2. Minimal data duplication or Data Redundancy
  3. Easy retrieval of data using the Query Language
  4. Reduced development time and maintenance

Question 28.
Write the use of savepoint command with an example.
Answer:
SAVEPOINT command
The SAVEPOINT command is used to temporarily save a transaction so that you can rollback to the point whenever required. The different states of our table can be saved at anytime using different names and the rollback to that state can be done using the ROLLBACK command.
SAVEPOINT savepoint_name;
UPDATE Student SET Name = ‘Mini ’ WHERE Admno = 105;
SAVEPOINT A;

Question 29.
Give a program for CSV file with a line terminator.
Answer:
import csv
Data = [[‘Fruit’, ‘Quantity’], [‘Apple’, ‘5’], [‘Banana’, ‘7’], [‘Mango’, ‘8’]]
csv.register_dialect(‘myDialect’, delimiter ‘|’, lineterminator = ‘\n’)
with open(‘c:\\pyprg\ \chl3\\line.csv’, ‘w’) as f:
writer = csv.writer(f, dialect = ‘myDialect’)
writer.writerows(Data)
f.close()
Output

Fruit Quantity
Apple 5
Banana 7
Mango 8

Question 30.
What is MinGW?
Answer:
(MinGW refers to a set of runtime header files, used in compiling and linking the code of C, C++ and FORTRAN to be run on Windows Operating System.

MinGw-W64 (versionofMinGW) is the best compiler for C++ on Windows. To compile and execute the C++ program, you need ‘g++’ for Windows. MinGW allows to compile and execute C++ program dynamically through Python program using g++.

Python program that contains the C++ coding can be executed only through minGW-w64 project run terminal. The run terminal open the command-line window through which Python program should be executed.

Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 3 English Medium

Question 31.
How will you import modules in python?
Answer:
We can import the definitions inside a module to another module. We use the import keyword . to do this. To import the module factorial we type the following in the Python prompt.
>> import factorial
Using the module name we can access the functions defined inside the module. The dot(.) operator is used to access the functions. The syntax for accessing the functions from the module is
<module name><function name>
For example:
Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 3 English Medium 1
>>> factorial.fact(5)
120

Question 32.
Write a command to populate record in a table.
Answer:
To populate (add record) the table “INSERT” command is passed to SQLite. “execute” method executes the SQL command to perform some action. In most cases, you will not literally insert data into a SQL table. You will rather have a lot of data inside of some Python data type e.g. a dictionary or a list, which has to be used as the input of the insert statement.

Question 33.
Design an algorithm to find square of the given number and display the result.
Answer:
Problem: Design an algorithm to find square of the given number and display the result. The algorithm can be written as:
Step 1 – start the process
Step 2 – get the input x
Step 3 – calculate the square by multiplying the input value ie., square ← x * x
Step 4 – display the result square
Step 5 – stop
Algorithm could be designed to get a solution of a given problem. A problem can be solved in many ways. Among many algorithms the optimistic one can be taken for implementation.

PART – IV

Answer all the questions. [5 × 5 = 25]

Question 34 (a).
Explain about any 3 string operators in python with suitable example.
String Operators
Python provides the following operators for string operations. These operators are useful to manipulate string.
(i) Concatenation (+)
Joining of two or more strings is called as Concatenation. The plus (+) operator is used to concatenate strings in python.
Example
>>> “welcome” + “Python”
‘welcomePython’

(ii) Append (+ =)
Adding more strings at the end of an existing string is known as append. The operator += is used to append a new string with an existing string.
Example .
>>> strl =” Welcome to ”
>>> strl+=”Leam Python”
>>> print (strl)
Welcome to Learn Python

(iii) Repeating (*)
The multiplication operator (*) is used to display a string in multiple number of times.
Example
>>> strl = “Welcome ”
>>> print (strl *4)
Welcome Welcome Welcome Welcome

(iv) String slicing
Slice is a substring of a main string. A substring can be taken from the original string by using [ ] operator and index or subscript values. Thus, [ ] is also known as slicing operator. Using slice operator, you have to slice one or more substrings from a main string.
General format of slice operation:
str [start:end]
Where start is the beginning index and end is the last index value of a character in the string. Python takes the end value less than one from the actual index specified. For example, if you want to slice first 4 characters from a string, you have to specify it as 0 to 5. Because, python consider only the end value as n-1.
Example: slice a single character from a string
>>> strl = “THIRUKKURAL”
>>> print (strl[0])
T

(v) Stride when slicing string
When the slicing operation, you can specify a third argument as the stride, which refers to 1 the number of characters to move forward after the first character is retrieved from the string.
The default value of stride is 1.
Example
>>> strl = “Welcome to learn Python”
>>> print (strl [10:16])
learn
Note: Remember that, python takes the last value as n-1
You can also use negative value as stride (third argument). If you specify a negative value, it prints in reverse order.
Example
>>> strl = “Welcome to learn Python”
>>> print(strl[::-2])
nhy re teolW

Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 3 English Medium

[OR]

(b) Write a python program to print the maximum and minimum value in a dictionary.
Answer:
my_dict = {‘x’: 500, ‘y’: 5874, ‘z’: 560}
val = my_diet.values()
print(‘max value’, max(val))
print(‘min value’, min(val))
Output:
max value 5874
min value 500

Question 35 (a).
Write a class with two private class variables and print the sum using a method.
Answer:
class Sample:
def_init_(self, n1, n2):
self._n1 = n1
self._n2 = n2
def display(self):
print(“class variable 1:”, self._nl)
print(“class variable 2:”, self._n2)
print(“sum :”, self. nl + self._n2)
s = sample(10, 20)
s.display()
Output:
class variable 1 : 10
class variable 2 : 20
sum : 30

[OR]

(b) What are the various processing skills of SQL?
Answer:
The various processing skills of SQL are :

  1. Data Definition Language (DDL) : The SQL DDL provides commands for defining relation schemes (structure), deleting relations, creating indexes and modifying relation schemes.
  2. Data Manipulation Language (DML): The SQL DML includes commands to insert, delete, and modify tuples in the database.
  3. Embedded Data Manipulation Language : The embedded form of SQL is used in high level programming languages.
  4. View Definition : The SQL also includes commands for defining views of tables.
  5. Authorization : The SQL includes commands for access rights to relations and views of tables.
  6. Integrity’: The SQL provides forms for integrity checking using condition.
  7. Transaction control : The SQL includes commands for file transactions and control over transaction processing.

Question 36 (a).
Write the steps for executing the C++ program to check whether a given number is palindrome or not.
Answer:
Step 1 : Type the C++ program to check whether the input number is palindrome or not in notepad and save it as “pali_cpp.cpp”.
Step 2: Type the Python program and save it as pali.py
Step 3: Click the Run Terminal and open the command window
Step 4: Go to the folder of Python using cd command.
Step 5: Type the command Python pali.py -i pali_cpp

Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 3 English Medium

[OR]

(b) Explain the various buttons in a matplotlib window.
Answer:
Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 3 English Medium 2
Home Button → The Home Button will help once you have begun navigating your chart. If you ever want to return back to the original view, you can click on this.

Forward/Back buttons → These buttons can be used like the Forward and Back buttons in your browser. You can click these to move back to the previous point you were at, or forward again.

Pan Axis → This cross-looking button allows you to click it, and then click and drag your graph around.

Zoom → The Zoom button lets you click on it, then click and drag a square that you would like I to zoom into specifically. Zooming in will require a left click and drag. You can alternatively zoom out with a right click and drag.

Configure Subplots → This button allows you to configure various spacing options with your figure and plot.

Save Figure → This button will allow you to save your figure in various forms.

Question 37 (a).
Explain the purposes of
(a) pltxlabel
(b) plt.ylabel
(c) plt.title
(d) plt.legend()
(e) plt.show()
Answer:
After installing Matplotlib, we will begin coding by importing Matplotlib using the command: import matplotlib.pyplot as pit
Now you have imported Matplotlib in your workspace. You need to display the plots. Using Matplotlib from within a Python script, you have to add plt.show() method inside the file to display your plot.

With plt.xlabel and plt.ylabel, you can assign labels to those respective axis. Next, you can assign the plot’s title with plt.title, and then you can invoke the default legend with pit.
legend().
plt.plot (years, total_populations)
plt.title (“Year vs Population in India”)
plt.xlabel (“Year”)
plt.ylabel (“Total Population”)
plt.legend()
plt.show()
Plt.title() → specifies title to the graph
Plt.xlabel() → specifies label for X-axis
Plt.ylabel() → specifies label for Y-axis

Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 3 English Medium

[OR]

(b) Evaluate the following functions and write the output.
Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 3 English Medium 3
Output:
1. 1) 13
2)3.2

2. (1)50
2) 36

3. <class ‘str’>

4. Ob10000

5. 1) CR (carriage return)
2) It moves the cursor to the beginning of same line

Question 38 (a).
Explain If and If…. else with sample programs.
Answer:
Simple if statement
Simple if is the simplest of all decision making statements. Condition should be in the form of relational or logical expression.
Syntax:
if :
statements-block 1
In the above syntax if the condition is true statements – block 1 will be executed.
Example
# Program to check the age and print whether eligible for voting
x = int (input(“Enter your age :”))
if x> = 18:
print (“You are eligible for voting”)
Output 1:
Enter your age : 34
You are eligible for voting Output 2:
Enter your age : 16
>>>
As you can see in the second execution no output will be printed, only the Python prompt will be displayed because the program does not check the alternative process when the condition is failed.

if..else statement:
The if., else statement provides control to check the true block as well as the false block. Following is the syntax of ‘if.else’ statement.
Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 3 English Medium 4
Syntax:
if :
statements-block 1
else:
statements-block 2
if.else statement thus provides two possibilities and the condition determines which BLOCK is to be executed.
Example: #Program to check if the accepted number odd or even
a = int(input(“Enter any number :”))
if a%2 == 0:
print (a,” is an even number”)
else:
print (a, ” is an odd number”)
Output 1:
Enter any number :56
56 is an even number
Output 2:
Enter any number :67
67 is an odd number
An alternate method to rewrite the above program is also available in Python. The complete if.else can also written as:
Syntax:
variable = variable1 if condition else variable 2

Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 3 English Medium

[OR]

(b) Explain while loop with sample program.
Answer:
while loop
The syntax of while loop in Python has the following syntax:
Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 3 English Medium 5
Syntax:
while :
statements block 1
[else:
statements block 2]
In the while loop, the condition is any valid Boolean expression returning True or False. The else part of while is optional part of while. The statements blockl is kept executed till the condition is True. If the else part is written, it is executed when the condition is tested False. Recall while loop belongs to entry check loop type, that is it is not executed even once if the condition is tested False in the beginning.
Example: program to illustrate the use of while loop – to print all numbers from 10 to 15
i = 10 # initializing part of the control variable
while (i<= 15): # test condition
print (i,end=’\t’) # statements – block 1
i = i + l # Updation of the control variable
Output:
10 11 12 13 14 15

Tamil Nadu 12th Computer Science Model Question Paper 3 English Medium

Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 1 English Medium

Students can Download Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 1 English Medium Pdf, Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Papers helps you to revise the complete Tamilnadu State Board New Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

TN State Board 12th Economics Model Question Paper 1 English Medium

General Instructions:

  1. The question paper comprises of four parts.
  2. You are to attempt all the parts. An internal choice of questions is provided wherever applicable.
  3. All questions of Part I, II, III and IV are to be attempted separately.
  4. Question numbers 1 to 20 in Part I are Multiple Choice Questions of one mark each.
    These are to be answered by choosing the most suitable answer from the given four alternatives and writing the option code and the corresponding answer
  5. Question numbers 21 to 30 in Part II are two-mark questions. These are to be answered in about one or two sentences.
  6. Question numbers 31 to 40 in Part III are three-mark questions. These are to be answered in above three to five short sentences.
  7. Question numbers 41 to 47 in Part IV are five-mark questions. These are to be answered in detail Draw diagrams wherever necessary.

Time: 3.00 Hours
Maximum Marks: 90

PART -1

Choose the correct answer. Answer all the questions: [20 x 1 = 20]

Question 1.
Who is regarded as the “Father of Modem Macro Economics”?
(a) Adam Smith
(b) J.M. Keynes
(c) Ranger Frisch
(d) Karl Marks
Answer:
(b) J.M. Keynes

Question 2.
The Financial year in India is………..
(a) April 1st to March 31st
(b) March 1st to April 30th
(c) March 1st to March 16th
(d) Jan 1st to Dec 31st
Answer:
(a) April 1st to March 31st

Question 3.
The concept, National Income was first introduced by ………..
(a) Alfred Marshall
(b) J.M. Keynes
(c) Richardo
(d) Simon Kuznets
Answer:
(d) Simon Kuznets

Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 1 English Medium

Question 4.
In disguised unemployment, the marginal productivity of labour is…………
(a) 0
(b) 1
(c) 2
(d) positive
Answer:
(a) 0

Question 5.
The sum of MPC and MPS is………
(a) 1
(b) 2
(c) 0.1
(d) 1.1
Answer:
(a) 1

Question 6.
If the MPC is 0.5, the multiplier is………..
(a) 2
(b) 1/2
(c) 0.2
(d) 20
Answer:
(a) 2

Question 7.
The headquarters of Reserve Bank of India is located at……….
(a) Delhi
(b) Chennai
(c) Mumbai
(d) Banglore
Answer:
(c) Mumbai

Question 8.
The new currency symbol (T) in India was designed by………
(a) L. Sivakumar
(b) T. Udaya Chandran
(c) D. Udayakumar
(d) Amartya Kumar Sen
Answer:
(c) D. Udayakumar

Question 9.
“Repo rate (RR)” meAnswer:………..
(a) Rate at which the commercial banks are willing to lend to RBI
(b) Rate at which the RBI is willing to lend to commercial banks
(c) Exchange rate of foreign bank
(d) Growth rate of the economy
Answer:
(b) Rate at which the RBI is willing to lend to commercial banks

Question 10.
Export – Import bank was established in………..
(a) June 1982
(b) April 1982
(c) May 1982
(d) March 1982
Answer:
(d) March 1982

Question 11.
Exchange rates are determined in………
(a) Monetary economy
(b) Stock market
(c) Foreign exchange market
(d) Capital market
Answer:
(c) Foreign exchange market

Question 12.
IBRD is otherwise called as………..
(a) International Monetary Fund
(b) World bank
(c) ASEAN
(d) International finance corporations
Answer:
(b) World bank

Question 13.
International monetary fund has its headquarters at………
(a) Washington DC
(b) New York
(c) Vienna
(d) Geneva
Answer:
(a) Washington DC

Question 14.
Which of the following is not a tax under union list?
(a) Personal Income Tax
(b) Corporation Tax
(c) Agricultural Income Tax
(d) Excise duty
Answer:
(d) Excise duty

Question 15.
The true statements of the following………
(i) The 14th Finance commission is headed by C. Rangarajan
(ii) The recommendations of this commission will come into effect from April 1, 2015, is /are
(a) i only is correct
(b) ii only is correct
(c) both are correct
(d) none of the above is correct
Answer:
(d) none of the above is correct

Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 1 English Medium

Question 16.
Which of the following is the main cause for deforestation?
(a) Timber harvesting industry
(b) Natural afforestation
(c) Soil stabilization
(d) Climate stabilization
Answer:
(a) Timber harvesting industry

Question 17.
Which is responsible for protecting people from harmful ultra violet rays?
(a) UV -A
(b) UV – C
(c) Ozone layer
(d) None of the above
Answer:
(c) Ozone layer

Question 18.
Arrange the following in chronological order……….
(i) People’s Plan
(ii) Bombay Plan
(iii) Jawaharlal Nehru Plan
(iv) Vishveshwarya Plan
(a) (i), (ii), (iii), (iv)
(b) (iv), (iii), (ii), (i)
(c) (i), (ii), (iv), (iii)
(d) (ii), (i), (iv), (iii)
Answer:
(b) (iv), (iii), (ii), (i)

Question 19.
Choose the correct answer for the given assertion and reason.
Assertion (A): The deficiency of capital, in turn leads to low levels of productivity and back to low income.
Reason (R): The low level of saving leads to low investment and to deficiency of capital.
(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
(b) Both A are R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(c) A is true but R is false.
(d) A is false but R is true.
Answer:
(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.

Question 20.
If both variables X and Y increase or decrease simultaneously, then the coefficient of correlation will be
(a) Positive
(b) Negative
(c) 0
(d) 1
Answer:
(a) Positive

PART – II

Answer any seven questions. Question No. 30 is compulsory. [7 x 2 = 14]

Question 21.
Define the term inflation.
Inflation refers to steady increase in general price level. Estimating the general price level by constructing various price index numbers such as wholesale Price. Index, Consumer Price Index, efc, are needed.

Question 22.
What is GDP deflator?
Answer:
GDP deflator is an index of price changes of goods and services included in GDP. It is a price index which is calculated by dividing the nominal GDP in a given year by the real GDP for the same year and multiplying it by 100.
GDP deflator = \(\frac{Nominal GDP}{Real GDP}\) x 100

Question 23.
What is investment functions?Answer:
The investment function refers to investment -interest rate relationship. There is a functional and inverse relationship between rate of interest and investment. The investment function slopes downward.
I = f(r)
1= Investment (Dependent variable)
r = Rate of interest (Independent variable)

Question 24.
Write a note on stagflation.
Answer:
Stagflation is a combination of stagnant economic growth, high unemployment and high inflation.

Question 25.
Distinguish between CRR and SLR.
Answer:

S.No. CRR SLR
1. The Central Bank controls credit by changing the Cash Reserves Ratio. Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR) is the amount which a bank has to maintain in the form of cash, gold or approved securities.
2. Commercial Banks have excessive cash reserves on the basis of which they are creating too much of credit, this will be harmful for the larger interest of the economy. The quantum is specified as some percentage of the total demand and time liabilities.
3. So it will raise the cash reserve ratio which the Commercial Banks are required to maintain with the Central Bank. The liabilities of the bank which are payable on demand anytime, and those liabilities which are accruing in one month’s time due to maturity.

Question 26.
What is meant by Balance of Payment?
Answer:

  1. BoP is a systematic record of a country’s economic and financial transactions with the rest of the world over a period of time.
  2. When a payment is received from a foreign country, it is a credit transaction while a payment to a foreign country is a debit transaction.
  3. The principal items shown on the credit side are exports of goods and services, transfer receipts in the form of gift etc., from foreigners, borrowing from abroad, foreign direct investment and official sale of reserve assets including gold to foreign countries and international agencies.
  4. The principal items on the debit side include imports of goods and services, transfer payments to foreigners, lending to foreign countries, investments by residents in foreign countries and official purchase of reserve assets or gold from foreign countries and international agencies.

Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 1 English Medium

Question 27.
Write the meaning of special drawing rights.
Answer:
Special Drawing Rights (SDRs):

  • The Fund has succeeded in establishing a scheme of Special Drawing Rights (SDRs) which is otherwise called ‘Paper Gold’.
  • They are a form of international reserves created by the IMF in 1969 to solve the problem of international liquidity.
  • They are allocated to the IMF members in proportion to their Fund quotas.
  • SDRs are used as a means of payment by Fund members to meet balance of payments deficits and their total reserve position with the Fund.
  • Thus SDRs act both as an international unit of account and a means of payment.
  • All transactions by the Fund in the form of loans and their repayments, its liquid reserves, . its capital, etc., are expressed in the SDR.

Question 28.
Differentiate between tax and fee.
Answer:

S.No. Tax Fee
1 A tax is a compulsory payment made to the government. Fees are another important source of revenue for the government.
2 People on whom a tax is imposed must pay the tax. A fee is charged by public authorities for rendering a service to the citizens.
3 There is no quid pro quo between a taxpayer and public authorities. This means that the tax payer cannot claim any specific benefit against the payment of a tax. The government provides certain services and charges certain fees for them. For example, fees are charged for issuing of passports, driving licenses, etc.

Question 29.
Define regression.
Answer:

  1. The term ‘Regression’ was first coined and used in 1877 by Francis Galton while studying the relationship between the height of fathers and sons.
  2. The average height of children born of parents of a given height tended to move or “regress” toward the average height in the population as a whole.
  3. Gabon’s law of universal regression was confirmed by his friend Karl Pearson, who collected more than a thousand records of heights of members of family groups.
  4. The literal meaning of the word “regression” is “Stepping back towards the average”.

Question 30.
What is pollution and write the types of pollution?
Answer:
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that causes adverse change, in the form of killing of life, toxicity of environment, damage to ecosystem and aesthetics of our surrounding.
Types of Pollution

  1. Air pollution
  2. Water pollution
  3. Noise pollution
  4. Land pollution

PART – III

Answer any seven questions. Question No. 40 is compulsory. [7 x 3 = 21]

Question 31.
List out the uses of National Income.
The following are some of the concepts used in measuring national income.
GDP:
GDP is the total market value of final goods and services produced within the country during a year. This is calculated at market prices and is known as GDP at market prices. Thus GDP by expenditure method at market prices = C + I + G + (X – M)
Where C – Consumption goods;
I – Investment goods;
G – Government purchases;
(X – M) is net export which can be positive or negative.

Net National Product (NNP) (at Market price):
Net National Product refers to the value of the net output of the economy during the year. NNP is obtained by deducting the value of depreciation, or replacement allowance of the capital assets from the GNP. It is expressed as,
NNP = GNP – depreciation allowance.

NNP at Factor cost:
NNP refers to the market value of output. NNP at factor cost is the total of income payment made to factors of production.

Personal Income:
Personal income is the total income received by the individuals of a country from all sources before payment of direct taxes in a year.

Per Capita Income:
The average income of a person of a country in a particular year is called Per Capita Income. Per capita income is obtained by dividing national income by population.
Per Capita income = \(\frac{National income}{population}\)

Disposable Income:

  1. Disposable Income is also known as Disposable personal income.
  2. It is the individuals income after the payment of income tax.
  3. This is the amount available for households for consumption.

Real Income:
Nominal income is national income expressed in terms of a general price level of a particular year in other words, real income is the buying power of nominal income.

GDP deflator:
GDP deflator is an index of price changes of goods and services included in GDP. It is a price index which is calculated by dividing the nominal GDP in a given year by the real GDP for the same year and multiplying it by 100.

Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 1 English Medium

Question 32.
Explain Keynes theory in the form of flow chart.
Answer:
Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 1 English Medium 1

Question 33.
Complete the table.

Income Consumption Savings
0 20
60 -10
120 0
10
.240 220

Answer:

Income Consumption Savings
0 20 -20
60 70 -10
120 120 0
180 170 10
.240 220  20

Question 34.
What are the functions of NABARD?
Functions of NABARD:
NABARD has inherited its apex role from RBI i.e, it is performing all the functions performed by RBI with regard to agricultural credit.
(i) NABARD acts as a refinancing institution for all kinds of production and investment credit to agriculture, small-scale industries, cottage and village industries, handicrafts and rural crafts and real artisans and other allied economic activities with a view to promoting integrated rural development.

(ii) NABARD gives long-term loans (upto 20 Years) to State Government to enable them to subscribe to the share capital of co-operative credit societies.

(iii) NABARD gives long-term loans to any institution approved by the Central Government or contribute to the share capital or invests in securities of any institution concerned with agriculture and rural development.

(iv) NABARD has the responsibility of co-ordinating the activities of Central and State Governments, the Planning Commission (now NITI Aayog) and other all India and State level institutions entrusted with the development of small scale industries, village and cottage industries, rural crafts, industries in the tiny and decentralized sectors, etc.

(v) It maintains a Research and Development Fund to promote research in agriculture and rural development.

Question 35.
What are the import quotas?
Answer:
Import Control: Imports may be controlled by

  1. imposing or enhancing import duties
  2. restricting imports through import quotas
  3. licensing and even prohibiting altogether the import of certain non-essential items. But this would encourage smuggling.

Question 36.
Multilateral Agreement – Comment.
Answer:
Multilateral trade agreement: It is a multi national legal or trade agreements between countries. It is an agreement between more than two countries but not many. The various agreements implemented by the WTO such as TRIPS, TRIMS, GATS, AoA, MFA have been discussed.

Question 37.
Point out any three differences between direct and indirect taxes.
Answer:

S.No. Direct Tax Indirect Tax
1 Progressive Regressive
2 Falls on the same person. Falls on different persons.
3 Cannot be shifted. Can be shifted

Question 38.
List out the functions of NITIAAYOG.
Answer:
Functions of NITI Aayog:

  1. Cooperative and Competitive Federalism: To enable the States to have active participation in the formulation of national policy.
  2. Shared National Agenda: To evolve a shared vision of national development priorities and strategies with the active involvement of States.
  3. Decentralized Planning: To restructure the planning process into a bottom-up model.
  4. Vision and Scenario Planning: To design medium and long-term strategic frameworks towards India’s future.
  5. Network of Expertise: To mainstream external ideas and expertise into government policies and programmes through a collective participation.
  6. Harmonization: To facilitate harmonization of actions across different layers of government, especially when involving cross-cutting and overlapping issues across multiple sectors; through communication, coordination, collaboration and convergence amongst all the stakeholders.
  7. Conflict Resolution: To provide platform for mutual consensus to inter-sectoral, inter¬departmental, inter-state as well as centre-state issues for all speedy execution of the government programmes.
  8. Coordinating Interface with the World: It will act nodal point to harness global expertise and resources coming from International organizations for India’s developmental process.
  9. Internal Consultancy: It provides internal consultancy to Central and State governments on policy and programmes.
  10. Capacity Building: It enables to provide capacity building and technology up-gradation across government, benchmarking with latest global trends and providing managerial and technical know-how.
  11. Monitoring and Evaluation: It will monitor the implementation of policies and progammes and evaluate the impacts.

Question 39.
What are the determinants of money supply?
Answer:
Determinants of Money Supply:

  1. Currency Deposit Ratio (CDR): It is the ratio of money held by the public in currency to that they hold in bank deposits. .
  2. Reserve deposit Ratio (RDR): Reserve Money consists of two things (a) vault cash in banks and (b) deposits of commercial banks with RBI.
  3. Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR): It is the fraction of the deposits the banks must keep with RBI.
  4. Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR): It is the fraction of the total demand and time deposits of the commercial banks is the form of specified liquid assets.

Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 1 English Medium

Question 40.
Mention the limitations of Macro Economics.
Answer:
Macro economics suffers from certain limitations. They are:

  1. There is a danger of excessive generalisation of the economy as a whole.
  2. It assumes homogeneity among the individual units.
  3. There is a fallacy of composition. What is good of an individual need not be good for nation and vice versa. And, what is good for a country is not good for another country and at another time.
  4. Many non-economic factors determine economic activities; but they do not find place in the usual macroeconomic books.

PART – IV

Answer all the questions. [7 × 5 = 35]

Question 41 (a).
Illustrate the functioning of an economy based on its activities.
Answer:
An economy is referred to any system or area where economic activities are carried out. Each economy has its own character. Accordingly, the functions or activities also vary. The functioning of an economy by its activities is explained in flow chart.
Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 1 English Medium 2

  1. In an economy, the fundamental economic activities are production and consumption.
  2. These two activities are supported by several other activities.
  3. The ultimate aim of these activities is to achieve growth. The ‘exchange activity’ supports the production and consumption activities. These activities are influenced by several economic and non-economic activities.
  4. The major economic activities include transportation, banking, advertising, planning, government policy and others.
  5. The major non-economic activities are environment, health, education, entertainment, governance, regulations etc.
  6. In addition to these supporting activities, external activities from other economies such as import, export, international relations, emigration, immigration, foreign investment, foreign exchange earnings, etc. also influence the entire functioning of the economy.

[OR]

(b) Calculate the Karl Person Correlation co-efficient for the following data.
Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 1 English Medium 3
Answer:
Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 1 English Medium 4
Take the assumed values A = 31 & B = 26
Therefore dx = X – A ⇒ X – 31 and
dy = Y – A ⇒ Y – 26
Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 1 English Medium 5
r = 0.9956 (or) 0.9955
= (0.9955)

Question 42 (a).
Discuss the economic determinants of economic development.
Answer:
Determinants of Economic Development:
Economic development is not determined by any single factor. Economic development depends on Economic, Social, Political and Religious factors.
Economic and Non-Economic Factors:
Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 1 English Medium 6
Economic Factors:
1. Natural Resource: The principal factor affecting the development of an economy is the availability of natural resources. The existence of natural resources in abundance is essential for development.

2. Capital Formation: Capital formation is the main key to economic growth. Capital formation refers to the net addition to the existing stock of capital goods which are either tangible like plants and machinery or intangible like health, education and research.

3. Size of the Market: Large size of the market would stimulate production, increase employment and raise the National per capita income. That is why developed countries expand their market to other countries through WTO.

4. Structural Change: Structural change refers to change in the occupational structure of the economy. Any economy of the country is generally divided into three basic sectors: Primary sector such as agricultural, animal husbandry, forestry, etc; Secondary sector such as industrial production, constructions and Tertiary sector such as trade, banking and commerce.

5. Financial System: Financial system implies the existence of an efficient and organized banking system in the country.

6. Marketable Surplus: Marketable surplus refers to the total amount of farm output cultivated by farmers over and above their family consumption needs. This is a surplus that can be sold in the market for earning income.

7. Foreign Trade: The country which enjoys favorable balance of trade and terms of trade is always developed. It has huge forex reserves and stable exchange rate.

8. Economic System: The countries which adopt free market mechanism (laissez faire) enjoy better growth rate compared to controlled economies.

Non-Economic Factors:
‘Economic Development has much to do with human endowments, social attitudes, political conditions and historical accidents. Capital is a necessary but not a sufficient condition of progress.’
1. Human Resources: Human resource is named as human capital because of its power to increase productivity and thereby national income. There is a circular relationship between human development and economic growth. A healthy, educated and skilled labour force is the most important productive asset. Human capital formation is the process of increasing knowledge, skills and the productive capacity of people.

2. Technical Know-how: As the scientific and technological knowledge advances, more and more sophisticated techniques steadily raise the productivity levels in all sectors.

3. Political Freedom: The process of development is linked with the political freedom.

4. Social Organization: People show interest in the development activity only when they feel that the fruits of development will be fairly distributed.

5. Corruption free administration: Corruption is a negative factor in the growth process. Unless the countries root-out corruption in their administrative system, the crony capitalists and traders will continue to exploit national resources.

6. Desire for development: The pace of economic growth in any country depends to a great extent on people’s desire for development.

7. Moral, ethical and social values: These determine the efficiency of the market, according to Douglas C. North. If people are not honest, market cannot function.

8. Casino Capitalism: If People spend larger proportion of their income and time on entertainment liquor and other illegal activities, productive activities may suffer, according to Thomas Piketty.

9. Patrimonial Capitalism: If the assets are simply passed on to children from their parents, the children would not work hard, because the children do not know the value of the assets.

Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 1 English Medium

[OR]

(b) Critically explain say’s law of market.
Answer:
Criticisms of Say’s Law:
The following are the criticisms against Say’s law:

  1. According to Keynes, supply does not create its demand. It is not applicable where demand does not increase as much as production increases.
  2. Automatic adjustment process will not remove unemployment. Unemployment can be removed by increase in the rate of investment.
  3. Money is not neutral. Individuals hold money for unforeseen contingencies while businessmen keep cash reserve for future activities.
  4. Say’s law is based on the proposition that supply creates its own demand and there is no over production. Keynes said that over production is possible.
  5. Keynes regards full employment as a special case because there is under – employment in capitalist economies.
  6. The need for state intervention arises in the case of general over production and mass unemployment.

Question 43 (a).
Explain the importance of National Income analysis.
Answer:
Importance of National Income Analysis:
National income is of great importance for the economy of a country. Nowadays the national income is regarded as accounts of the economy, which are known as social accounts. It enables us

  1. To know the relative importance of the various sectors of the economy and their contribution towards national income; from the calculation of national income, we could find how income is produced, how it is distributed, how much is spent, saved or taxed.
  2. To formulate the national policies such as monetary policy, fiscal policy and other policies; the proper measures can be adopted to bring the economy to the right path with the help of collecting national income data.
  3. To formulate planning and evaluate plan progress; it is essential that the data pertaining to a country’s gross income, output, saving and consumption from different sources should be available for economic planning.
  4. To build economic models both in short – run and long – run.
  5. To make international comparison, inter – regional comparison and inter – temporal comparison of growth of the economy during different periods.
  6. To know a country’s per capita income which reflects the economic welfare of the country (Provided income is equally distributed)
  7. To know the distribution of income for various factors of production in the country.
  8. To arrive at many macro economic variables namely, Tax – GDP ratio, Current Account Deficit – GDP ratio, Fiscal Deficit – GDP ratio, Debt – GDP ratio etc.

[OR]

(b) Briefly explain the relationship between GDP growth and the quality of environment.
Answer:
Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 1 English Medium 7

Question 44 (a).
Illustrate the working of multiplier.
Answer:
Working of Multiplier:

  1. Suppose the Government undertakes investment expenditure equal to Rs 100 crore on some public works, by way of wages, price of materials etc.
  2. Thus income of labourers and suppliers of materials increases by Rs 100 crore. Suppose the MPC is 0.8 that is 80 %.
  3. A sum of Rs 80 crores is spent on consumption (A sum of Rs 20 Crores is saved).
  4. As a result, suppliers of goods get an income of Rs 80 crores.
  5. They intum spend Rs 64 crores (80% of Rs 80 cr).
  6. In this manner consumption expenditure and increase in income act in a chain like maimer.

The final result is ΔY = 100 + 100 × 4/5 + 100 × [4/5]² + 100 × [4/5]³ or,
ΔY = 100 + 100 × 0.8 + 100 × (0.8)² + 100 × (0.8)³
= 100+ 80 + 64+ 51.2… = 500
that is 100 × 1/1 = 4/5
100 × 1/1/5
100 × 5 = Rs 500 crores
For instance if C = 100 + 0.8Y, I = 100,
Then Y = 100 + 0.8Y + 100
0. 2Y = 200
Y = 200/0.2 = 1000 → Point B
If I is increased to 110, then
0. 2Y = 210
Y = 210/0.2 = 1050 → Point D
For Rs 10 increase in I, Y has increased by Rs 50. This is due to multiplier effect.
At point A, Y = C = 500
C = 100 + 0.8 (500) = 500; S = 0
At point B, Y = 1000
C = 100 + 0.8 (1000) = 900; S = 100 = I
At point D, Y = 1050
C = 100 + 0.8 (1050) = 940; S = 110 = I
When I is increased by 10, Y increases by 50.
This is multiplier effect (K = 5)
K = \(\frac{1}{0.2}\)

[OR]

(b) Bring out the components of balance of payments accounts.
Answer:
Components of BOPs:
The credit and debit items are shown vertically in the BOP account of a country. Horizontally, they are divided into three categories, i.e.,

  1. The current account,
  2. The capital account and
  3. The official settlements account or official reserve assets account.

1. The Current Account: It includes all international trade transactions of goods and services, international service transactions (i.e. tourism, transportation and royalty fees) and international unilateral transfers (i.e. gifts and foreign aid).

2. The Capital Account: Financial transactions consisting of direct investment and purchases of interest-bearing financial instruments, non-interest bearing demand deposits and gold fall under the capital account.

3. The Official Reserve Assets Account: Official reserve transactions consist of movements of international reserves by governments and official agencies to accommodate imbalances arising from the current and capital accounts.

The official reserve assets of a country include its gold stock, holdings of its convertible foreign currencies and Special Drawing Rights (SDRs) and its net position in the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 1 English Medium 8

Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 1 English Medium

Question 45 (a).
Explain in detail the measures to control inflation.
Answer:
Measures to Control Inflation
Keynes and Milton Friedman together suggested three measures to prevent and control of inflation.

  1. Monetary measures,
  2. Fiscal measures (J.M. Keynes) and
  3. Other measures.

1. Monetary Measures: These measures are adopted by the Central Bank of the country. They are (i) Increase in Bankrate (ii) Sale of Government Securities in the Open Market (iii) Higher Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) and Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR) (iv) Consumer Credit Control and (v) Higher margin requirements (vi) Higher Repo Rate and Reverse Repo Rate.

2. Fiscal Measures: Fiscal policy is now recognized as an important instrument to tackle an inflationary situation. The major anti-inflationary fiscal measures are the following: Reduction of Government Expenditure, Public Borrowing and Enhancing taxation.

3. Other Measures: These measures can be divided broadly into short-term and long-term measures.
i) Short-term measures can be in regard to public distribution of scarce essential commodities through fair price shops (Rationing). In India whenever shortage of basic goods has been felt, the government has resorted to import so that inflation may not get triggered.
ii) Long-term measures will require accelerating economic growth especially of the wage goods which have a direct bearing on the general price and the cost of living. Some restrictions on present consumption may help in improving saving and investment which may be necessary for accelerating the rate of economic growth in the long run.

[OR]

(b) Distinguish between Public Finance and Private Finance.
Answer:
Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 1 English Medium 9

Question 46 (a).
Describe the functions of RBI.
Answer:
Functions of Central Bank (Reserve Bank of India):
The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is India’s central banking institution, which controls the monetary policy of the Indian rupee.

1. Monetary Authority: It controls the supply of money in the economy to stabilize exchange rate, maintain healthy balance of payment, attain financial stability, control inflation, strengthen banking system.

2. The issuer of currency: The objective is to maintain the currency and credit system of the country. It is the sole authority to issue currency. It also takes action to control the circulation of fake currency.

3. The issuer of Banking License: As per Sec 22 of Banking Regulation Act, every bank has to obtain a banking license from RBI to conduct banking business in India.

4. Banker to the Government: It acts as banker both to the central and the state governments. It provides short-term credit. It manages all new issues of government loans, servicing the government debt outstanding and nurturing the market for government securities. It advises the government on banking and financial subjects.

5. Banker’s Bank: RBI is the bank of all banks in India as it provides loan to banks, accept the deposit of banks, and re-discount the bills of banks.

6. Lender of last resort: The banks can borrow from the RBI by keeping eligible securities as collateral at the time of need or crisis, when there is no other source.

7. Act as clearing house: For settlement of banking transactions, RBI manages 14 clearing houses. It facilitates the exchange of instruments and processing of payment instructions.

8. Custodian of foreign exchange reserves: It acts as a custodian of FOREX. It administers and enforces the provision of Foreign Exchange Management Act (FEMA), 1999. RBI buys and sells foreign currency to maintain the exchange rate of Indian rupee v/s foreign currencies.

9. Regulator of Economy: It controls the money supply in the system, monitors different key indicators like GDP, Inflation, etc.

10. Managing Government securities: RBI administers investments in institutions when they invest specified minimum proportions of their total assets/liabilities in government securities.

11. Regulator and Supervisor of Payment and Settlement Systems: The Payment and Settlement Systems Act of 2007 (PSS Act) gives RBI oversight authority for the payment and settlement systems in the country. RBI focuses on the development and functioning of safe, secure and efficient payment and settlement mechanisms.

12. Developmental Role: This role includes the development of the quality banking system in India and ensuring that credit is available to the productive sectors of the economy. It provides a wide range of promotional functions to support national objectives. It also includes establishing institutions designed to build the country’s financial infrastructure. It also helps in expanding access to affordable financial services and promoting financial education and literacy.

13. Publisher of monetary data and other data: RBI maintains and provides all essential banking and other economic data, formulating and critically evaluating the economic policies in India. RBI collects, collates and publishes data regularly.

14. Exchange manager and controller: RBI represents India as a member of the International Monetary Fund [IMF], Most of the commercial banks are authorized dealers of RBI.

15. Banking Ombudsman Scheme: RBI introduced the Banking Ombudsman Scheme in 1995. Under this scheme, the complainants can file their complaints in any form, including online and can also appeal to the Ombudsman against the awards and the other decisions of the Banks.

16. Banking Codes and Standards Board of India: To measure the performance of banks against Codes and standards based on established global practices, the RBI has set up the Banking Codes and Standards Board of India (BCSBI).

[OR]

(b) Write a note on
(i) SAARC
(ii) BRICS
Answer:
(i) South Asian Association For Regional Co-Operation (SAARC):

  1. The South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation (SAARC) is an organisation of South Asian nations, which was established on 8 December 1985 for the promotion of economic and social progress, cultural development within the South Asia region and also for friendship and co-operation with other developing countries.
  2. The SAARC Group (SAARC) comprises of Bangaladesh, Bhutan, India, The Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
  3. In April 2007, Afghanistan became its eighth member.
  4. The basic aim of the organisation is to accelerate the process of economic and social development of member states through joint action in the agreed areas of cooperation.
  5. The SAARC Secretariat was established in Kathmandu (Nepal) on 16th January 1987.
  6. The first SAARC summit was held at Dhaka in the year 1985.
  7. SAARC meets once in two years. Recently, the 20th SAARC summit was hosted by Srilanka in 2018.

(ii) BRICS:

  1. BRICS is the acronym for an association of five major emerging national economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.
  2. Since 2009, the BRICS nations have met annually at formal summits.
  3. South Africa hosted the 10th BRICS summit in July 2018.
  4. The agenda for BRICS summit 2018 includes Inclusive growth, Trade issues, Global governance, Shared Prosperity, International peace and security.
  5. It’s headquarters is at Shanghai, China.
  6. The New Development Bank (NDB) formerly referred to as the BRICS Development Bank was established by BRICS States.
  7. The first BRICS summit was held at Moscow and South Africa hosted the Tenth Conference at Johanesberg in July 2018.
  8. India had an opportunity of hosting fourth and Eighth summits in 2009 and 2016 respectively.
  9. The BRICS countries make up 21 percent of global GDP. They have increased their share of global GDP threefold in the past 15 years.
  10. The BRICS are home to 43 percent of the world’s population.
  11. The BRICS countries have combined foreign reserves of an estimated $4.4 trillion.

Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 1 English Medium

Question 47 (a).
Describe the phases of trade cycle.
Answer:
Phases of Trade Cycle
Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 1 English Medium 10
The four different phases of trade cycle is referred to as

  1. Boom
  2. Recession
  3. Depression and
  4. Recovery. These are illustrated in the figure.

Phases of Trade Cycle
1. Boom or Prosperity Phase:

  • The full employment and the movement of the economy beyond full employment is characterized as boom period.
  • During this period, there is hectic activity in economy.
  • Money wages rise, profits increase and interest rates go up.
  • The demand for bank credit increases and there is all-round optimism.

2. Recession:

  • the turning point from boom condition is called recession.
  • This happens at higher rate, than what was earlier.
  • Generally, the failure of a company or bank bursts the boom and brings a phase of recession.
  • Investments are drastically reduced, production comes down and income and profits decline.
  • There is panic in the stock market and business activities show signs of dullness.
  • Liquidity preference of the people rises and money market becomes tight.

3. Depression:

  • During depression the level of economic activity becomes extremely low.
  • Firms incur losses and closure of business becomes a common feature and the ultimate result is unemployment.
  • Interest prices, profits and wages are low. The agricultural class and wage earners would be worst hit.
  • Banking institutions will be reluctant to advance loans to businessmen.
  • Depression is the worst phase of the business cycle.
  • Extreme point of depression is called as “trough”, because it is a deep point in business cycle.

4. Recovery:

  • After a period of depression, recovery sets in.
  • This is the turning point from depression to revival towards upswing.
  • It begins with the revival of demand for capital goods.
  • Autonomous investments boost the activity.
  • The demand slowly picks up and in due course the activity is directed towards the upswing with more production, profit, income, wages and employment.
  • Recovery may be initiated by innovation or investment or by government expenditure
    (autonomous investment).

Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 1 English Medium

[OR]

(b) What are the reasons for the recent growth in public expenditure?
Answer:
Causes for the Increase in Government Expenditure:
The modem state is a welfare state. In a welfare state, the government has to perform several functions viz Social, economic and political. These activities are the cause for increasing public expenditure.
(i) Population Growth:

  1. During the past 67 years of planning, the population of India has increased from 36.1 crore in 1951, to 121 crore in 2011.
  2. The growth in population requires massive investment in health and education, law and order, etc.
  3. Young population requires increasing expenditure on education &. youth services, whereas the aging population requires transfer payments like old age pension, social security & health facilities.

(ii) Defence Expenditure:

  1. There has been enormous increase in defence expenditure in India during planning period.
  2. The defence expenditure has been increasing tremendously due to modernisation of defence equipment.
  3. The defence expenditure of the government was Rs 10,874 crores in 1990-91 which increased significantly to Rs 2,95,511 crores in 2018-19.

(iii) Government Subsidies:

  1. The Government of India has been providing subsidies on a number of items such as food, fertilizers, interest on priority sector lending, exports, education, etc.
  2. Because of the massive amounts of subsidies, the public expenditure has increased manifold.

(iv) Debt Servicing:
The government has been borrowing heavily both from the internal and external sources, As a result, the government has to make huge amounts of repayment towards debt servicing.

(v) Development Projects:

  1. The government has been undertaking various development projects such as irrigation, iron and steel, heavy machinery, power, telecommunications, etc.
  2. The development projects involve huge investment.

(vi) Urbanisation:

  1. There has been an increase in urbanization.
  2. In 1950-51 about 17% of the population was urban based.
  3. Now the urban population has increased to about 43%.
  4. There are more than 54 cities above one million population.
  5. The increase in urbanization requires heavy expenditure on law and order, education and civic amenities.

(vii) Industrialisation:

  1. Setting up of basic and heavy industries involves a huge capital and long gestation period.
  2. It is the government which starts such industries in a planned economy.
  3. The under developed countries need a strong of infrastructure like transport, communication, power, fuel, etc.

(viii) Increase in grants in aid to state and union territories:
There has been tremendous increase in grant-in-aid to state and union territories to meet natural disasters.

Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 2 English Medium

Students can Download Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 2 English Medium Pdf, Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Papers helps you to revise the complete Tamilnadu State Board New Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

TN State Board 12th Economics Model Question Paper 2 English Medium

General Instructions:

  1. The question paper comprises of four parts.
  2. You are to attempt all the parts. An internal choice of questions is provided wherever applicable.
  3. All questions of Part I, II, III and IV are to be attempted separately.
  4. Question numbers 1 to 20 in Part I are Multiple Choice Questions of one mark each.
    These are to be answered by choosing the most suitable answer from the given four alternatives and writing the option code and the corresponding answer
  5. Question numbers 21 to 30 in Part II are two-mark questions. These are to be answered in about one or two sentences.
  6. Question numbers 31 to 40 in Part III are three-mark questions. These are to be answered in above three to five short sentences.
  7. Question numbers 41 to 47 in Part IV are five-mark questions. These are to be answered in detail Draw diagrams wherever necessary.

Time: 3.00 Hours
Maximum Marks: 90

PART – I

Choose the correct answer. Answer all the questions: [20 × 1 = 20]

Question 1.
The Circular Flow Model that represents an open Economy.
(a) Two Sector Model
(b) Three Sector Model
(c) Four Sector Model
(d) All the above
Answer:
(c) Four Sector Model

Question 2.
Pick the odd one out……….
(a) Rapid Economic growth
(b) Balanced Economic growth
(c) Economic Equality
(d) Inefficiency
Answer:
(d) Inefficiency

Question 3.
Write the Four Sector Model of National Income?
(a) Y = C + I + G + (X – M)
(b) Y = C + I + G + X
(c) Y = C +1 + G + M
(d) Y = C + I + G(M – X)
Answer:
(a) Y = C + I + G + (X – M)

Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 2 English Medium

Question 4.
Which of the following is correctly matched?
(a) PQLI – Physical Quantity of Life Index
(b) PQLI – Personal Quantity of Life Index
(c) PQLI – Personal Quality of Life Index
(d) PQLI – Physical Quality of Life Index
Answer:
(d) PQLI – Physical Quality of Life Index

Question 5.
Say’s law stressed the operation of in the economy.
(a) Induced price mechanism
(b) Automatic price mechanism
(c) Induced demand
(d) Induced investment
Answer:
(b) Automatic price mechanism

Question 6.
Which of the following is correctly matched?
(a) Seasonal unemployment – Type of unemployment
(b) Technical unemployment – Some season only
(c) Cyclical unemployment – Public capital
(d) Full employment – Not willing to job
Answer:
(a) Seasonal unemployment – Type of unemployment

Question 7.
Match the following and choose the correct answer by using codes given below
Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 2 English Medium 1
Codes:
(a) A (iv) B (i) C (iii) D (ii)
(b) A (i) B (ii) C (iv) D (iii)
(c) A (ii) B (iii) C (i) D (iv)
(d) A (iii) B (iv) C(ii) D (i)
Answer:
(a) A (iv) B (i) C (iii) D (ii)

Question 8.
Which of the following is not correctly matched?
(a) Inflation – Rise in price
(b) Deflation – Fall in price
(c) Hyper Inflation – India
(d) Hyper deflation – Phases of Trade cycle
Answer:
(d) Hyper deflation – Phases of Trade cycle

Question 9.
2016 Demonetization of currency includes denominations of……….
(a) Rs 500 and Rs 1000
(b) Rs 1000 and Rs 2000
(c) Rs 200 and Rs 500
(d) All the above
Answer:
(a) Rs 500 and Rs 1000

Question 10.
To promote ………….. stability is one of the aims of IMF.
(a) Exchange
(b) Money
(c) Investment
(d) Finance
Answer:
(a) Exchange

Question 11.
Match the following and choose the correct answer by using codes given below.
Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 2 English Medium 2
Codes:
(a) A (1) B (ii) C (iii) D (iv)
(b) A (iv) B (iii) C (ii) D (i)
(c) A (ii) B (iv) C (i) D (iii)
(d) A (iii) B (i) C (iv) D (ii)
Answer:
(c) A (ii) B (iv) C (i) D (iii)

Question 12.
BENELUX is a form of
(a) Free trade area
(b) Economic Union
(c) Common market
(d) Customs union
Answer:
(d) Customs union

Question 13.
Which is the following is correctly matched:
(a) ITO – 1944
(b) World bank – 1946
(c) WTO – 1947
(d) IMF – 1995
Answer:
(a) ITO – 1944

Question 14.
Which one of the following deficits does not consider borrowing as a receipt?
(a) Revenue deficit
(b) Budgetary deficit
(c) Fiscal deficit
(d) Primary deficit
Answer:
(c) Fiscal deficit

Question 15.
Match the following and choose the correct answer by using codes given below.
Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 2 English Medium 3
Codes:
(a) A (i) B (ii) C (iii) D (iv)
(b) A (iii) B (iv) C (ii) D (i)
(c) A (ii) B (i) C (iv) D (iii)
(d) A (iv) B (iii) C (i) D (ii)
Answer:
(a) A (i) B (ii) C (iii) D (iv)

Question 16.
Alkali soils are predominantly located in the plains.
(a) Indus-Ganga
(b) North-Indian
(c) Gangetic plains
(d) All the above
Answer:
(d) All the above

Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 2 English Medium

Question 17.
Environmental externalities are called:
(a) Externality
(b) Economic externalities
(c) Negative externalities
(d) Positive externalities
Answer:
(d) Positive externalities

Question 18.
Assertion (A): Soil pollution is another form of water pollution.
Reason (R): The upper layer of the soil is damaged is caused by the over use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides.
(a) Both ‘A’ and ‘R’ are true and ‘R’ is the correct explanation to ‘A’
(b) Both ‘A’ and ‘R’ are true but ‘R’ is not the correct explanation to ‘A’
(c) ‘A’ is true but ‘R’ is false
(d) ‘A’ is false but ‘R’ is true
Answer:
(d) ‘A’ is false but ‘R’ is true

Question 19.
Which is the following is correctly matched:
(a) NITI Aayog – Union cabinet resolution
(b) Financial planning – Controlling plans
(c) Short term plans – Technique planning
(d) Indicative planning – Capitalist economy
Answer:
(a) NITI Aayog – Union cabinet resolution

Question 20.
The term regression was used by
(a) Newton
(b) Pearson
(c) Spearman
(d) Galton
Answer:
(d) Galton

PART – II

Answer any seven question in which Question No. 30 is compulsory. [7 × 2 = 14]

Question 21.
‘Circular Flow of Income’ – Define.
Answer:

  1. The circular flow of income is a model of an economy showing connections between different sectors of an economy.
  2. It shows flows of income, goods and services and factors of production between economic agents such as firms, households, government and nations.
  3. The circular flow analysis is the basis of national accounts and macroeconomics.

Question 22.
Define “Social and Environmental Cost”.
Answer:
Social and Environmental Cost: while producing economic goods, many environmental and social bads are also generated. Hence, they also must be considered while enumerating National income.

Question 23.
Write the types of unemployment.
Types of unemployment:

  1. Cyclical Unemployment
  2. Seasonal Unemployment
  3. Frictional Unemployment
  4. Educated Unemployment
  5. Technical Unemployment
  6. Structural Unemployment
  7. Disguised Unemployment

Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 2 English Medium

Question 24.
Define “Autonomous consumption”.
Answer:
Autonomous Consumption:
Autonomous consumption is the minimum level of consumption or spending that must take place even if a consumer has no disposable income, such as spending for basic necessities.

Question 25.
Mention the functions of agriculture credit department.
Answer:
Functions of Agriculture Credit Department :

  1. To maintain an expert staff to study all questions on agricultural credit;
  2. To provide expert advice to Central and State Government, State Co-operative Banks and other banking activities.
  3. To finance the rural sector through eligible institutions engaged in the business of agricultural credit and to co-ordinate their activities.

Question 26.
What are the functions of primary deposits?
Answer:
Primary Deposits:

  1. It is out of these primary deposits that the bank makes loans and advances to its customers.
  2. The initiative is taken by the customers themselves. In this case, the role of the bank is passive.
  3. So these deposits are also called “Passive deposits”.

Question 27.
What is Free trade area?
Answer:
A free trade area is the region encompassing a trade bloc whose member countries have signed a free-trade agreement (FTA). Such agreements involve cooperation between at least two countries to reduce trade barriers, e.g. SAFTA, EFTA.

Question 28.
What is “AoA”?
Answer:
AoA means Agreement on Agriculture. Agriculture was included for the first time under GATT. The important aspects of the agreement are Tariffication, Tariff cuts and Subsidy reduction.

Question 29.
Define “Public debt”.
Answer:
The debt is the form of promises by the Treasury to pay to the holders of these promises a principal sum and in most instances interest on the principal. Borrowing is resorted to in order to provide funds for financing a current deficit. – J. Philip E. Taylor

Question 30.
State the meaning of Environmental Economics.
Answer:
Environmental Economics is an area of economics that studies the financial impact of environmental issues and policies.

PART – III

Answer any seven question in which Question No. 40 is compulsory. [7 × 3 = 21]

Question 31.
State the importance of Macro Economics.
Answer:
The importance and the need for introducing a macro outlook of an economy are given below:

  1. There is a need to understand the functioning of the economy at the aggregate level to evolve suitable strategies and to solve the basic problems prevailing in an economy.
  2. Understanding the future problems, needs and challenges of an economy as a whole is important to evolve precautionary measures.
  3. Macro economics provides ample opportunities to use scientific investigation to understand the reality.
  4. Macro economics helps to make meaningful comparison and analysis of economic indicators.
  5. Macro economics helps for better prediction about future and to formulate suitable policies to avoid economic crises, for which Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences is awarded.

Question 32.
Discuss the limitations of Macro Economics.
Answer:
Macro economics suffers from certain limitations. They are:

  1. There is a danger of excessive generalisation of the economy as a whole.
  2. It assumes homogeneity among the individual units.
  3. There is a fallacy of composition. What is good of an individual need not be good for nation and vice versa. And, what is good for a country is not good for another country and at another time.
  4. Many non-economic factors determine economic activities; but they do not find place in the usual macroeconomic books.

Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 2 English Medium

Question 33.
Describe the features of classicism.
Answer:

  1. Long-run equilibrium
  2. Saving is a social virtue.
  3. The function of money is to act as a medium of exchange
  4. Micro foundation to macro problems
  5. Champions of Laissez-fair policy
  6. Applicable only to the full employment situation.
  7. Capitalism is well and good.
  8. Balanced budget
  9. The equality between saving and investment is achieved through changes of rate of interest.
  10. Rate of interest is determined by saving and investment.
  11. Rate of interest is a stock.
  12. Supply creates its own demand.
  13. Rate of interest is a reward for saving.

Question 34.
Explain the Deflation.
Answer:
Deflation:
The essential feature of deflation is falling prices, reduced money supply and unemployment. Though falling prices are desirable at the time of inflation, such a fall should not lead to the fall in the level of production and employment. But if prices fall from the level of full employment both income and employment will be adversely affected.

Question 35.
Write the mechanism of credit creation by commercial banks.
Answer:
Mechanism / Technique of Credit Creation by Commercial Banks :

  1. Bank credit refers to bank loans and advances.
  2. Money is said to be created when the banks, through their lending activities, make a net addition to the total supply of money in the economy.
  3. Money is said to be destroyed when the loans are repaid by the borrowers to the banks and consequently the credit already created by the banks is wiped out in the process.
  4. Banks have the power to expand or contract demand deposits and they exercise this power through granting more or less loans and advances and acquiring other assets.
  5. This power of commercial bank to create deposits through expanding their loans and advances is known as credit creation.

Question 36.
Mention the various forms of economic integration.
Answer:
An economic union is composed of a common market with a customs union. The participant countries have both common policies on product regulation, freedom of movement of goods, services and the factors of production and a common external trade policy. (e.g. European Economic Union)
EU > CM > CU > FTA
EU – Economic Union >
CM – Common-Market >
CU – Customs Union >
FTA – Free Trade Area
The regional economic integration among the trade blocks such as SAARC (South Asian nations), ASEAN (South East Asia) and BRICS and their achievements.

Question 37.
Mention any three similarities between public finance and private finance.
Answer:
Similarities:
1. Rationality:

  • Both public finance and private finance are based on rationality.
  • Maximization of welfare and least cost factor combination underlie both.

2. Limit to borrowing:

  • Both have to apply restraint with regard to borrowing.
  • The Government also cannot live beyond its meAnswer:
  • There is a limit to deficit financing by the state also.

3. Resource utilisation:

  • Both the private and public sectors have limited resources at their disposal.
  • So both attempt to make optimum use of resources.

Question 38.
Write the Determinants of Investment Function?
Answer:
The classical economists believed that investment depended exclusively on rate of interest. In reality investment decisions depends on a number of factors. They are as follows:
However, Keynes contended that business expectations and profits are more important in deciding investment. He also pointed out that investment depends on MEC (Marginal Efficiency of Capital) and rate of interest.
(i) Private investment is an increase in the capital stock such as buying a factory or machine.
(ii) The marginal efficiency of capital (MEC) states the rate of return on an investment project. Specifically, it refers to the annual percentage yield (output) earned by the last additional unit of capital.

Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 2 English Medium

Question 39.
Explain the disadvantages of FDI.
Answer:
The following criticisms are leveled against foreign direct investment.

  1. Private foreign capital tends to flow to the high profit areas rather than to the priority sectors.
  2. The technologies brought in by the foreign investor may not be appropriate to the consumption needs, size of the domestic market, resource avilabilities, stage of development of the economy, etc.
  3. Foreign investment, sometimes, have unfavourable effect on the the Balance of Payments of a country because when the drain of foreign exchange by way of royalty, dividend, etc. is more than the investment made by the foreign concerns.
  4. Foreign capital sometimes interferes in the national politics.
  5. Foreign investors sometimes engage in unfair and unethical trade practices.
  6. Foreign investment in some cases leads to the destruction or weakening of small and medium enterprises.
  7. Sometimes foreign investment can result in the dangerous situation of minimizing / eliminating competition and the creation of monopolies or oligopolistic structures.
  8. Often, there are several costs associated with encouraging foreign investment.

Question 40.
Mention the sources of revenue municipalities.
Answer:

  1. Taxes on property.
  2. Taxes on goods, particularly octroi and terminal tax.
  3. Personal taxes, taxes on profession, trades and employment.
  4. Taxes on vehicles and animals.
  5. Theatre or show tax, and
  6. Graints – in – aid from State Government.

PART – IV

Answer all the questions. [7 × 5 = 35]

Question 41 (a).
Discuss the scope of Macro Economics.
Answer:
The study of macro economics has wide scope and it covers the major areas as follows:
1. National Income: Measurement of national income and its composition by sectors are the basic aspects of macroeconomic analysis. The trends in National Income and its composition provide a long term understanding of the growth process of an economy.

2. Inflation: It refers to steady increase in general price level. Estimating the general price level by constructing various price index numbers such as Wholesale Price Index, Consumer Price Index, etc, are needed.

3. Business Cycle: Almost all economies face the problem of business fluctuations and business cycle. The cyclical movements (boom, recession, depression and recovery) in the economy need to be carefully studied based on aggregate economic variables.

4. Poverty and Unemployment: The major problems of most resource – rich nations are poverty and unemployment. This is one of the economic paradoxes. A clear understanding about the magnitude of poverty and unemployment facilitates allocation of resources and initiating corrective measures.

5. Economic Growth: The growth and development of an economy and the factors determining them could be understood only through macro analysis.

6. Economic Policies: Macro Economics is significant for evolving suitable economic policies. Economic policies are necessary to solve the basic problems, to overcome the obstacles and to achieve growth.

Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 2 English Medium

[OR]

(b) Briefly explain circular flow of Income in a Three Sector Economy.
Answer:
Circular Flow of Income in a Three-Sector Economy:
Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 2 English Medium 4

  1. In addition to household and firms, inclusion of the government sector makes this model a three-sector model.
  2. The government levies taxes on households and firms, purchases goods and services from firms, and receive factors of production from household sector.
  3. On the other hand, the government also makes social transfers such as pension, relief, subsidies to the households.
  4. Similarly, Government pays the firms for the purchases of goods and services. The Flow Chart illustrates three-sector economy model:
  5. Under three sector model, national income (Y) is obtained by adding Consumption expenditure (C), Investment expenditure (I) and Government expenditure (G).
  6. Therefore:
    Y = C + I + G.

Question 42 (a).
Explain the importance of national income.
Answer:
Importance of National Income Analysis:
National income is of great importance for the economy of a country. Nowadays the national income is regarded as accounts of the economy, which are known as social accounts. It enables us-
1. To know the relative importance of the various sectors of the economy and their contribution towards national income; from the calculation of national income, we could find how income is produced, how it is distributed, how much is spent, saved or taxed.

2. To formulate the national policies such as monetary policy, fiscal policy and other policies; the proper measures can be adopted to bring the economy to the right path with the help of collecting national income data.

3. To formulate planning and evaluate plan progress; it is essential that the data pertaining to a country’s gross income, output, saving and consumption from different sources should be available for economic planning.

4. To build economic models both in short – run and long – run.

5. To make international comparison, inter – regional comparison and inter – temporal comparison of growth of the economy during different periods.

6. To know a country’s per capita income which reflects the economic welfare of the country (Provided income is equally distributed)

7. To know the distribution of income for various factors of production in the country.

8. To arrive at many macro economic variables namely, Tax – GDP ratio, Current Account Deficit – GDP ratio, Fiscal Deficit – GDP ratio, Debt – GDP ratio etc.

[OR]

(b) Explain about aggregate supply with the help of diagram.
Answer:

  1. Aggregate supply function is an increasing function of the level of employment.
  2. Aggregate supply refers to the value of total output of goods and services produced in an economy in a year.
  3. In other words, aggregate supply is equal to the value of national product, i.e., national income.
  4. Aggregate Supply = C + S + T + Rf = Aggregate income generated in the economy.
  5. The following figure shows the shape of the two aggregate supply curves drawn for the assumption of fixed money wages and variable wages.

AGGREGATE SUPPLY CURVE:
Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 2 English Medium 5

  1. Z curve is linear where money wages remains fixed; Z1 curve is non – linear since wage rate increases with employment.
  2. When full employment level of Nf is reached it is impossible to increase output by employing more men.
  3. So aggregate supply curve becomes inelastic (Vertical straight line).
  4. The slope of the aggregate supply curve depends on the relation between the employment and productivity.
  5. Based upon this relation, the aggregate supply curve can be expected to slope upwards.
  6. In reality the aggregate supply curve will be like Z1.
  7. Therefore, the aggregate supply depends on the relationship between price and wages.

Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 2 English Medium

Question 43 (a).
Describe the Say’s Law of Market.
Answer:

  1. Say’s law of markets is the core of the classical theory of employment.
  2. J.B.Say (1776 – 1832) was a French Economist and an industrialist.
  3. He was influenced by the writings of Adam Smith and David Ricardo.
  4. J.B. Say enunciated the proposition that “Supply creates its own demand”.
  5. Hence there cannot be general over production or the problem of unemployment in the economy.
  6. According to Say, “When goods are produced by firms in the economy, they pay reward to the factors of production.
  7. The households after receiving rewards of the factors of production spend the amount on the purchase of goods and services produced by them.
  8. Therefore, each product produced in the economy creates demand equal to its value in the market.
  9. In short, this classical theory explains that “A person receives his income from production which is spent on the purchase of goods and services produced by others.
  10. For the economy as a whole, therefore, total production equals total income”.

[OR]

(b) Explain Marginal Propensity to Consume [MPC] and Multiplier with diagram and Diagrammatic explanation.
Answer:
Marginal propensity to consume and multiplier:
Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 2 English Medium 6
The propensity to consume refers to the portion of income spent on consumption.
The MPC refers to the relation between change in consumption (C) and change in income (Y).
Symbolically MPC = AC/AY The value of multiplier depends on MPC
Multiplier (K)= 1/1-MPC The multiplier is the reciprocal of one minus marginal propensity to consume.
Since marginal propensity to save is 1 – MPC. (MPC + MPS = 1). Multiplier is 1/ MPS. The multiplier is therefore defined as reciprocal of MPS.
Multiplier is inversely related to MPS and directly with MPC.
Numerically if MPC is 0.75, MPS is 0.25 and k is 4.
Using formula k = 1/1 – MPC
1/1 – 0.75 = 1/0.25 = 4
Taking the following values, we can explain the functioning of multiplier.

MPC MPS K
0.00 1.00 1
0.10 0.90 1.11
0.50 0.50 2.00
0.75 0.25 4.00
0.90 0.10 10.00
1.00 0.00 α

C = 100 + 0.8 y;
I = 10
Y = C + I
Y= 100 + 0.8y + 100
0. 2y = 200
Y= 1000
Here, C = 100 + 0.8y = 100 + (1000) = 900;
S= 100 = I
After I is raised by 10, now I = 110,
Y = 100 + 0.8y + 110
0. 2y = 210
y = \(\frac{210}{0.2}\) = 1050
Here C = 100 = 0.8 (1050) = 940; S = 110 = I
Diagrammatic Explanation.
At 45° line y = C + S
It implies the variables in axis and axis are equal.
The MPC is assumed to be at 0.8 (C = 100 + 0.8y)
The aggregate demand (C +1) curve intersects 45° line at point E.
The original national income is 500.
(C = 100 + 0.8y = 100 + 0.8 (500) = 500) ,
When I is 100, y = 1000, C = 900;
S = 100 = I
The new aggregate demand curve is C + F = 100 + 0.8y + 100 + 10
y = \(\frac{210}{0.2}\) = 1050
S = 110 = I

Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 2 English Medium

Question 44 (a).
Write the types of inflation.
Answer:
The four types of inflation are
(i) Creeping Inflation: Creeping inflation is slow-moving and very mild. The rise in prices will not be perceptible but spread over a long period. This type of inflation is in no way dangerous to the economy. This is also known as mild inflation or moderate inflation.

(ii) Walking Inflation: When prices rise moderately and the annual inflation rate is a single digit (3% – 9%), it is called walking or trolling inflation.

(iii) Running Inflation: When prices rise rapidly like the running of a horse at a rate of speed of 10% – 20% per annum, it is called running inflation.

(iv) Galloping inflation: Galloping inflation or hyper inflation points out to unmanageably high inflation rates that run into two or three digits. By high inflation the percentage of the same is almost 20% to 100% from an overall perspective.

Other types of inflation (on the basis of inducement):

  1. Currency inflation: The excess supply of money in circulation causes rise in price level.
  2. Credit inflation: When banks are liberal in lending credit, the money supply increases and thereby rising prices.
  3. Deficit induced inflation: The deficit budget is generally financed through printing of currency by the Central Bank. As a result, prices rise.
  4. Profit induced inflation: When the firms aim at higher profit, they fix the price with higher margin. So prices go up.
  5. Scarcity induced inflation: Scarcity of goods happens either due to fall in production (e.g. farm goods) or due to hoarding and black marketing. This also pushes up the price. (This has happened is Venezula in the year 2018).
  6. Tax induced inflation: Increase in indirect taxes like excise duty, custom duty and sales tax may lead to rise in price (e.g. petrol and diesel). This is also called taxflation.

[OR]

(b) What are the functions of NABARD?
Answer:
Functions of NABARD:
NABARD has inherited its apex role from RBI i.e, it is performing all the functions performed by RBI with regard to agricultural credit.
(i) NABARD acts as a refinancing institution for all kinds of production and investment credit to agriculture, small-scale industries, cottage and village industries, handicrafts and rural crafts and real artisans and other allied economic activities with a view to promoting integrated rural development.

(ii) NABARD gives long-term loans (upto 20 Years) to State Government to enable them to subscribe to the share capital of co-operative credit societies.

(iii) NABARD gives long-term loans to any institution approved by the Central Government or contribute to the share capital or invests in securities of any institution concerned with agriculture and rural development.

(iv) NABARD has the responsibility of co-ordinating the activities of Central and State Governments, the Planning Commission (now NITI Aayog) and other all India and State level institutions entrusted with the development of small scale industries, village and cottage industries, rural crafts, industries in the tiny and decentralized sectors, etc.

(v) It maintains a Research and Development Fund to promote research in agriculture and rural development

Question 45 (a).
Briefly explain facilities offered by IMF.
Answer:
Facilities offered by IMF:
The Fund has created several new credit facilities for its members. Chief among them are:
(i) Basic Credit Facility:

  • The IMF provides financial assistance to its member nations to overcome their temporary difficulties relating to balance of payments.
  • A member nation can purchase from the Fund other currencies or SDRs, in exchange for its own currency, to finance payment deficits.
  • The loan is repaid when the member repurchases its own currency with other currencies or SDRs.
  • A member can unconditionally borrow from the Fund in a year equal to 25% of its quota.
  • This unconditional borrowing right is called the reserve tranche.

(ii) Extended Fund Facility:

  • Under this arrangement, the IMF provides additional borrowing facility up to 140% of the member’s quota, over and above the basic credit facility.
  • The extended facility is limited for a period up to 3 years and the rate of interest is low.

(iii) Compensatory Financing Facility:

  • In 1963, IMF established compensatory financing facility to provide additional financial assistance to the member countries, particularly primary producing countries facing shortfall in export earnings.
  • In 1981, the coverage of the compensatory financing facility was extended to payment problem caused by the fluctuations in the cost of cereal inputs.

(iv) Buffer Stock Facility:

  • The buffer stock financing facility was started in 1969.
  • The purpose of this scheme was to help the primary goods (food grains) producing countries to finance contributions to buffer stock arrangements for the stabilisation of primary product prices.

(v) Supplementary Financing Facility:
Under the supplementary financing facility, the IMF makes temporary arrangements to provide supplementary financial assistance to member countries facing payments problems relating to their present quota sizes.

(vi) Structural Adjustment Facility:

  1. The IMF established Structural Adjustment Facility (SAF) in March 1986 to provide additional balance of payments assistance on concessional terms to the poorer member countries.
  2. In December 1987, the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility (ESAF) was set up to augment the availability of concessional resources to low income countries.
  3. The purpose of SAF and ESAF is to force the poor countries to undertake strong macroeconomic and structural programmes to improve their balance of payments positions and promote economic growth.

Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 2 English Medium

[OR]

(b) Briefly explain effects of Noise pollution.
Answer:
Effects of Noise Pollution:
(a) Hearing Loss:

  1. Chronic exposure to noise may cause noise-induced hearing loss.
  2. Older people are exposed to significant occupational noise and thereby reduced hearing sensitivity.

(b) Damage Physiological and Psychological health:

  1. Unwanted noise can damage physiological and psychological health.
  2. For example, annoyance and aggression, hypertension, and high stress levels.

(c) Cardiovascular effects:
High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular problems and exposure to blood pressure.

(d) Detrimental effect on animals and aquatic life:
Noise can have a detrimental effect on animals, increasing the risk of death.

(e) Effects on wildlife and aquatic animals:
It creates hormone imbalance, chronic stress, panic and escape behavior and injury.

Question 46 (a).
State the classification of public expenditure.
Answer:
1. Classification on the Basis of Benefit:

  • Public expenditure benefiting the entire society, e.g., the expenditure on general administration, defence, education, public health, transport.
  • Public expenditure conferring a special benefit on certain people and at the same time common benefit on the entire community, e.g., administration of justice etc.
  • Public expenditure directly benefitting particular group of persons and indirectly the entire society, e.g., social security, public welfare, pension, unemployment relief etc.
  • Public expenditure conferring a special benefit on some individuals, e.g., subsidy granted to a particular industry.

2. Classification on the Basis of Function:
Adam Smith classified public expenditure on the basis of functions of government in the
following main groups:

  • Protection Functions: This group includes public expenditure incurred on the security of the citizens, to protect from external invasion and internal disorder, e.g., defence, police, courts etc.
  • Commercial Functions: This group includes public expenditure incurred on the development of trade and commerce, e.g., development of means of transport and communication etc.
  • Development Functions: This group includes public expenditure incurred for the development infrastructure and industry.

[OR]

(b) Explain the effects of Air pollution.
Answer:
1. Respiratory and heart problems: It creates several respiratory and heart ailments along with cancer. Children are highly vulnerable and exposed to air pollutants and commonly suffer from pneumonia and asthma.

2. Global warming: Increasing temperature in the atmosphere leads to global warming and thereby to increase sea level rise and melting of polar icebergs, displacement and loss of habitat.

3. Acid rain: Harmful gases like nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides are released into the atmosphere during the burning of fossil fuels. Acid rain causes grate damage to human beings, animals and crops.

4. Eutrophication: Eutrophication is a condition where high amount of nitrogen present in some pollutants which adversely affects fish, plants and animal species.

5. Effect on Wildlife: Toxic chemical present in the air can force wildlife species to move to new place and change their habitat.

6. Depletion of Ozone layer: Ozone exists in earth’s atmosphere and is responsible for protecting humans from harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays. Earth’s Ozone layer is depleting due to presence of chlorofluorocarbons and hydro chlorofluorocarbons in the atmosphere.

7. Human Health: Outdoor air pollution is a major cause of death and disease globally. The health effects range from increased hospital admissions and emergency room visits, to increase risk of premature death. An estimated 4.2 billion premature deaths globally are linked to ambient air pollution.

Question 47 (a).
What are the types of Public Debt?
Answer:
1. Internal Public debt
An internal public debt is a loan taken by Government from the citizens or from different institutions within the country. An internal public debt only involves transfer of wealth. The main sources of internal public debt are as follows:

  • Individuals, who purchase government bonds and securities;
  • Banks, both private and public, buy bonds from the Government.
  • Non-fmancial institutions like UTI, LIC, GIC etc. also buy the Government bonds.
  • Central Bank can lend the Government in the form of money supply. The Central Bank can also issue money to meet the expenditure of the Government.

2. External public debt
When a loan is taken from abroad or from an international organization it is called external public debt. The main sources of External public debt are IMF, World Bank, IDA and ADB etc. Loan from other countries and the Governments.

Tamil Nadu 12th Economics Model Question Paper 2 English Medium

[OR]

(b) Write the State Financial Corporations (SFCs) Act.
Answer:
State Financial Corporation (SFCs)
The government of India passed in 1951 the State Financial Corporation Act and SFCs were set up in many states. The SFCs are mainly intended for the development of small and medium industrial units within their respective states. However, in some cases they extend to neighboring states as well.
The SFCs provide loans and underwriting assistance to industrial units having paid – up capital and reserves not exceeeding Rs 1 crore. The maximum amount that can be sanctioned to an industrial concern by SFC is Rs 60 lakhs.

SFCs depend upon the IDBI for refinance in respect of the term loans granted by them. Apart from these, the SFCs can also make temporaiy borrowings from the RBI and borrowings from IDBI and by the sale of bond